Abstract

Research activities during the last decade have shown the strong potential of photonic devices to greatly simplify ground based and space borne astronomical instruments and to improve their performance. We focus specifically on the mid-infrared wavelength regime (about 5–20μm), a spectral range offering access to warm objects (about 300 K) and to spectral features that can be interpreted as signatures for biological activity (e.g. water, ozone, carbon dioxide). We review the relevant research activities aiming at the development of single-mode guided optics and the corresponding manufacturing technologies. We evaluate the experimentally achieved performance and compare it with the performance requirements for applications in various fields of astronomy. Our goal is to show a perspective for future astronomical instruments based on mid-infrared photonic devices.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, and A. Richichi, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*, ” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132A (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and A. Horton, “Instruments without optics: an integrated photonic spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690N (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Grelin, A. Bouchard, E. Ghibaudo, and J. E. Broquin, “Study of Ag+/Na+ ion-exchange diffusion on germanate glasses: Realization of single-mode waveguides at the wavelength of 1.55μm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 190–194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (9)

A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, S. Martin, J. S. Sanghera, L. E. Busse, W. H. Kim, P. C. Pureza, W. V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Characterization of mid-infrared single-mode fibers as modal filters,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7957–7962 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Taeed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 22, 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6 μm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110–011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, and G. Leblond, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Nature Phot. (London) 1, 473–478 (2007).

R. Petrov, F. Malbet, and G. Weigelt, “AMBER, the near-infrared spectro-interferometric three-telescope VLTI instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 464, 1–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Butvina, O. V. Sereda, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, and V. N. Zagorodnev, “Single-mode microstructured optical fiber for the middle infrared,” Opt. Lett. 32, 334–336 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, R. Grille, P. Labeye, and J.-E. Broquin,“Transmission behaviors of single-mode hollow metallic waveguides dedicated to mid-infrared nulling interferometry,” Opt. Express 15, 18005–18013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Labadie, E. Le Coarer, R. Maurand, P. Labeye, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Mid-infrared laser light nulling experiment using single-mode conductive waveguides,”  471, 355–360 (2007).

C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, and M. Barillot, “Stable deep nulling in polychromatic unpolarized light with multiaxial beam combination,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7817–7822 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (9)

P. Haguenauer and E. Serabyn, “Deep nulling of laser light with a single-mode-fiber beam combiner,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2749–2754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, and S. Vergnole, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, and S. T. Ridgway, “Recent progress at the CHARA interferometric array,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680G (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Schloerb, J.-P. Berger, N. P. Carleton, and P. Hagenauer, “IOTA: recent science and technology,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680I (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “M-lines characterization of selenide and telluride waveguides for mid-infrared interferometry,“ Opt. Express 14, 8459–8469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, P. Labeye, and P. Kern, “The VSI/VITRUV combiner: a phase-shifted four-beam integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62682D (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier, “Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1860–1862 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Labadie, P. Labeye, P. Kern, I. Schanen, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Modal filtering for nulling interferom-etry. First single-mode conductive waveguides in the mid-infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 450, 1265–1275 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Vergnole, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, “Three-beam photonic crystal fiber imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6712–6717 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, L. Labonté, P. Roy, G. Mélin, and L. Gasca, “Test of photonic crystal fiber in broadband interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2496–2500 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Millo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fibers for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103–1–091103–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Cheng, A.-J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F–1–59051F–8 (2005).

2004 (4)

U. J. Wehmeier, M. R. Swain, C. Y. Drouet D’Aubigny, D. R. Golish, and C. K. Walker, “The potential of conductive waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching,” Opt. Express 12, 5140–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Borde, G. Perrin, T. Nguyen, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, P.-I. Raynal, A. Leger, and G. Maze, “10-mm wavefront spatial filtering: first results with chalcogenide fibers,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 273–279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, K. Roodenko, and A. Katzir, “Infrared photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1912–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

B. Mennesson, M. Ollivier, and C. Ruilier, “Use of single-mode waveguides to correct the optical defects of a nulling interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 596–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, “Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J.-P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171–1176 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 376, L31–L34 (2001).

