Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally the efficiency of a recently proposed scheme of terahertz generation based on Cherenkov emission from ultrashort laser pulses in a sandwich structure. The structure has a thin nonlinear core covered with a prism of low terahertz absorption. Using an 8 mm long Si-LiNbO3-BK7 structure with a 50 μm thick LiNbO3 core, we converted 40 μJ, 50 fs Ti:sapphire laser pulses into terahertz pulses of ~ 3 THz bandwidth with a record efficiency of over 0.1%.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Reimann, "Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597-1632 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air," Opt. Lett. 25, 1210-1212 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805-2807 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeong, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839-1846 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. You, R. R. Jones, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. R. Dykaar, "Generation of high-power sub-single-cycle 500-fs electromagnetic pulses," Opt. Lett. 18, 290-292 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Loffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, "Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters," Opt. Express 13, 5353-5362 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212-13220 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, "Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. L’huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate - Part 1: Theory," Appl. Phys. B 86, 185-196 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. L’huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, C. Rau, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate - Part 2: Experiments," Appl. Phys. B 86, 197-208 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, "Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large-area THzpulse generation," Opt. Express 10, 1161-1166 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  16. K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification," Opt. Commun. 281, 3567-3570 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J.-P. Wolf, "Generation of 30 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification," Opt. Lett. 33, 2497-2499 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. H. Auston, "Subpicosecond electro-optic shock waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 713-715 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Appl. Phys. B 81, 23-26 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Alm’asi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762-5768 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, "Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, "Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electrooptic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Phys. Rev. B 76, 085346 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and M. V. Tsarev, "Terahertz emission from a laser pulse with tilted front: Phasematching versus Cherenkov effect," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. R. Grischkowsky, "An ultrafast optoelectronic THz beam system: applications to time-domain spectroscopy," Opt. Photonics News 3, 21-28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Naftaly, A. P. Foulds, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of nonpolar materials and relationship with composition and properties," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 55-64 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. L. Vodopyanov, "Optical generation of narrow-band terahertz packets in periodically-inverted electro-optic crystals: conversion efficiency and optimal laser pulse format," Opt. Express 14, 2263-2276 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, "Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification," JETP Lett. 85, 227-230 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Wm. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, "Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523-3526 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification," Opt. Commun. 281, 3567-3570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J.-P. Wolf, "Generation of 30 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification," Opt. Lett. 33, 2497-2499 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, "Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and M. V. Tsarev, "Terahertz emission from a laser pulse with tilted front: Phasematching versus Cherenkov effect," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, "Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electrooptic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Phys. Rev. B 76, 085346 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, "Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification," JETP Lett. 85, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. L’huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate - Part 1: Theory," Appl. Phys. B 86, 185-196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. L’huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, C. Rau, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate - Part 2: Experiments," Appl. Phys. B 86, 197-208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Reimann, "Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597-1632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H.-C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, "Generation of 1.5 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal," Opt. Express 15, 13212-13220 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, "Optical generation of narrow-band terahertz packets in periodically-inverted electro-optic crystals: conversion efficiency and optimal laser pulse format," Opt. Express 14, 2263-2276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

M. Naftaly, A. P. Foulds, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of nonpolar materials and relationship with composition and properties," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 55-64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Loffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, "Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters," Opt. Express 13, 5353-5362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805-2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Appl. Phys. B 81, 23-26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Alm’asi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762-5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, "Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeong, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839-1846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

D. R. Grischkowsky, "An ultrafast optoelectronic THz beam system: applications to time-domain spectroscopy," Opt. Photonics News 3, 21-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Wm. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, "Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523-3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

D. H. Auston, "Subpicosecond electro-optic shock waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 713-715 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alm’asi, G.

Almási, G.

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, "Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, "Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large-area THzpulse generation," Opt. Express 10, 1161-1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, "Subpicosecond electro-optic shock waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 713-715 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bakunov, M. I.

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, "Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and M. V. Tsarev, "Terahertz emission from a laser pulse with tilted front: Phasematching versus Cherenkov effect," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, "Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electrooptic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Phys. Rev. B 76, 085346 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bandulet, H.-C.

