Abstract

In this paper, after briefly reviewing the theory of vectorial vortices, we describe our technological approach to generating the necessary phase helix, and report results obtained with the first optical vectorial vortex coronagraph (OVVC) in the laboratory. To implement the geometrical phase ramp, we make use of Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCP), which we believe to be the most efficient technological path to quickly synthesize optical vectorial vortices of virtually any topological charge. With the first prototype device of topological charge 2, a maximum peak-to-peak attenuation of 1.4×10-2 and a residual light level of 3×10-5 at an angular separation of 3.5 λ/d (at which point our current noise floor is reached) have been obtained at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. These results demonstrate the validity of using space-variant birefringence distributions to generate a new family of coronagraphs usable in natural unpolarized light, opening a path to high performance coronagraphs that are achromatic and have low-sensitivity to low-order wavefront aberrations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

2007 (5)

D. Rouan, J. Baudrand, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, D. Mawet, and P. Riaud, "The Four Quadrant Phase Mask Coronagraph and its avatars," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 298-311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Polychromatic vectorial vortex formed by geometric phase elements," Opt. Lett. 32, 847-849 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger and W. A. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet," Nature (London) 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, "Extreme Adaptive Optics Imaging with a Clear and Well-Corrected Off-Axis Telescope Subaperture," Astrophys. J. 658, 1386- 1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Space-variant polarization scrambling for image encryption obtained with subwavelength gratings," Opt. Commun. 261, 5-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, and D. Rouan, "The four-quadrant phasemask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device," Astron. & Astrophys. 448, 801-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Biener, Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Manipulation of polarization-dependent multivortices with quasi-periodic subwavelength structures," Opt.Lett. 31, 1594-1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, "Theoretical Limits on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planet Detection with Coronagraphs," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 167, 81-99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Niv, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Manipulation of the Pancharatnam phase in vectorial vortices," Opt. Express 14, 4208-4220 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Cl’enet, and A. Labeyrie, "The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. I. Principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 1558-1568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Berry, "The Adiabatic Phase and Pancharatnam’s Phase for Polarized Light," J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1401-1407 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abdul-Malik, R. S.

Abe, L.

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

Absil, O.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, "Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph," Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baudoz, P.

D. Rouan, J. Baudrand, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, D. Mawet, and P. Riaud, "The Four Quadrant Phase Mask Coronagraph and its avatars," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 298-311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, and D. Rouan, "The four-quadrant phasemask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device," Astron. & Astrophys. 448, 801-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baudrand, J.

D. Rouan, J. Baudrand, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, D. Mawet, and P. Riaud, "The Four Quadrant Phase Mask Coronagraph and its avatars," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 298-311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, and D. Rouan, "The four-quadrant phasemask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device," Astron. & Astrophys. 448, 801-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Surdej, and J. Baudrand, "Subwavelength surface-relief gratings for stellar coronagraphy," Appl. Opt. 44, 7313-7321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

Bauman, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bendjoya, P.

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

Berry, M.

M. Berry, "The Adiabatic Phase and Pancharatnam’s Phase for Polarized Light," J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1401-1407 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Biener, G.

Boccaletti, A.

D. Rouan, J. Baudrand, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, D. Mawet, and P. Riaud, "The Four Quadrant Phase Mask Coronagraph and its avatars," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 298-311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, and D. Rouan, "The four-quadrant phasemask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device," Astron. & Astrophys. 448, 801-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Cl’enet, and A. Labeyrie, "The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. I. Principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

Bomzon, Z.

Born, M.

M. Born, Principles of optics: 7th (expanded) edition (Principles of optics: 7th (expanded) edition by Born, M., 1999., 1999).

Burruss, R.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, "Extreme Adaptive Optics Imaging with a Clear and Well-Corrected Off-Axis Telescope Subaperture," Astrophys. J. 658, 1386- 1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 1558-1568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. McEldowney, D. M. Shemo, and R. A. Chipman, "Vortex retarders produced from photo-aligned liquid crystal polymers," Opt. Express 16, 7295-+ (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. McEldowney, D. M. Shemo, R. A. Chipman, and P. K. Smith, "Creating vortex retarders using photoaligned liquid crystal polymers," Opt. Lett. 33, 134-+ (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cl’enet, Y.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Cl’enet, and A. Labeyrie, "The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. I. Principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Close, L. M.