2000 (1)

J.-P. Berger, P. Benech, I. Schanen-Duport, G. Maury, F. Malbet, and F. Reynaud, “Combining up to eight telescope beams in a single chip,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 986–995 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry – I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Barkou, J. Broeng, and A. Bjarklev, “Silica-air photonic crystal fiber design that permits waveguiding by a true photonic bandgap effect,” Opt. Lett. 24, 46–48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Luo, S. Jiang, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ag+/Na+ exchanged channel waveguides in germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2239–2240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

F. E. Vermeulen, C. R. James, and A. M Robinson, “Hollow microstructural waveguides for propagation of infrared radiation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1053–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

E. Garmire, E., T. McMahon, and M. Bass, ”Flexible infrared waveguides for high-power transmission,” J. Quantum Electron. QE- 16, 23–32 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

G.L. Clark and C. Roychoudhuri, “Interferometry through single-mode optical fibers”, Proc. SPIE 192, 196–203 (1979).

1976 (1)

Abel-Tiberini, L.

Aggarwal, I. D.

Aggrawal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggrawal, Infrared fiber optics (CRC Press ,1999).

Allen, P. J.

Amy-Klein, A.

P. Borde, G. Perrin, T. Nguyen, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, P.-I. Raynal, A. Leger, and G. Maze, “10-mm wavefront spatial filtering: first results with chalcogenide fibers,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 273–279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anheier, N. C.

Arezki, B.

L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, R. Grille, P. Labeye, and J.-E. Broquin,“Transmission behaviors of single-mode hollow metallic waveguides dedicated to mid-infrared nulling interferometry,” Opt. Express 15, 18005–18013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Labadie, E. Le Coarer, R. Maurand, P. Labeye, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Mid-infrared laser light nulling experiment using single-mode conductive waveguides,”  471, 355–360 (2007).

L. Labadie, P. Labeye, P. Kern, I. Schanen, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Modal filtering for nulling interferom-etry. First single-mode conductive waveguides in the mid-infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 450, 1265–1275 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “M-lines characterization of selenide and telluride waveguides for mid-infrared interferometry,“ Opt. Express 14, 8459–8469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artiouchenko, V.

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, and V. Artiouchenko, Single-mode fibres for DARWIN, Summary Report, ESA/ESTEC Contract No. AO/1-4023/01/NL/CK (2007).

V. ArtiouchenkoART Photonics, Optical fibre and fabrication technique for an optical fibre, European Patent EP/01.09.00/EP 00250290 (2000).

Artjuschenko, V.

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Manufacturing of chalcogenide and silver-halide single-mode fibres for modal wavefront filtering for Darwin,” Proc. 6th Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2006).

Barillot, M.

C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, and M. Barillot, “Stable deep nulling in polychromatic unpolarized light with multiaxial beam combination,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7817–7822 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barkou, S. E.

Bass, M.

E. Garmire, E., T. McMahon, and M. Bass, ”Flexible infrared waveguides for high-power transmission,” J. Quantum Electron. QE- 16, 23–32 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Garmire, T. McMahon, and M. Bass, “Propagation of infrared light in flexible hollow waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 15, 145–150 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benech, P.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, and G. Leblond, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Nature Phot. (London) 1, 473–478 (2007).

E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J.-P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171–1176 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Berger, P. Benech, I. Schanen-Duport, G. Maury, F. Malbet, and F. Reynaud, “Combining up to eight telescope beams in a single chip,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 986–995 (2000)
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry – I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, M.

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, P. Labeye, and P. Kern, “The VSI/VITRUV combiner: a phase-shifted four-beam integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62682D (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, P. Garcia, P. Kern, K. Perraut, M. Benisty, L. Jocou, E. Herwats, J,-B. Lebouquin, P. Labeye, E. Le Coarer, and O. Preis, “VITRUV – Imaging close environments of stars and galaxies with the VLTI at milli-arcsec resolution,” in The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation VLTI Instrumentation, A. Richichi, F. Delplancke, F. Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp.357–369.
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.-P.

