Abstract

This paper presents calculations for an idea in photorefractive spatial soliton, namely, a dissipative holographic soliton and a Hamiltonian soliton in one dimension form in an unbiased series photorefractive crystal circuit consisting of two photorefractive crystals of which at least one must be photovoltaic. The two solitons are known collectively as a separate Holographic-Hamiltonian spatial soliton pair and there are two types: dark-dark and bright-dark if only one crystal of the circuit is photovoltaic. The numerical results show that the Hamiltonian soliton in a soliton pair can affect the holographic one by the light-induced current whereas the effect of the holographic soliton on the Hamiltonian soliton is too weak to be ignored, i.e., the holographic soliton cannot affect the Hamiltonian one.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto, and A. Yariv,"Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Kos, H. X. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1996).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. S. Liu, S. X. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, and C. Wang, "Observation of two-dimensional holographic photovoltaic bright solitons in a photorefractive-photovoltaic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111113-111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

J. S. Liu and H. J. Eichler, "Holographic screening-photovoltaic solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive crystals with two-wave mixing," Europhys. Lett. 65, 658-664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

O. Cohen, T. Carmon, and M. Segev, "Holographic solitons," Opt. Lett. 27, 2031-2033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu, "Separate spatial soliton pairs and solitons interaction in an unbiased series photorefrative crystal circuit," Phys. Lett. A 300, 213-220 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu and Z. H. Hao, "Evoluation of separate screening soliton pairs in a biased series photoreftactive crystal cricuit," Phys. Rev. E 65, 066601 (2002).

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons " Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu and K. Q. Lu, "Screening-photovoltaic spatial solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive crystals and their self-deflection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 550-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (4)

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, and M. I. Carvalho, "Incoherently coupled soliton pairs in biased photorefractive crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763-1765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. X. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1996).

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valler, "Steady-state dak photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 629-631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih and M. Segev, "Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 1538-1540 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, "Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628-1633 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignai, and P. D. Porto, "Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons " Electron. Lett. 31, 826-827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. M. Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto, and A. Yariv,"Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).

1993 (1)

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

P. Yeh, "Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 484-519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Acks, M.

Aguilar, P. A. M.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. M. Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bashaw, M.

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).

Bashaw, M. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).

Bertolotti, M.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, T.

Carvalho, M. I.

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, and M. I. Carvalho, "Incoherently coupled soliton pairs in biased photorefractive crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763-1765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, "Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628-1633 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Castillo, M. D. I.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. M. Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chauvet, M.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. G.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Cohen, O.

Coskun, T. H.

Crosignai, B.

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignai, and P. D. Porto, "Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons " Electron. Lett. 31, 826-827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto, and A. Yariv,"Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichler, J.

J. S. Liu and H. J. Eichler, "Holographic screening-photovoltaic solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive crystals with two-wave mixing," Europhys. Lett. 65, 658-664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fazio, E.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischer, J. W.

Freedman, B.

Friedler, I.

Garrett, M. H.

Hao, Z. H.

J. S. Liu and Z. H. Hao, "Evoluation of separate screening soliton pairs in a biased series photoreftactive crystal cricuit," Phys. Rev. E 65, 066601 (2002).

Holmstrom, S. A.

Jr, G. C. D.

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Kos, K.

K. Kos, H. X. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1996).

Krolikowski, W.

Kurizki, G.

Lee, K. K.

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons " Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. K.

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons " Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. S.

J. S. Liu, S. X. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, and C. Wang, "Observation of two-dimensional holographic photovoltaic bright solitons in a photorefractive-photovoltaic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111113-111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu and H. J. Eichler, "Holographic screening-photovoltaic solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive crystals with two-wave mixing," Europhys. Lett. 65, 658-664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu, "Holographic solitons in photorefractive dissipative systems," Opt. Lett. 28, 2237-2239 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Liu, "Separate spatial soliton pairs and solitons interaction in an unbiased series photorefrative crystal circuit," Phys. Lett. A 300, 213-220 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu and Z. H. Hao, "Evoluation of separate screening soliton pairs in a biased series photoreftactive crystal cricuit," Phys. Rev. E 65, 066601 (2002).

J. S. Liu and K. Q. Lu, "Screening-photovoltaic spatial solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive crystals and their self-deflection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 550-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. X.

