Abstract

The direct imaging and characterization of Earth-like planets is among the most sought-after prizes in contemporary astrophysics, however current optical instrumentation delivers insufficient dynamic range to overcome the vast contrast differential between the planet and its host star. New opportunities are offered by coherent single mode fibers, whose technological development has been motivated by the needs of the telecom industry in the near infrared. This paper presents a new vision for an instrument using coherent waveguides to remap the pupil geometry of the telescope. It would (i) inject the full pupil of the telescope into an array of single mode fibers, (ii) rearrange the pupil so fringes can be accurately measured, and (iii) permit image reconstruction so that atmospheric blurring can be totally removed. Here we present a laboratory experiment whose goal was to validate the theoretical concepts underpinning our proposed method. We successfully confirmed that we can retrieve the image of a simulated astrophysical object (in this case a binary star) though a pupil remapping instrument using single mode fibers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

S. Lacour, E. Thi’ebaut, and G. Perrin, "High dynamic range imaging with a single-mode pupil remapping system: a self-calibration algorithm for redundant interferometric arrays," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374, 832-846 (2007). arXiv:astro-ph/0610458.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and ´E. Thi’ebaut, "High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0609362.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

O. Guyon, "Limits of Adaptive Optics for High-Contrast Imaging," Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0505086.
[CrossRef]

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Seager, B. A. Whitney, and D. D. Sasselov, "Photometric Light Curves and Polarization of Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets," Astrophys. J. 540, 504-520 (2000). arXiv:astro-ph/0004001.
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, and J. E. Baldwin, "The first images from optical aperture synthesis," Nature (London) 328, 694-696 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bagnuolo, W. G.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Baines, E. K.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. E.

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, and J. E. Baldwin, "The first images from optical aperture synthesis," Nature (London) 328, 694-696 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, and C. D. Mackay, "The point spread function in Lucky Imaging and variations in seeing on short timescales," A&A 480, 589-597 (2008).

Berger, D. H.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Coude Du Foresto, V.

V. Coude Du Foresto, S. Ridgway, and J.-M. Mariotti, "Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer," A&AS 121, 379-392 (1997).

Gies, D. R.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Grundstrom, E.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, "Limits of Adaptive Optics for High-Contrast Imaging," Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0505086.
[CrossRef]

Haniff, C. A.

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, and J. E. Baldwin, "The first images from optical aperture synthesis," Nature (London) 328, 694-696 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, "Attainment of Diffraction Limited Resolution in Large Telescopes by Fourier Analysing Speckle Patterns in Star Images," A&A 6, 85-+ (1970).

Lacour, S.

S. Lacour, E. Thi’ebaut, and G. Perrin, "High dynamic range imaging with a single-mode pupil remapping system: a self-calibration algorithm for redundant interferometric arrays," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374, 832-846 (2007). arXiv:astro-ph/0610458.
[CrossRef]

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and ´E. Thi’ebaut, "High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0609362.
[CrossRef]

Mackay, C. D.

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, and J. E. Baldwin, "The first images from optical aperture synthesis," Nature (London) 328, 694-696 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, and C. D. Mackay, "The point spread function in Lucky Imaging and variations in seeing on short timescales," A&A 480, 589-597 (2008).

Mariotti, J.-M.

V. Coude Du Foresto, S. Ridgway, and J.-M. Mariotti, "Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer," A&AS 121, 379-392 (1997).

Mayor, M.

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, "A Jupiter-Mass Companion to a Solar-Type Star," Nature (London) 378, 355-+ (1995).
[CrossRef]

McAlister, H. A.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Ogden, C.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Perrin, G.

S. Lacour, E. Thi’ebaut, and G. Perrin, "High dynamic range imaging with a single-mode pupil remapping system: a self-calibration algorithm for redundant interferometric arrays," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374, 832-846 (2007). arXiv:astro-ph/0610458.
[CrossRef]

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and ´E. Thi’ebaut, "High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0609362.
[CrossRef]

Queloz, D.

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, "A Jupiter-Mass Companion to a Solar-Type Star," Nature (London) 378, 355-+ (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S.

V. Coude Du Foresto, S. Ridgway, and J.-M. Mariotti, "Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer," A&AS 121, 379-392 (1997).

Ridgway, S. T.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Sasselov, D. D.

S. Seager, B. A. Whitney, and D. D. Sasselov, "Photometric Light Curves and Polarization of Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets," Astrophys. J. 540, 504-520 (2000). arXiv:astro-ph/0004001.
[CrossRef]

Seager, S.

S. Seager, B. A. Whitney, and D. D. Sasselov, "Photometric Light Curves and Polarization of Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets," Astrophys. J. 540, 504-520 (2000). arXiv:astro-ph/0004001.
[CrossRef]

Shure, M. A.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Sivia, D.