Collins, B.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, "Theoretical Limits on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planet Detection with Coronagraphs," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 167, 81-99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daban, J.-B.

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

Dohlen, K.

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

Douet, R.

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

Doyon, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, O.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, and D. Rouan, "The four-quadrant phasemask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device," Astron. & Astrophys. 448, 801-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erikson, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foo, G.

Ford, E. L.

Gappinger, R.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, "Extreme Adaptive Optics Imaging with a Clear and Well-Corrected Off-Axis Telescope Subaperture," Astrophys. J. 658, 1386- 1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetski, Y.

G. Biener, Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Manipulation of polarization-dependent multivortices with quasi-periodic subwavelength structures," Opt.Lett. 31, 1594-1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gorodetski, G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Space-variant polarization manipulation for farfield polarimetry by use of subwavelength dielectric gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 2245-2247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guerri, G.

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, "Theoretical Limits on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planet Detection with Coronagraphs," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 167, 81-99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, "Extreme Adaptive Optics Imaging with a Clear and Well-Corrected Off-Axis Telescope Subaperture," Astrophys. J. 658, 1386- 1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

Jenkins, C.

C. Jenkins, "Optical vortex coronagraphs on ground-based telescopes," Mont. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 384, 515-524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, V.

Kuchner, M. J.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, "Theoretical Limits on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planet Detection with Coronagraphs," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 167, 81-99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Cl’enet, and A. Labeyrie, "The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. I. Principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Law, C. T.

Macintosh, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mawet, D.

D. Rouan, J. Baudrand, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, D. Mawet, and P. Riaud, "The Four Quadrant Phase Mask Coronagraph and its avatars," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 298-311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, and D. Rouan, "The four-quadrant phasemask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device," Astron. & Astrophys. 448, 801-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, "Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph," Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Surdej, and J. Baudrand, "Subwavelength surface-relief gratings for stellar coronagraphy," Appl. Opt. 44, 7313-7321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

McEldowney, S. C.

S. C. McEldowney, D. M. Shemo, R. A. Chipman, and P. K. Smith, "Creating vortex retarders using photoaligned liquid crystal polymers," Opt. Lett. 33, 134-+ (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. McEldowney, D. M. Shemo, and R. A. Chipman, "Vortex retarders produced from photo-aligned liquid crystal polymers," Opt. Express 16, 7295-+ (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mennesson, B.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, "Extreme Adaptive Optics Imaging with a Clear and Well-Corrected Off-Axis Telescope Subaperture," Astrophys. J. 658, 1386- 1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niv, A.

Oppenheimer, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, D. M.

Palmer, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M. A.

Pezzaniti, J. L.

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 1558-1568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pluzhnik, E. A.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, "Theoretical Limits on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planet Detection with Coronagraphs," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 167, 81-99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riaud, P.

D. Rouan, J. Baudrand, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, D. Mawet, and P. Riaud, "The Four Quadrant Phase Mask Coronagraph and its avatars," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 298-311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, and D. Rouan, "The four-quadrant phasemask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device," Astron. & Astrophys. 448, 801-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, "Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph," Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Surdej, and J. Baudrand, "Subwavelength surface-relief gratings for stellar coronagraphy," Appl. Opt. 44, 7313-7321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Cl’enet, and A. Labeyrie, "The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. I. Principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S. T.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, "Theoretical Limits on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planet Detection with Coronagraphs," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 167, 81-99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robbe-Dubois, S.

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

Rouan, D.

D. Rouan, J. Baudrand, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, D. Mawet, and P. Riaud, "The Four Quadrant Phase Mask Coronagraph and its avatars," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 298-311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, and D. Rouan, "The four-quadrant phasemask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device," Astron. & Astrophys. 448, 801-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Cl’enet, and A. Labeyrie, "The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. I. Principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rozas, D.

