Abstract

We demonstrate efficient self phase modulation, as well as negligible nonlinear absorption, in low loss (<0.06 dB/cm), high index silica glass-based waveguides. Using ~1ps pulses near 1560nm we achieve a 1.5π nonlinear phase shift in an integrated 45cm long spiral waveguide with <60W of peak input power, corresponding to a large nonlinearity (γ) of 220W-1km-1. Further, we observe negligible nonlinear absorption for input intensities > 25 GW/cm2. The high nonlinearity and low linear and nonlinear losses of these waveguides make them promising for nonlinear all-optical signal processing applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (5)

2005 (5)

2004 (4)

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12, 1622–1631 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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2003 (3)

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2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
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B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon- on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142–148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
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1988 (1)

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[CrossRef]

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K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Angelis, C. De

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 142–148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Baker, N. J.

Beckx, S.

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

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R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003), Chap. 5.2.

Boyraz, ö.

ö. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, “All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 4092–4102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campenhout, J. Van

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Chu, S.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon- on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

Daele, P. P. Van

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P. M.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duchesne, D.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dulkeith, E.

Dumon, P.

Eggleton, B. J.

El-Ganainy, R.

Fejer, M. M.

Ferrera, M.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finsterbusch, K.

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

A.C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16, 4881–4887 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 2, 35–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ful, L.

Gaeta, A. L.

A.C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16, 4881–4887 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 2, 35–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, D. F.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 2, 35–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Harris, J. S.

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I-W.

Hui, S. P.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hunsperger, R.

R. Hunsperger, Integrated optics: Technology and theory, (Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 1995).

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iwanow, R.

Jalali, B.

ö. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, “All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 4092–4102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon- on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. G.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
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Johnson, T. J.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114(2006).
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Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
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T. L. Koch, “Semiconductor photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 641–653 (1991).
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Koonath, P.

ö. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, “All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 4092–4102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P. S.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745–2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liscidini, M.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Little, B.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, “A VLSI photonics platform,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication 86, 444–445 (2003).

Locatelli, A.

Luan, H.-C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Luyssaert, B.

Madden, S.

Magi, E. C.

Mansour, Kamjou

McNab, S. J.

Miller, D. A. B.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Modotto, D.

Moerman, I.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Siviloglou, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Ful, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15, 9205–9221 (2007).
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B. J. Eggleton, S. Radic, and D. J. Moss, Nonlinear optics in communications: from crippling impairment to ultrafast tools (Academic Press, Oxford, 2008), Chap. 20.

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Osgood, R. M.

Painter, O.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114(2006).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Panoiu, N. C.

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pozzi, F.

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

B. J. Eggleton, S. Radic, and D. J. Moss, Nonlinear optics in communications: from crippling impairment to ultrafast tools (Academic Press, Oxford, 2008), Chap. 20.

Raghunathan, V.

ö. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, “All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 4092–4102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
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B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon- on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
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S. J., McNab

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R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 2, 35–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scaccabarozzi, L.

Seiferth, F.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Taillaert, D.

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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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Thourhout, D. Van

Trakalo, M.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745–2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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Turner, A. C.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 2, 35–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A.C.

Unlu, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
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Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
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B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
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Vlasov, Y. A.

Walker, J. A.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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Wu, Y. Y.

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A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
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Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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Yang, Z.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Phot. 2, 737–740 (2008).
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B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon- on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
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Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon- on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
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B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon- on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
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K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745–2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
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Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (1)

B. E. Little, “A VLSI photonics platform,” Conference on Optical Fiber Communication 86, 444–445 (2003).

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T. L. Koch, “Semiconductor photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 27, 641–653 (1991).
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I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, “Advances in silicon- on-insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938–947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
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A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical Sensing of Biomolecules Using Microring Resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148–155 (2006).
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B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, and D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
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R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photon. 2, 35–38 (2007).
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V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Ful, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15, 9205–9221 (2007).
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R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2003), Chap. 5.2.

G. P. AgrawalNonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, Ca., 2001).

B. J. Eggleton, S. Radic, and D. J. Moss, Nonlinear optics in communications: from crippling impairment to ultrafast tools (Academic Press, Oxford, 2008), Chap. 20.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(left) SEM image of a Hydex® waveguide cross section prior to deposition of the SiO2 upper cladding layer. (right) Modal electric field distribution of the major component for the quasi-TM mode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Linear transmission out of the 45cm waveguide for coupled peak powers up to 500W.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimentally measured output power spectrum (solid blue lines), and theory (dashed red lines) for different input (coupled) power levels.

Equations (2)

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A eff = [ E ( x , y ) 2 dxdy ] 2 E ( x , y ) 4 dxdy ,
i A z + i α 2 A β 2 2 2 A T 2 + γ A 2 A = 0 ,

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