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, and J. E. Baldwin, "The first images from optical aperture synthesis," Nature (London) 328, 694-696 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sturmann, J.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Sturmann, L.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Taylor, S. F.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

ten Brummelaar, T. A.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Thi’ebaut, ´E.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and ´E. Thi’ebaut, "High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0609362.
[CrossRef]

Thi’ebaut, E.

S. Lacour, E. Thi’ebaut, and G. Perrin, "High dynamic range imaging with a single-mode pupil remapping system: a self-calibration algorithm for redundant interferometric arrays," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374, 832-846 (2007). arXiv:astro-ph/0610458.
[CrossRef]

Titterington, D. J.

C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, D. J. Titterington, D. Sivia, and J. E. Baldwin, "The first images from optical aperture synthesis," Nature (London) 328, 694-696 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Turner, N. H.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

van Belle, G.

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

Warner, P. J.

J. E. Baldwin, P. J. Warner, and C. D. Mackay, "The point spread function in Lucky Imaging and variations in seeing on short timescales," A&A 480, 589-597 (2008).

Whitney, B. A.

S. Seager, B. A. Whitney, and D. D. Sasselov, "Photometric Light Curves and Polarization of Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets," Astrophys. J. 540, 504-520 (2000). arXiv:astro-ph/0004001.
[CrossRef]

Woillez, J.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and ´E. Thi’ebaut, "High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006). arXiv:astro-ph/0609362.
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (3)

S. Seager, B. A. Whitney, and D. D. Sasselov, "Photometric Light Curves and Polarization of Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets," Astrophys. J. 540, 504-520 (2000). arXiv:astro-ph/0004001.
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, "Limits of Adaptive Optics for High-Contrast Imaging," Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0505086.
[CrossRef]

H. A. McAlister, T. A. ten Brummelaar, D. R. Gies, W. Huang, W. G. Bagnuolo, Jr., M. A. Shure, J. Sturmann, L. Sturmann, N. H. Turner, S. F. Taylor, D. H. Berger, E. K. Baines, E. Grundstrom, C. Ogden, S. T. Ridgway, and G. van Belle, "First Results from the CHARA Array. I. An Interferometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Fast Rotator α Leonis (Regulus)," Astrophys. J. 628, 439-452 (2005). arXiv:astro-ph/0501261.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A pictorial description of the aperture masking experiment now commissioned at the NAOS/CONICA camera on one of ESO’s four VLT telescopes in Paranal. Top Left Panel: the unobstructed telescope pupil complete with spiders and central obstruction, as viewed in the CONICA camera. Top Right: an 18-hole aperture mask transforms the 8 m primary mirror into a sparse, non-redundant array. Note the non-ideal mask alignment visible in these engineering-test images. Lower Left: the diffraction pattern created in the image plane after using such a non-redundant pupil mask. With the adaptive optics system operating, a bright core persists at the center of the pattern, which otherwise spreads light over an area in inverse proportion to the size of the holes in the mask plate. Lower Right: this panel depicts the final data product for faint companion searches - the closure phase recovered by the data reduction software over all closed triangles of holes in the mask. For a simple unresolved point, this data product should give a value of zero (to within the limits of the random noise level). Here we see a systematic variation of the closure phase. When plotted against a model of two point-like sources, the variation betrays the presence of the high-contrast companion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A schematic diagram illustrating the principles of pupil remapping with single mode fibers. In brief, the left side depicts the pupil fragmentation and single-mode fiber injection optics, while to the right we show the spatially-filtered beams output from the fibers into a custom-designed non-redundant linear array. These elements are all described in some detail in our earlier papers[11, 12]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup. The optical layout of a recombiner is shown for only one v-groove chip. The other 3 v-groove chips may share the same recombination optics. Further details of the various components and subsystems depicted can be found in the text.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Left: 2D fiber array from FiberGuide Industries. The fiber pitch is 250 μm. Right: Segmented deformable mirror from IRIS AO. The pitch between adjacent segments is 606.2 μm including a 4 μm gap.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Left Panel: the output linear fiber array arranged in the silicon V-groove. Right: the resultant intensity distribution displaying linear Fizeau interference fringes. Anamorphic optic is later on used to vertically collapse the fringe pattern, allowing spectral dispersion.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Upper left panel shows measured visibility amplitudes, together with visibility predictions from the best-fit model for the simulated binary star system. Visibility measurement errors were found to be about 2%. Upper right panel shows measured closure phases and predictions from the best-fit model. The closure phase measurement error was about 0.2 degrees. Lower Left: Direct image of the simulated binary-star source. Right: Reconstructed image from complex visibility data recovered from the testbed. A byproduct of the image reconstruction algorithm is to deconvolve the point spread function, effectively removing on the reconstructed image the Airy rings caused by diffraction.

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