Saddlemyer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, "Extreme Adaptive Optics Imaging with a Clear and Well-Corrected Off-Axis Telescope Subaperture," Astrophys. J. 658, 1386- 1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shemo, D. M.

S. C. McEldowney, D. M. Shemo, and R. A. Chipman, "Vortex retarders produced from photo-aligned liquid crystal polymers," Opt. Express 16, 7295-+ (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. McEldowney, D. M. Shemo, R. A. Chipman, and P. K. Smith, "Creating vortex retarders using photoaligned liquid crystal polymers," Opt. Lett. 33, 134-+ (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. K.

S. C. McEldowney, D. M. Shemo, R. A. Chipman, and P. K. Smith, "Creating vortex retarders using photoaligned liquid crystal polymers," Opt. Lett. 33, 134-+ (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soummer, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Surdej, J.

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Surdej, and J. Baudrand, "Subwavelength surface-relief gratings for stellar coronagraphy," Appl. Opt. 44, 7313-7321 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, "Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph," Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Traub, W. A.

J. T. Trauger and W. A. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet," Nature (London) 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trauger, J. T.

J. T. Trauger and W. A. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet," Nature (London) 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, "Extreme Adaptive Optics Imaging with a Clear and Well-Corrected Off-Axis Telescope Subaperture," Astrophys. J. 658, 1386- 1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Veran, J.-P.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, K.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, "Extreme Adaptive Optics Imaging with a Clear and Well-Corrected Off-Axis Telescope Subaperture," Astrophys. J. 658, 1386- 1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. W.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. & Astrophys. (1)

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, J. Baudrand, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, O. Dupuis, and D. Rouan, "The four-quadrant phasemask coronagraph: white light laboratory results with an achromatic device," Astron. & Astrophys. 448, 801-808 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (3)

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, "Theoretical Limits on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planet Detection with Coronagraphs," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 167, 81-99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Mawet, P. Riaud, O. Absil, and J. Surdej, "Annular Groove Phase Mask Coronagraph," Astrophys. J. 633, 1191-1200 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, "Extreme Adaptive Optics Imaging with a Clear and Well-Corrected Off-Axis Telescope Subaperture," Astrophys. J. 658, 1386- 1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comptes Rendus Physique (2)

D. Rouan, J. Baudrand, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, D. Mawet, and P. Riaud, "The Four Quadrant Phase Mask Coronagraph and its avatars," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 298-311 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, D. Erikson, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, and J.-P. Veran, "Adaptive optics for direct detection of extrasolar planets: the Gemini Planet Imager," Comptes Rendus Physique 8, 365- 373 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Berry, "The Adiabatic Phase and Pancharatnam’s Phase for Polarized Light," J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1401-1407 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mont. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

C. Jenkins, "Optical vortex coronagraphs on ground-based telescopes," Mont. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 384, 515-524 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

J. T. Trauger and W. A. Traub, "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet," Nature (London) 446, 771-773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Biener, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Space-variant polarization scrambling for image encryption obtained with subwavelength gratings," Opt. Commun. 261, 5-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. L. Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 1558-1568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt.Lett. (1)

G. Biener, Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Manipulation of polarization-dependent multivortices with quasi-periodic subwavelength structures," Opt.Lett. 31, 1594-1596 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Cl’enet, and A. Labeyrie, "The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. I. Principle," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479-1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

M. Born, Principles of optics: 7th (expanded) edition (Principles of optics: 7th (expanded) edition by Born, M., 1999., 1999).

D. Mawet, "Annular Groove Phase Mask: An Achromatic Vortex Coronagraph Intended at Differential Polarimetric Imaging," in "In the Spirit of Bernard Lyot: The Direct Detection of Planets and Circumstellar Disks in the 21st Century,", P. Kalas, ed. (2007).