F. P. Schloerb, J.-P. Berger, N. P. Carleton, and P. Hagenauer, “IOTA: recent science and technology,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680I (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, P. Labeye, and P. Kern, “The VSI/VITRUV combiner: a phase-shifted four-beam integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62682D (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J.-P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171–1176 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 376, L31–L34 (2001).

J.-P. Berger, P. Benech, I. Schanen-Duport, G. Maury, F. Malbet, and F. Reynaud, “Combining up to eight telescope beams in a single chip,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 986–995 (2000)
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry – I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, P. Garcia, P. Kern, K. Perraut, M. Benisty, L. Jocou, E. Herwats, J,-B. Lebouquin, P. Labeye, E. Le Coarer, and O. Preis, “VITRUV – Imaging close environments of stars and galaxies with the VLTI at milli-arcsec resolution,” in The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation VLTI Instrumentation, A. Richichi, F. Delplancke, F. Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp.357–369.
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, “Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Blaize, S.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, and G. Leblond, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Nature Phot. (London) 1, 473–478 (2007).

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

J. Bland-Hawthorn and A. Horton, “Instruments without optics: an integrated photonic spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonhomme, E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6 μm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110–011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borde, P.

P. Borde, G. Perrin, T. Nguyen, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, P.-I. Raynal, A. Leger, and G. Maze, “10-mm wavefront spatial filtering: first results with chalcogenide fibers,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 273–279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouchard, A.

J. Grelin, A. Bouchard, E. Ghibaudo, and J. E. Broquin, “Study of Ag+/Na+ ion-exchange diffusion on germanate glasses: Realization of single-mode waveguides at the wavelength of 1.55μm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 190–194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Pledel, C.

L. K. Cheng, A.-J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F–1–59051F–8 (2005).

A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Optical characterization of infrared telluride glass fibers for space use,” Proc. Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2008).

Brachet, F.

F. Brachet, Study and development of an achromatic phase shifter for nulling interferometry; PhD dissertation (Université Paris XI, 2005).
[PubMed]

Brandner, W.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, and A. Richichi, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*, ” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Broquin, J. E.

J. Grelin, A. Bouchard, E. Ghibaudo, and J. E. Broquin, “Study of Ag+/Na+ ion-exchange diffusion on germanate glasses: Realization of single-mode waveguides at the wavelength of 1.55μm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 190–194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J.-E.

L. Labadie, E. Le Coarer, R. Maurand, P. Labeye, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Mid-infrared laser light nulling experiment using single-mode conductive waveguides,”  471, 355–360 (2007).

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6 μm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110–011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Abel-Tiberini, L. Labadie, B. Arezki, P. Kern, R. Grille, P. Labeye, and J.-E. Broquin,“Transmission behaviors of single-mode hollow metallic waveguides dedicated to mid-infrared nulling interferometry,” Opt. Express 15, 18005–18013 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Labadie, P. Labeye, P. Kern, I. Schanen, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Modal filtering for nulling interferom-etry. First single-mode conductive waveguides in the mid-infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 450, 1265–1275 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “M-lines characterization of selenide and telluride waveguides for mid-infrared interferometry,“ Opt. Express 14, 8459–8469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brummelaar, T. A. ten

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, and S. T. Ridgway, “Recent progress at the CHARA interferometric array,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680G (2006).
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Buisset, C.

Bulla, D. A.

S. J. Madden, D-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Taeed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 22, 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bureau, B.

A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Optical characterization of infrared telluride glass fibers for space use,” Proc. Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2008).

Busse, L. E.

Butvina, L. N.

Campopiano, S.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, “Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carleton, N. P.

F. P. Schloerb, J.-P. Berger, N. P. Carleton, and P. Hagenauer, “IOTA: recent science and technology,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680I (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carmo, J. Pereira Do

L. K. Cheng, A.-J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F–1–59051F–8 (2005).

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Manufacturing of chalcogenide and silver-halide single-mode fibres for modal wavefront filtering for Darwin,” Proc. 6th Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2006).