J. S. Liu, S. X. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, and C. Wang, "Observation of two-dimensional holographic photovoltaic bright solitons in a photorefractive-photovoltaic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111113-111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K. Q.

Mamaev, A. V.

Manela, O.

Meng, H. X.

K. Kos, H. X. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1996).

Mitchell, M.

Murnane, M. M.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ostrovskaya, E. A.

Petris, A.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Porto, P. D

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto, and A. Yariv,"Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Porto, P. D.

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignai, and P. D. Porto, "Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons " Electron. Lett. 31, 826-827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramadan, W.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renzi, F.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rinaldi, R.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saffman, M.

Salamo, G.

K. Kos, H. X. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1996).

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignai, and P. D. Porto, "Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons " Electron. Lett. 31, 826-827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salamo,, G. J.

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. M. Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. Segev, "Cross-phase-modulation nonlinearities and holographic solitons in periodically poled photovoltaic photorefractives," Opt. Lett. 31, 954-956 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Friedler, G. Kurizki, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, "Spatial Thirring-type solitons via electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 30, 3374-3376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Freedman, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. W. Fleischer, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Grating-mediated wave guiding and holographic solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1349-1355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Cohen, T. Carmon, and M. Segev, "Holographic solitons," Opt. Lett. 27, 2031-2033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Coupled photorefractive spatial-soliton pairs," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3066-3077 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valler, "Steady-state dak photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 629-631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih and M. Segev, "Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 1538-1540 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kos, H. X. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1996).

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignai, and P. D. Porto, "Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons " Electron. Lett. 31, 826-827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto, and A. Yariv,"Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E. J

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

She, W. L.

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons " Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.

Shih, M. F.

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignai, and P. D. Porto, "Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons " Electron. Lett. 31, 826-827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shultz, J. L.

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. R.

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, and M. I. Carvalho, "Incoherently coupled soliton pairs in biased photorefractive crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763-1765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. M. Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taya, M.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).

Valler, G. C.

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. X. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1996).

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignai, and P. D. Porto, "Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons " Electron. Lett. 31, 826-827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto, and A. Yariv,"Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlad, V. I.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

J. S. Liu, S. X. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, and C. Wang, "Observation of two-dimensional holographic photovoltaic bright solitons in a photorefractive-photovoltaic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111113-111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv,, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto, and A. Yariv,"Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, "Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 484-519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

J. S. Liu, S. X. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, and C. Wang, "Observation of two-dimensional holographic photovoltaic bright solitons in a photorefractive-photovoltaic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111113-111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zozulya, A. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, "Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2193-2195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. M. Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Liu, S. X. Liu, G. Y. Zhang, and C. Wang, "Observation of two-dimensional holographic photovoltaic bright solitons in a photorefractive-photovoltaic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111113-111115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides, S. R. Singh, and M. I. Carvalho, "Incoherently coupled soliton pairs in biased photorefractive crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1763-1765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignai, and P. D. Porto, "Observation of two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons " Electron. Lett. 31, 826-827 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. S. Liu and H. J. Eichler, "Holographic screening-photovoltaic solitons in biased photovoltaic-photorefractive crystals with two-wave mixing," Europhys. Lett. 65, 658-664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Yeh, "Two-wave mixing in nonlinear media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 484-519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

J. S. Liu, "Separate spatial soliton pairs and solitons interaction in an unbiased series photorefrative crystal circuit," Phys. Lett. A 300, 213-220 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).

Phys. Rev. E (2)

J. S. Liu and Z. H. Hao, "Evoluation of separate screening soliton pairs in a biased series photoreftactive crystal cricuit," Phys. Rev. E 65, 066601 (2002).

K. Kos, H. X. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-R4333 (1996).

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto, and A. Yariv,"Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field," Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. D. Jr., J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo,M. Segev, A . Yariv, B . Crosignani, P. D . Porto,E. J . Sharp, andR. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons " Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of the series PR crystal circuit consisting of two PR crystals in which at least one crystal is PV-PR. (a) The two crystal’s c-axes are oriented in a right-handed screw sense denoted by ⇈. (b) One crystal’s c-axis is oriented in a right-handed screw sense but the other crystal’s c-axis is oriented in a left-handed screw sense, denoted by ⇅. P and denote the two crystals. C and Ĉ denote the two c-axes. Ip denotes the incident pump beam. I and Î denote the incident bright or dark solitonlike one-dimensional laser beams.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dark-dark separate spatial soliton pairs in a series PR crystal circuit with the orientations of the two crystals’ c-axes being same. (a) Holographic screening dark soliton profiles in the crystal P; (b) Hamiltonian screening-photovoltaic dark soliton profiles in the crystal .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bright-dark separate soliton pairs in a series PR crystal circuit with the orientations of the two crystal’s c-axes being reverse. (a) Holographic screening bright soliton profiles in the crystal P; (b) Hamiltonian screening-photovoltaic dark soliton profiles in the crystal .