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, J. Antichi, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, T. Fusco, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, M. Saisse, H. M. Schmid, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, R. Waters, and F. Wildi, "SPHERE: A Planet Finder Instrument for the VLT," in "In the Spirit of Bernard Lyot: The Direct Detection of Planets and Circumstellar Disks in the 21st Century,", P. Kalas, ed. (2007).

A. Boccaletti, L. Abe, J. Baudrand, J.-B. Daban, R. Douet, G. Guerri, S. Robbe-Dubois, P. Bendjoya, K. Dohlen, and D. Mawet, "Prototyping coronagraphs for exoplanet characterization with SPHERE," ArXiv e-prints 807 (2008).

S. C. McEldowney, D. M. Shemo, R. A. Chipman, and P. K. Smith, "Creating vortex retarders using photoaligned liquid crystal polymers," Opt. Lett. 33, 134-+ (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. McEldowney, D. M. Shemo, and R. A. Chipman, "Vortex retarders produced from photo-aligned liquid crystal polymers," Opt. Express 16, 7295-+ (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Haguenauer, E. Serabyn, E. E. Bloemhof, J. K. Wallace, R. O. Gappinger, B. P. Mennesson, M. Troy, C. D. Koresko, and J. D. Moore, "An off-axis four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph for Palomar: high contrast near bright stars imager," in "Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets II. Edited by Coulter, Daniel R.", Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 5905, 261-271 (2005).

J. E. Krist, "PROPER: an optical propagation library for IDL," in "Optical Modeling and Performance Predictions III. Edited by Kahan, Mark A.", Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6675, 66750P (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, "PALM-3000: visible light AO on the 5.1-meter Telescope," in "Advances in Adaptive Optics II. Edited by Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico.", Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tamura, K. Hodapp, H. Takami, L. Abe, H. Suto, O. Guyon, S. Jacobson, R. Kandori, J.-I. Morino, N. Murakami, V. Stahlberger, R. Suzuki, A. Tavrov, H. Yamada, J. Nishikawa, N. Ukita, J. Hashimoto, H. Izumiura, M. Hayashi, T. Nakajima, and T. Nishimura, "Concept and science of HiCIAO: high contrast instrument for the Subaru next generation adaptive optics," in "Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy. Edited by McLean, Ian S.; Iye, Masanori.", Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6269, 62690V (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Space-variant birefringent medium vectorial analysis. X and Y are the unit vectors of the chosen cartesian basis. o and e, are the local ordinary and extraordinary optical axis unit vectors of the birefringent medium.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Particular example of an OVVC of topological charge lp = 2, illustrating the concepts needed to describe vectorial vortices. Left: the figure shows a HWP with an optical axis orientation ω that rotates about the center as ω = θ, where θ is the azimuthal coordinate (dashed lines perpendicular to the circumference). The textbook net effect of a HWP on a linear impinging polarization is to rotate it by -2 × α where α is the angle between the incoming polarization direction and the extraordinary (e) optical axis . Applying this property to the space-variant HWP, assuming an incoming horizontal linear polarization, we see that the latter is transformed by the vectorial vortex so that it spins around its center twice as fast as the azimuthal coordinate θ (arrows). In this case, the angle of local rotation of the polarization vector ϕp corresponds to the “geometrical” or Pancharatnam phase: upon a complete rotation about the center, ϕp has undergone a total 2 × 2π virtual phase ramp, which corresponds to the definition of an optical vortex of topological charge 2. Right: computation of the periodic modulation of the intensity transmitted by an OVVC between crossed polarizers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pictures of the lp = 2 LCP device. Left: global picture taken between crossed polarizers (size = 2 inch squares). Right: zoom under polarimetric microscope at 100x magnification, showing a superimposed graduated scale (1 unit = 100 microns).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Axoscan sample characterization at λ = 550 nm. Left: linear retardance in nm. Right: fast axis orientation. Taking the LCP retardance dispersion behavior into account, the measured retardance value of 962 nm at λ =550 nm is found to be equivalent to the target retardance of 826.5 nm at λ =1650 nm (halfwave). The retardance map suggests a small relative rise in retardance at the center region.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Magnified image of the linear retardance in nm (left) and retardance orientation (right) for the first prototype measured using a Mueller Matrix microscope. The field of view is 100 × 100 microns.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Coronagraphic transmission bench. Light from the fiber-coupled sources is injected via the fiber launcher (FL), and is collimated by the lens L1. We define the pupil with a iris diaphragm D, before focussing with L2 onto the coronagraphic mask (C). L3 reimages the entrance pupil where diffraction from the coronagraphic mask is filtered out thanks to the Lyot stop (LS). L4 makes the final image on our Merlin InSb camera.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Left: theoretical pupil image after the vortex showing the rejection of the input on-axis light inside the geometric pupil area in a circularly symmetric shape. Right: experimental image. The stretch is linear in both images.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Azimuthally averaged coronagraphic profile (CP) obtained with the OVVC2 using LCP, measured at 1550 nm and with a virtual defect size 10% of the beam size . The PSF is also shown in dashed line. The camera noise floor (dotted straight line) of about 3×10-5 is quickly reached at 3.5 λ/d.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Log-log graph of the total attenuation versus relative central defect size diameter. The dashed line gives the limit set by the chromaticity (or phase error at a single wavelength), the solid one the expected total attenuation given by the analytical model of Eq. (15), the dash-dotted one is linking data points (hollow diamonds) resulting from the numerical modeling of the effect of the defect coverage by an opaque mask whose size is matched to the region of disorientation. Our uncertainty for the diameter of the central region of disorientation to use (owing to our simplistic hole model) is represented by the horizontal error bars on the measurement points.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Performance prediction based on analytical and numerical modeling of the vortex, extrapolated to very high contrast levels, ignoring unknown second-order effects. The vertical arrows shows the expected gain obtained by masking the central defect region with an opaque mask to reach the limit set by residual chromatism.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Expected and measured total rejection factor (R) as a function of the defect diameter size (relative to FX). The measured peak-to-peak rejection ratio (PTP) is also given. The first set of measurements were made with the 1550 nm laser diode, and the last three lines with broadband (BB) light, i.e. taken with the halogen white light source and a 12%-bandwidth H-band filter.