A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Optical characterization of infrared telluride glass fibers for space use,” Proc. Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2008).

Chaffee, F.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, and S. Vergnole, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, L. K.

L. K. Cheng, A.-J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F–1–59051F–8 (2005).

A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Optical characterization of infrared telluride glass fibers for space use,” Proc. Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2008).

Choi, D-Y.

S. J. Madden, D-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Taeed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 22, 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clark, G.L.

G.L. Clark and C. Roychoudhuri, “Interferometry through single-mode optical fibers”, Proc. SPIE 192, 196–203 (1979).

Coarer, E. Le

L. Labadie, E. Le Coarer, R. Maurand, P. Labeye, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Mid-infrared laser light nulling experiment using single-mode conductive waveguides,”  471, 355–360 (2007).

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, and G. Leblond, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Nature Phot. (London) 1, 473–478 (2007).

F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, P. Garcia, P. Kern, K. Perraut, M. Benisty, L. Jocou, E. Herwats, J,-B. Lebouquin, P. Labeye, E. Le Coarer, and O. Preis, “VITRUV – Imaging close environments of stars and galaxies with the VLTI at milli-arcsec resolution,” in The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation VLTI Instrumentation, A. Richichi, F. Delplancke, F. Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp.357–369.
[CrossRef]

Conti, G. Nunzi

T. Luo, S. Jiang, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ag+/Na+ exchanged channel waveguides in germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2239–2240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D’Aubigny, C. Y. Drouet

U. J. Wehmeier, M. R. Swain, C. Y. Drouet D’Aubigny, D. R. Golish, and C. K. Walker, “The potential of conductive waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

P. Borde, G. Perrin, T. Nguyen, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, P.-I. Raynal, A. Leger, and G. Maze, “10-mm wavefront spatial filtering: first results with chalcogenide fibers,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 273–279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delage, L.

Dianov, E. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

S. J. Madden, D-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Taeed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 22, 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eisenhauer, F.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, and A. Richichi, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*, ” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ergenzinger, K.

R. Flatscher, Z. Sodnik, K. Ergenzinger, U. Johann, and R. Vink,“Darwin Nulling Interferometer Breadboard I: System Engineering And Measurements,” in Towards Other Earths – Darwin/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets, M. Fridlund, ed. (ESA-SP, 2003), pp. 283.

Eyal, O.

Faber, A. J.

A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Optical characterization of infrared telluride glass fibers for space use,” Proc. Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2008).

Faber, A.-J.

L. K. Cheng, A.-J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F–1–59051F–8 (2005).

Flatscher, R.

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Flatscher, Z. Sodnik, K. Ergenzinger, U. Johann, and R. Vink,“Darwin Nulling Interferometer Breadboard I: System Engineering And Measurements,” in Towards Other Earths – Darwin/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets, M. Fridlund, ed. (ESA-SP, 2003), pp. 283.

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, and V. Artiouchenko, Single-mode fibres for DARWIN, Summary Report, ESA/ESTEC Contract No. AO/1-4023/01/NL/CK (2007).

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Manufacturing of chalcogenide and silver-halide single-mode fibres for modal wavefront filtering for Darwin,” Proc. 6th Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2006).

Foresto, V. Coudé du

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, J.-M. Mariotti, M. Lacasse, and W. Traub, in The FLUOR/IOTA fiber stellar interferometer, F. Malbet and P. Kern, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, 1997), pp.115–125.

Garcia, P.

F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, P. Garcia, P. Kern, K. Perraut, M. Benisty, L. Jocou, E. Herwats, J,-B. Lebouquin, P. Labeye, E. Le Coarer, and O. Preis, “VITRUV – Imaging close environments of stars and galaxies with the VLTI at milli-arcsec resolution,” in The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation VLTI Instrumentation, A. Richichi, F. Delplancke, F. Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp.357–369.
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

E. Garmire, E., T. McMahon, and M. Bass, ”Flexible infrared waveguides for high-power transmission,” J. Quantum Electron. QE- 16, 23–32 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Garmire, T. McMahon, and M. Bass, “Propagation of infrared light in flexible hollow waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 15, 145–150 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasca, L.