Bartal, B.

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, "Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Beigang, R.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, F.

Bodrov, S. B.

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, "Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and M. V. Tsarev, "Terahertz emission from a laser pulse with tilted front: Phasematching versus Cherenkov effect," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, "Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electrooptic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Phys. Rev. B 76, 085346 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeong, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839-1846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bonacina, L.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Budiarto, E.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeong, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839-1846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chekalin, S. V.

A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J.-P. Wolf, "Generation of 30 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification," Opt. Lett. 33, 2497-2499 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, "Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification," JETP Lett. 85, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

Davies, A. G.

M. Naftaly, A. P. Foulds, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of nonpolar materials and relationship with composition and properties," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 55-64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

Wm. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, "Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523-3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dykaar, D. R.

Elsaesser, T.

Foulds, A. P.

M. Naftaly, A. P. Foulds, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of nonpolar materials and relationship with composition and properties," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 55-64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D. R.

D. R. Grischkowsky, "An ultrafast optoelectronic THz beam system: applications to time-domain spectroscopy," Opt. Photonics News 3, 21-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, T.

Hangyo, M.

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, "Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, "Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electrooptic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Phys. Rev. B 76, 085346 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification," Opt. Commun. 281, 3567-3570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Alm’asi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762-5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Appl. Phys. B 81, 23-26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, "Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, "Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large-area THzpulse generation," Opt. Express 10, 1161-1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hegmann, F. A.

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hoffmann, M. C.

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification," Opt. Commun. 281, 3567-3570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, F.

Jeon, T.-I.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeong, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839-1846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. R.

Kawase, K.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

Kompanets, V. O.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, "Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification," JETP Lett. 85, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozma, I. Z.

Kuhl, J.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Appl. Phys. B 81, 23-26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Alm’asi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762-5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, "Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hebling, G. Almási, I. Z. Kozma, and J. Kuhl, "Velocity matching by pulse front tilting for large-area THzpulse generation," Opt. Express 10, 1161-1166 (2002).
[PubMed]

Loffler, T.

Maki, K.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Margolies, J.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeong, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839-1846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maslov, A. V.

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, "Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electrooptic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Phys. Rev. B 76, 085346 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mel’nikov, A. A.

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, "Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification," JETP Lett. 85, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. E.

M. Naftaly, A. P. Foulds, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of nonpolar materials and relationship with composition and properties," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 55-64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

Naftaly, M.

M. Naftaly, A. P. Foulds, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of nonpolar materials and relationship with composition and properties," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 55-64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification," Opt. Commun. 281, 3567-3570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

Pálfalvi, L.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Péter, Á.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polgár, K.

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rau, C.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

Reid, M.

Reimann, K.

Riedle, E.

Roskos, H. G.

Schall, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

Siders, C. W.

Wm. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, "Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523-3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeong, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839-1846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. G.

A. G. Stepanov, L. Bonacina, S. V. Chekalin, and J.-P. Wolf, "Generation of 30 μJ single-cycle terahertz pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate by optical rectification," Opt. Lett. 33, 2497-2499 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, "Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification," JETP Lett. 85, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Appl. Phys. B 81, 23-26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Kuhl, I. Z. Kozma, E. Riedle, G. Alm’asi, and J. Hebling, "Scaling up the energy of THz pulses created by optical rectification," Opt. Express 13, 5762-5768 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, "Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Theuer, M.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

Tiedje, H. F.

Torosyan, G.

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsarev, M. V.

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and M. V. Tsarev, "Terahertz emission from a laser pulse with tilted front: Phasematching versus Cherenkov effect," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Walther, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Wolf, J.-P.

Wood, Wm. M.

Wm. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, "Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523-3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, K.-L.

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification," Opt. Commun. 281, 3567-3570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

You, D.

