Abstract

Optical closure is essential for the determination of biogeochemical properties from ocean color remote sensing information. Mie scattering theory, a radiative transfer model, and a semi-analytical inversion algorithm were used to investigate the influence of particles and their properties on optical closure. Closure results were generally poor. Absorption coefficient (at) inversions were more accurate for moderate particle size distribution slopes (3.50 ≤ ξ ≤ 3.75). The degree of success in the derivation of the backscattering coefficient (bbp) was highest at moderate indices of refraction (1.15 ≤ np ≤ 1.20) and high values of ξ (> 3.75). Marked improvements in the estimates of bbp were enabled by a priori knowledge of bbp at one wavelength. At moderate values of np, derivations of at and bbp were within 25% of Mie-modeled values when Gershun’s relationship was used in combination with the semi-analytical algorithm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chang, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: Particle effects," Appl. Opt. 46, 7679-7692 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

S. B. Wozniak and D. Stramski, "Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3489-3503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C1, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, "Why Should We Measure the Optical Backscattering Coefficient?" Oceanography 17, 44-49 (2004).

2003

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, "Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution," Appl. Opt. 40, 4885-4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135-13,142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143-13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep Sea Res. 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1989

H. R. Gordon, "Dependence of diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484-1489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Morel, and A. Bricaud, "Modeling the light attenuation and scattering by spherical phytoplankton cells: A retrieval of the bulk refractive index," Appl. Opt. 27, 3954-3956 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1984

J. T. O. Kirk, "Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude, "Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 350-356 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

A. Bricaud, A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816-832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

Ahn, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep Sea Res. 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C1, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

G. Chang, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: Particle effects," Appl. Opt. 46, 7679-7692 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Chang, A. H. Barnard, S. McLean, P. J. Egli, C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, T. D. Dickey, and A. Hanson, "In situ optical variability and relationships in the Santa Barbara Channel: implications for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 45,3593-3604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, T.

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, "Why Should We Measure the Optical Backscattering Coefficient?" Oceanography 17, 44-49 (2004).

Berthon, J-F.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, "Why Should We Measure the Optical Backscattering Coefficient?" Oceanography 17, 44-49 (2004).

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C1, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, "Phase function effects on oceanic light fields," Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, "Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution," Appl. Opt. 40, 4885-4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z. -P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: A multi-band quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41,5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

Chang, G. C.

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

Davis, C. O.

Dickey, T. D.

Donaghay, P. L.

Egli, P. J.

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fell, F.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fournier-Sicre, V.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143-13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution," Appl. Opt. 30, 4427-4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goode, W.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, "Dependence of diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484-1489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gould, R. W.

Hanson, A.

Herring, S.

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, "Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude, "Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 350-356 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Korotaev, G.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C1, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ladner, S.

Lamela, G.

Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C1, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. -P.

Lewis, M.

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, "Why Should We Measure the Optical Backscattering Coefficient?" Oceanography 17, 44-49 (2004).

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McLean, S.

Mériaux, X.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Moore, C.

Morel, A.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143-13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep Sea Res. 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution," Appl. Opt. 30, 4427-4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, A. Morel, and A. Bricaud, "Modeling the light attenuation and scattering by spherical phytoplankton cells: A retrieval of the bulk refractive index," Appl. Opt. 27, 3954-3956 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud. and A. Morel, "Light attenuation and scattering by phytoplanktonic cells: a theoretical modeling," Appl. Opt. 25, 571-580 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816-832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Pegau, W. S.

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, "Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio," Opt. Express 15, 7019-7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, "Why Should We Measure the Optical Backscattering Coefficient?" Oceanography 17, 44-49 (2004).

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C1, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816-832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rhea, W. J.

Risovic, D.

Ruddick, K.

Sathyendranath, S.

Shybanov, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C1, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, W. A.

Stavn, R.

Stramski, D.

Sullivan, J. M.

Sundman, L. K.

Sydor, M.

Twardowski, M. S.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C1, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, "Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution," Appl. Opt. 40, 4885-4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ulloa, O.

Voss, K. J.

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143-13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A.

Whitmire, A. L.