Gathright, J.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, and S. Vergnole, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghibaudo, E.

J. Grelin, A. Bouchard, E. Ghibaudo, and J. E. Broquin, “Study of Ag+/Na+ ion-exchange diffusion on germanate glasses: Realization of single-mode waveguides at the wavelength of 1.55μm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 190–194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gielesen, W.

L. K. Cheng, A.-J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F–1–59051F–8 (2005).

Gielesen, W. L. M.

A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Optical characterization of infrared telluride glass fibers for space use,” Proc. Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2008).

Gluck, S.

E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J.-P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171–1176 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Golish, D. R.

U. J. Wehmeier, M. R. Swain, C. Y. Drouet D’Aubigny, D. R. Golish, and C. K. Walker, “The potential of conductive waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grelin, J.

J. Grelin, A. Bouchard, E. Ghibaudo, and J. E. Broquin, “Study of Ag+/Na+ ion-exchange diffusion on germanate glasses: Realization of single-mode waveguides at the wavelength of 1.55μm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 190–194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grille, R.

Guérin, J.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, and S. Vergnole, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagenauer, P.

F. P. Schloerb, J.-P. Berger, N. P. Carleton, and P. Hagenauer, “IOTA: recent science and technology,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680I (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

P. Haguenauer and E. Serabyn, “Deep nulling of laser light with a single-mode-fiber beam combiner,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2749–2754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J.-P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171–1176 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 376, L31–L34 (2001).

Herwats, E.

F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, P. Garcia, P. Kern, K. Perraut, M. Benisty, L. Jocou, E. Herwats, J,-B. Lebouquin, P. Labeye, E. Le Coarer, and O. Preis, “VITRUV – Imaging close environments of stars and galaxies with the VLTI at milli-arcsec resolution,” in The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation VLTI Instrumentation, A. Richichi, F. Delplancke, F. Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp.357–369.
[CrossRef]

Hô, N.

Honkanen, S.

T. Luo, S. Jiang, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ag+/Na+ exchanged channel waveguides in germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2239–2240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horton, A.

J. Bland-Hawthorn and A. Horton, “Instruments without optics: an integrated photonic spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690N (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preis, O.

F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, P. Garcia, P. Kern, K. Perraut, M. Benisty, L. Jocou, E. Herwats, J,-B. Lebouquin, P. Labeye, E. Le Coarer, and O. Preis, “VITRUV – Imaging close environments of stars and galaxies with the VLTI at milli-arcsec resolution,” in The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation VLTI Instrumentation, A. Richichi, F. Delplancke, F. Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp.357–369.
[CrossRef]

Pujol, L.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pureza, P. C.

Qiao, H.

Rabbia, Y.

Rave, E.

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Millo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fibers for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103–1–091103–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, K. Roodenko, and A. Katzir, “Infrared photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1912–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raynal, P.-I.

P. Borde, G. Perrin, T. Nguyen, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, P.-I. Raynal, A. Leger, and G. Maze, “10-mm wavefront spatial filtering: first results with chalcogenide fibers,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 273–279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rejeaunier, X.

Reynaud, F.

Richichi, A.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, and A. Richichi, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*, ” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S. T.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, and S. T. Ridgway, “Recent progress at the CHARA interferometric array,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riley, B. J.

Robinson, A. M

F. E. Vermeulen, C. R. James, and A. M Robinson, “Hollow microstructural waveguides for propagation of infrared radiation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1053–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

Rode, A. V.

S. J. Madden, D-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Taeed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 22, 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roodenko, K.

E. Rave, K. Roodenko, and A. Katzir, “Infrared photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1912–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rousselet-Perraut, K.

E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J.-P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171–1176 (2002)
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry – I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

Roychoudhuri, C.

G.L. Clark and C. Roychoudhuri, “Interferometry through single-mode optical fibers”, Proc. SPIE 192, 196–203 (1979).

Ruan, Y.

Ruilier, C.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sanghera, J. S.

Schanen, I.