Equations (30)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 2 k 2 ϕ x 2 + i ϕ z k 0 2 n e 3 r 33 E sc ϕ + ( Γ 0 i 2 Γ ) I p I p + I ϕ i ϑ 0 2 ϕ = 0
γ R n N D + = s i ( I + I b ) ( N D N D + ) ,
E sc = e ε 0 ε r ( N D + N A n ) ,
J = eμn E sc + k B n x + k p s i ( N D N D + ) I ,
J x = 0 or J = const .
N D + N A
n = s i ( N D N A ) ( I + I p ) / ( γ R N A ) .
n = s i ( N D N A ) ( I + I p ) / ( γ R N A ) .
J = n E 0 + k p s i ( N D N A ) I ,
J = n [ E 0 + E p I / ( I + I p ) ] .
1 2 k ̂ 2 ϕ ̂ x 2 + i ϕ ̂ z k ̂ 0 2 ( n ̂ e 3 r ̂ 33 E ̂ sc ) ϕ ̂ = 0 .
n ̂ = s ̂ i ( N ̂ D N ̂ A ) ( I ̂ + I ̂ d ) / ( γ ̂ R N ̂ A ) ,
J ̂ = e μ ̂ n ̂ [ E ̂ 0 + E ̂ p I ̂ / ( I ̂ + I ̂ d ) ] .
WE 0 + W ̂ E ̂ 0 = 0 .
n [ E 0 + E p I / ( I + I p ) ] = S ̂ μ ̂ n ̂ [ E ̂ 0 + E ̂ p I ̂ / ( I ̂ + I ̂ p ) ]
E 0 = σ E ̂ p Γ ' E p ,
E ̂ 0 = σ ̂ E p Γ ̂ ' E ̂ p ,
E 0 = σ E ̂ p Γ ' E p ,
E ̂ 0 = σ ̂ E p Γ ̂ ' E ̂ p ,
J = eμn ( E sc + k B T e In n x + E p I I + I b )
n ( E 0 + E p I I + I p ) = n ( E sc + k B T e In n x + E p I I + I p )
E sc = E 0 I + I p I + I p + E p I I I + I p .
E ̂ sc = E ̂ 0 I ̂ + I ̂ d I ̂ + I ̂ d + E ̂ p I ̂ I ̂ I ̂ + I ̂ p .
i U ξ + 1 2 U ss [ β ( 1 + ρ ) α ( ρ U 2 ) g 0 ig ] U 1 + U 2 + iϑU = 0
i U ̂ ξ + 1 2 U ̂ ss β ̂ ( ρ ̂ + 1 ) U ̂ 1 + U ̂ 2 α ̂ ( ρ ̂ U ̂ 2 ) U ̂ 1 + U ̂ 2 = 0
i U ξ + 1 2 U ss ( P d + iG ) U + ( Q d + ig ) U U 2 = 0
U = D tanh ( Hs ) exp { id In [ cosh ( Hs ) ] } exp ( i Ω ξ )
[ 2 G ̂ ] 1 / 2 s ̂ = ± y ̂ ( s ̂ ) 0 d y ̂ ' [ ( y ̂ ' 2 1 ) 1 + ρ ̂ ρ ̂ In ( 1 + ρ ̂ y ̂ ' 2 1 + ρ ̂ ) ] 1 / 2
U = F sec h ( Bs ) exp { ib In [ sec h ( Bs ) ] } exp ( ivξ )
[ 2 G ̂ ] 1 / 2 s ̂ = ± y ̂ ( s ̂ ) 0 dy ' [ ( y ' 2 1 ) 1 + ρ ̂ ρ ̂ In ( 1 + ρ ̂ y ' 2 1 + ρ ̂ ) ] 1 / 2

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