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

e ( r , θ ) = [ cos [ ω ( r , θ ) ] X + sin [ ω ( r , θ ) ] Y ]
e ( r , θ ) = [ cos [ ( l p / 2 ) θ ] X + sin [ ( l p / 2 ) θ ] Y ]
J HWP ( r , θ ) = [ η o e i Δ ϕ o e / 2 0 0 η e e + i Δ ϕ o e / 2 ]
J v ( r , θ ) = R [ ω ( r , θ ) ] J HWP ( r , θ ) R [ ω ( r , θ ) ] 1
R [ ω ( r , θ ) ] = [ cos ω ( r , θ ) sin ω ( r , θ ) sin ω ( r , θ ) cos ω ( r , θ ) ]
J v ( r , θ ) = sin Δϕ 2 [ cos l p θ sin l p θ sin l p θ cos l p θ ] i cos Δϕ 2 [ 1 0 0 1 ]
J v ( r , θ ) = [ cos l p θ sin l p θ sin l p θ cos l p θ ] + i ε 2 [ 1 0 0 1 ]
RC in = [ 1 0 ] , LC in = [ 0 1 ]
J v ( r , θ ) = U J v ( r , θ ) U 1
U = 1 2 [ 1 i 1 i ]
J v ( r , θ ) = V [ 0 e i l p θ e i l p θ 0 ] + L [ 1 0 0 1 ]
RC out = [ 0 e i ( l p θ ) ] , LC out = [ e i ( l p θ ) 0 ]
N = R 1 = σ 2 4
R [ e ( s ) + σ 2 4 ] 1
R [ ( s ) 2 + σ 2 4 ] 1
s < 1 R
σ < 2 R
ϕ p = arg E ( r , θ ) , E ( r , 0 )
l p = 1 2 π ϕ p ds
1 = 1 2 π ϕ d s

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