L. Labadie, P. Labeye, P. Kern, I. Schanen, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Modal filtering for nulling interferom-etry. First single-mode conductive waveguides in the mid-infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 450, 1265–1275 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 376, L31–L34 (2001).

Schanen-Duport, I.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J.-P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171–1176 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Berger, P. Benech, I. Schanen-Duport, G. Maury, F. Malbet, and F. Reynaud, “Combining up to eight telescope beams in a single chip,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 986–995 (2000)
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry – I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schloerb, F. P.

F. P. Schloerb, J.-P. Berger, N. P. Carleton, and P. Hagenauer, “IOTA: recent science and technology,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680I (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

Sereda, O. V.

Severi, M.

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 376, L31–L34 (2001).

Shalem, S.

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Millo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fibers for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103–1–091103–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Eyal, S. Shalem, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide midinfrared optical fiber Y coupler,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1843–1845 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical waveguide theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Sodnik, Z.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Flatscher, Z. Sodnik, K. Ergenzinger, U. Johann, and R. Vink,“Darwin Nulling Interferometer Breadboard I: System Engineering And Measurements,” in Towards Other Earths – Darwin/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets, M. Fridlund, ed. (ESA-SP, 2003), pp. 283.

Stefanon, I.

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, and G. Leblond, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Nature Phot. (London) 1, 473–478 (2007).

Straubmeier, C.

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, and A. Richichi, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*, ” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132A (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sturmann, J.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, and S. T. Ridgway, “Recent progress at the CHARA interferometric array,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sturmann, L.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, and S. T. Ridgway, “Recent progress at the CHARA interferometric array,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Swain, M. R.

U. J. Wehmeier, M. R. Swain, C. Y. Drouet D’Aubigny, D. R. Golish, and C. K. Walker, “The potential of conductive waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taeed, V. G.

S. J. Madden, D-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Taeed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 22, 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W.

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 376, L31–L34 (2001).

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, J.-M. Mariotti, M. Lacasse, and W. Traub, in The FLUOR/IOTA fiber stellar interferometer, F. Malbet and P. Kern, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, 1997), pp.115–125.

Tsun, A.

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Millo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fibers for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103–1–091103–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, N. H.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, and S. T. Ridgway, “Recent progress at the CHARA interferometric array,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vergnole, S.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, and S. Vergnole, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vergnole, L. Delage, and F. Reynaud, “Three-beam photonic crystal fiber imaging interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6712–6717 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vergnole, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, L. Labonté, P. Roy, G. Mélin, and L. Gasca, “Test of photonic crystal fiber in broadband interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2496–2500 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vermeulen, F. E.

F. E. Vermeulen, C. R. James, and A. M Robinson, “Hollow microstructural waveguides for propagation of infrared radiation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1053–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vigreux-Bercovici, C.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6 μm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110–011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, C. Vigreux-Bercovici, A. Pradel, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “M-lines characterization of selenide and telluride waveguides for mid-infrared interferometry,“ Opt. Express 14, 8459–8469 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vink, R.

R. Flatscher, Z. Sodnik, K. Ergenzinger, U. Johann, and R. Vink,“Darwin Nulling Interferometer Breadboard I: System Engineering And Measurements,” in Towards Other Earths – Darwin/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets, M. Fridlund, ed. (ESA-SP, 2003), pp. 283.

Walker, C. K.

U. J. Wehmeier, M. R. Swain, C. Y. Drouet D’Aubigny, D. R. Golish, and C. K. Walker, “The potential of conductive waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wallner, O.

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, and V. Artiouchenko, Single-mode fibres for DARWIN, Summary Report, ESA/ESTEC Contract No. AO/1-4023/01/NL/CK (2007).

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Manufacturing of chalcogenide and silver-halide single-mode fibres for modal wavefront filtering for Darwin,” Proc. 6th Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2006).

Weber, V.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wehmeier, U. J.

U. J. Wehmeier, M. R. Swain, C. Y. Drouet D’Aubigny, D. R. Golish, and C. K. Walker, “The potential of conductive waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weigelt, G.