Zhang, J.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

J. Hebling, A. G. Stepanov, G. Almási, B. Bartal, and J. Kuhl, "Tunable THz pulse generation by optical rectification of ultrasort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. B 78, 593-599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. L’huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate - Part 1: Theory," Appl. Phys. B 86, 185-196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. L’huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, C. Rau, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate - Part 2: Experiments," Appl. Phys. B 86, 197-208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "THz generation via optical rectification with ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Appl. Phys. B 81, 23-26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Theuer, G. Torosyan, C. Rau, R. Beigang, K. Maki, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Efficient generation of Cherenkov-type terahertz radiation from a lithium niobate crystal with a silicon prism output coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, "Subpicosecond electro-optic shock waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 713-715 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Budiarto, J. Margolies, S. Jeong, J. Song, and J. Bokor, "High-intensity terahertz pulses at 1-kHz repetition rate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1839-1846 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

M. Naftaly, A. P. Foulds, R. E. Miles, and A. G. Davies, "Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of nonpolar materials and relationship with composition and properties," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 55-64 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

L. Pálfalvi, J. Hebling, J. Kuhl, Á. Péter, and K. Polgár, "Temperature dependence of the absorption and refraction of Mg-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3 in the THz range," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 123505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Bodrov, M. I. Bakunov, and M. Hangyo, "Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, and M. V. Tsarev, "Terahertz emission from a laser pulse with tilted front: Phasematching versus Cherenkov effect," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 073105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

A. G. Stepanov, A. A. Mel’nikov, V. O. Kompanets, and S. V. Chekalin, "Spectral modification of femtosecond laser pulses in the process of highly efficient generation of terahertz radiation via optical rectification," JETP Lett. 85, 227-230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, M. C. Hoffmann, and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of high average power 1 kHz shaped THz pulses via optical rectification," Opt. Commun. 281, 3567-3570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

D. R. Grischkowsky, "An ultrafast optoelectronic THz beam system: applications to time-domain spectroscopy," Opt. Photonics News 3, 21-28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. I. Bakunov, S. B. Bodrov, A. V. Maslov, and M. Hangyo, "Theory of terahertz generation in a slab of electrooptic material using an ultrashort laser pulse focused to a line," Phys. Rev. B 76, 085346 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Wm. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, "Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523-3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

K. Reimann, "Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597-1632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the sandwich structure and experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Snapshot of the electric field Ey produced in a Si-LiNbO3 -BK7 structure with a = 50 μm by a Ti:sapphire laser pulse with duration of 50 fs and peak intensity of 100 GW/cm2. (b) Corresponding terahertz field spectra in Si (solid) and BK7 (dotted). The spectrum for a Si-LiNbO3-Si structure (dashed) is shown for reference. The spectrum generated in the Si-LiNbO3-BK7 structure by a 10 μm wide laser pulse (dashed-dotted) models the effect of self-focusing instability (the curve is reduced by a factor of 2). All spectra have the same normalization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized terahertz spectra generated in the structures with a = 50 (solid) and 30 μm (dotted) by a 50 fs laser pulse with energy of 17 and 10 μJ, respectively. Inset: corresponding terahertz waveform for a = 50 μm. (b) Terahertz spectra generated in the structure with a = 50 μm by a 200 fs laser pulse with energy of 9 (solid), 30 (dashed), and 130 μJ (dotted).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Conversion efficiency as a function of the laser pulse energy for a = 50 μm and τFWHM = 200 fs (filled red circles), a = 30 μm and τFWHM = 200 fs (empty blue circles), a = 50 μm and τFWHM = 50 fs (filled green squares), and a = 30 μm and τFWHM = 50 fs (empty black squares). (b) Relative red shift of the optical pump spectrum versus the laser pulse energy for a = 30 μm and τFWHM = 200 fs. Solid line is a linear fit to the experimental points for the energies < 30 μJ. Inset: an output optical spectrum S(λ) for the pump energy of 29 (solid) and 0.5 μJ (dotted). The dashed straight lines in (a) and (b) show the corresponding theoretical dependencies for a = 30 μm and τFWHM = 200 fs.

Equations (1)

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λ ̄ = λS ( λ ) S ( λ ) ,

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