Wozniak, S. B.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

G. Chang, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: Particle effects," Appl. Opt. 46, 7679-7692 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Chang, A. H. Barnard, S. McLean, P. J. Egli, C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, T. D. Dickey, and A. Hanson, "In situ optical variability and relationships in the Santa Barbara Channel: implications for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 45,3593-3604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135-13,142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: A theoretical derivation," Appl. Opt. 21, 4146-4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Remotely sensed reflectance and its dependence on vertical structure: A theoretical derivation," Appl. Opt. 21, 4146-4150 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angles as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution," Appl. Opt. 30, 4427-4438 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. -P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: A multi-band quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41,5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, "Effect of the particle size-distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater," Appl. Opt. 33, 7070-7077 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Risović, "Effect of suspended particulate-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in the remote sensing of seawater," Appl. Opt. 41, 7092-7101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Wozniak and D. Stramski, "Modeling the optical properties of mineral particles suspended in seawater and their influence on ocean reflectance and chlorophyll estimation from remote sensing algorithms," Appl. Opt. 43, 3489-3503 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Snyder, R. A. Arnone, C. O. Davis, W. Goode, R. W. Gould, S. Ladner, G. Lamela, W. J. Rhea, R. Stavn, M. Sydor, and A. Weidemann, "Optical scattering and backscattering by organic and inorganic particles in U.S. coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 47, 666-677 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Chang, A. H. Barnard, S. McLean, P. J. Egli, C. Moore, J. R. V. Zaneveld, T. D. Dickey, and A. Hanson, "In situ optical variability and relationships in the Santa Barbara Channel: implications for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 45,3593-3604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chang, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: Particle effects," Appl. Opt. 46, 7679-7692 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, A. Morel, and A. Bricaud, "Modeling the light attenuation and scattering by spherical phytoplankton cells: A retrieval of the bulk refractive index," Appl. Opt. 27, 3954-3956 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, M. S. Twardowski, and S. Herring, "Shape of the particulate beam attenuation spectrum and its inversion to obtain the shape of the particulate size distribution," Appl. Opt. 40, 4885-4893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud. and A. Morel, "Light attenuation and scattering by phytoplanktonic cells: a theoretical modeling," Appl. Opt. 25, 571-580 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, "Phase function effects on oceanic light fields," Appl. Opt. 41, 1035-1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park and K. Ruddick, "Model of remote-sensing reflectance including bi-directional effects for case 1 and case 2 waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1236-1249 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep Sea Res.

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep Sea Res. 39, 1835-1855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters," Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 275-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A theoretical derivation of the dependence of the remotely sensed reflectance of the ocean on the inherent optical properties," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,135-13,142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909-10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. S. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "The particulate backscattering ratio at LEO-15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, C1, C0101410.1029/2002JC001514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. MacDonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14,129-14,142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937-24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,143-13,150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

J. T. O. Kirk, "Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude, "Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 350-356 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, "Dependence of diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484-1489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, "Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 843-859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816-832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J-F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52(2), 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oceanography

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, "Why Should We Measure the Optical Backscattering Coefficient?" Oceanography 17, 44-49 (2004).

Opt. Express

Other

Z. -P. Lee (ed.), "Remote sensing of inherent optical properties: Fundamentals, tests of algorithms, and applications," in Reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group, No. 5, (IOCCG, 2006).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic Press, 1993).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

C. J. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (John Wiley, 1983).

A. L. Whitmire, The spectral backscattering properties of marine particles, Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, 2008. ScholarsArchive@OSU, 28 Oct. 2008 <http://hdl.handle.net/1957/9088>.

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, "Theoretical results concerning the optics of phytoplankton, with special Reference to remote sensing applications," in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lide, "Physical and optical properties of minerals," in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th ed., D. R. Lide, ed. (CRC Press, 1997), pp. 4130-4136.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured IOPs (Santa Barbara Channel). Thick black lines indicate the spectral mean and dashed black lines denote one standard deviation from the mean. The lower right-hand panel shows a data series of bulk np (red) and ξ (blue) computed using measured IOPs and methods presented by Boss et al. [25] and Twardowski et al. [12]. [The IOP property subscript ‘p’ denotes particulate material and ‘g’ represents dissolved matter.]

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison between at Mie(λ) and at Ger(λ) [Eq. (4)] at nine wavelengths, five different values of np, and six different values of ξ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral IOPs and IOP ratios as a function of np (legend in top left panel; colors correspond to plot lines and not fill colors) and ξ (x-axes).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

3-D plots of spectral AOPs as a function of np (legend in top left panel; colors correspond to plot lines and not fill colors) and ξ (x-axes).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Derived at QAA(λ) and bbp QAA(λ) compared to at Mie(λ) and bbp Mie(λ). Wavelengths are represented by different colors from blue (400 nm range) to red (600 nm range). Open symbols in the first column denote the different ξ-values (triangles = 3.0, circles = 3.25, squares = 3.50, pluses = 3.75, stars = 4.0, and asterisks = 4.25) and closed symbols in the second column represent the different np-values (triangles = 1.01, circles = 1.05, squares = 1.10, crosses = 1.15, and stars = 1.20).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a–d) Same as Fig. 5 but assuming bbp(650) is known; (e–h) Same as Fig. 6 but for at(λ) derived using Eq. (5); bbp(λ) was derived using Eq. (3).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r rs ( λ ) [ f ( λ ) / Q ( λ ) ] { b bt ( λ ) / [ a t ( λ ) + b bt ( λ ) ] } ,
r rs ( λ ) = g 0 u ( λ ) + g 1 [ u ( λ ) ] 2
u ( λ ) = b bt ( λ ) / [ a t ( λ ) + b bt ( λ ) ]
b bt ( λ ) = b bw ( λ ) + b bp ( λ 0 ) ( λ 0 / λ ) η ,
a t = K d μ d [ 1 + R ( μ d / μ u ) ] 1 [ 1 R + ( K d ) 1 dR / dZ ] ,
a t ( λ ) = K d ( λ ) 0.90 [ 1 + 2.25 R ( λ ) ] 1 [ 1 R ( λ ) ]

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