R. Petrov, F. Malbet, and G. Weigelt, “AMBER, the near-infrared spectro-interferometric three-telescope VLTI instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 464, 1–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P. L.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, and S. Vergnole, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woillez, J.

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, and S. Vergnole, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zagorodnev, V. N.

Zeni, L.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, “Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Optical characterization of infrared telluride glass fibers for space use,” Proc. Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2008).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6 μm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110–011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, K. Roodenko, and A. Katzir, “Infrared photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1912–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Shalem, A. Tsun, E. Rave, A. Millo, L. Nagli, and A. Katzir, “Silver halide single-mode fibers for the middle infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091103–1–091103–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (3)

R. Petrov, F. Malbet, and G. Weigelt, “AMBER, the near-infrared spectro-interferometric three-telescope VLTI instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 464, 1–12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, P. Labeye, P. Kern, I. Schanen, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Modal filtering for nulling interferom-etry. First single-mode conductive waveguides in the mid-infrared,” Astron. Astrophys. 450, 1265–1275 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Laurent, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, J.-P. Berger, S. Gluck, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, and I. Schanen-Duport, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. V. Extension to the K band,” Astron. Astrophys. 390, 1171–1176 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (2)

J.-P. Berger, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, K. Perraut, F. Malbet, I. Schanen, M. Severi, R. Millan-Gabet, and W. Traub, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. IV. First measurements of stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 376, L31–L34 (2001).

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J.-P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, and P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry – I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Luo, S. Jiang, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Honkanen, S. B. Mendes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ag+/Na+ exchanged channel waveguides in germanate glass,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2239–2240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, “Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

F. E. Vermeulen, C. R. James, and A. M Robinson, “Hollow microstructural waveguides for propagation of infrared radiation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1053–1060 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Garmire, E., T. McMahon, and M. Bass, ”Flexible infrared waveguides for high-power transmission,” J. Quantum Electron. QE- 16, 23–32 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

J. Grelin, A. Bouchard, E. Ghibaudo, and J. E. Broquin, “Study of Ag+/Na+ ion-exchange diffusion on germanate glasses: Realization of single-mode waveguides at the wavelength of 1.55μm,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 149, 190–194 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phot. (London) (1)

E. Le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Lérondel, and G. Leblond, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier-transform spectrometry,” Nature Phot. (London) 1, 473–478 (2007).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. SPIE (12)

P. Borde, G. Perrin, T. Nguyen, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, P.-I. Raynal, A. Leger, and G. Maze, “10-mm wavefront spatial filtering: first results with chalcogenide fibers,” Proc. SPIE 4838, 273–279 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Cheng, A.-J. Faber, W. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, P. Houizot, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Test results of the infrared single-mode fiber for the DARWIN mission,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051F–1–59051F–8 (2005).

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, P. Labeye, and P. Kern, “The VSI/VITRUV combiner: a phase-shifted four-beam integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62682D (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Berger, P. Benech, I. Schanen-Duport, G. Maury, F. Malbet, and F. Reynaud, “Combining up to eight telescope beams in a single chip,” Proc. SPIE 4006, 986–995 (2000)
[CrossRef]

F. P. Schloerb, J.-P. Berger, N. P. Carleton, and P. Hagenauer, “IOTA: recent science and technology,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680I (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Eisenhauer, G. Perrin, W. Brandner, C. Straubmeier, and A. Richichi, “GRAVITY: getting to the event horizon of Sgr A*, ” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132A (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Bland-Hawthorn and A. Horton, “Instruments without optics: an integrated photonic spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690N (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, and S. T. Ridgway, “Recent progress at the CHARA interferometric array,” Proc. SPIE 6268, 62680G (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Wehmeier, M. R. Swain, C. Y. Drouet D’Aubigny, D. R. Golish, and C. K. Walker, “The potential of conductive waveguides for nulling interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 1435–1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G.L. Clark and C. Roychoudhuri, “Interferometry through single-mode optical fibers”, Proc. SPIE 192, 196–203 (1979).

O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and R. Flatscher, “Development of silver-halide single-mode fibers for modal filtering in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 636–646 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an integrated optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. Perrin, J. Woillez, O. Lai, J. Guérin, T. Kotani, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, M. Hrynevych, J. Gathright, P. Léna, F. Chaffee, and S. Vergnole, “Interferometric coupling of the Keck telescopes with single-mode fibers,” Science 311, 194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (16)

V. Coudé du Foresto, G. Perrin, J.-M. Mariotti, M. Lacasse, and W. Traub, in The FLUOR/IOTA fiber stellar interferometer, F. Malbet and P. Kern, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimand, 1997), pp.115–125.

F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, P. Garcia, P. Kern, K. Perraut, M. Benisty, L. Jocou, E. Herwats, J,-B. Lebouquin, P. Labeye, E. Le Coarer, and O. Preis, “VITRUV – Imaging close environments of stars and galaxies with the VLTI at milli-arcsec resolution,” in The Power of Optical/IR Interferometry: Recent Scientific Results and 2nd Generation VLTI Instrumentation, A. Richichi, F. Delplancke, F. Paresce, and A. Chelli, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp.357–369.
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical waveguide theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics (John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 1986)

P. Klocek, Handbook of infrared optical materials (Marcel Dekker inc., 1991).

V. ArtiouchenkoART Photonics, Optical fibre and fabrication technique for an optical fibre, European Patent EP/01.09.00/EP 00250290 (2000).

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, V. Artjuschenko, and J. Pereira do Carmo, “Manufacturing of chalcogenide and silver-halide single-mode fibres for modal wavefront filtering for Darwin,” Proc. 6th Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2006).

J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggrawal, Infrared fiber optics (CRC Press ,1999).

A. Bjarklev and J. Broeng, Photonic crystal fibres (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004).

R. Flatscher, Z. Sodnik, K. Ergenzinger, U. Johann, and R. Vink,“Darwin Nulling Interferometer Breadboard I: System Engineering And Measurements,” in Towards Other Earths – Darwin/TPF and the Search for Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets, M. Fridlund, ed. (ESA-SP, 2003), pp. 283.

F. Brachet, Study and development of an achromatic phase shifter for nulling interferometry; PhD dissertation (Université Paris XI, 2005).
[PubMed]

L. Labadie, E. Le Coarer, R. Maurand, P. Labeye, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Mid-infrared laser light nulling experiment using single-mode conductive waveguides,”  471, 355–360 (2007).

D. Marcuse, Principles of optical fiber measurements (Academic Press, Inc.1981).

A. J. Faber, L. K. Cheng, W. L. M. Gielesen, C. Boussard-Pledel, S. Maurugeon, B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, J. Lucas, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, “Optical characterization of infrared telluride glass fibers for space use,” Proc. Internat. Conf. on Space Optics (2008).

L. Labadie, Nulling interferometry, integrated optics, infrared instrumentation, extrasolar planets; PhD dissertation (Université Joseph Fourier, 2005).
[PubMed]

R. Flatscher, O. Wallner, and V. Artiouchenko, Single-mode fibres for DARWIN, Summary Report, ESA/ESTEC Contract No. AO/1-4023/01/NL/CK (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Left: principles of hollow metallic waveguides and hollow glass waveguides. In the HGW design, the tubing can be glass or a plastic polymer. Right: refractive index profiles of index-guiding and photonic bandgap (PBG) guiding PCF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic view of the three main technologies for manufacturing integrated optics

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Left: cross section of a single-mode silver halide fiber characterized by output profile imaging [35]. Right: photograph of a conductive waveguide cross-section with dimensions 10×5 μm. This structure maintains a single polarization direction perpendicular to the longer side [45].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Left: output profile of a 2.2-m long single-mode silver halide fiber obtained at 10.6μm [35]. Right: sketch of a chalcogenide rib waveguide showing the position of the injection spot, together with output images at 10.6 μm when the spot is centered and de-centered from the rib [40].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurement procedures to verify single-mode behavior and spatial filtering of optical fibers. See text for details.

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