Abstract

Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) is the leading instrument used to image optical fields on the nanometer scale. A metal-coating is typically applied to SNOM probes to define a subwavelength aperture and minimize optical leakage, but the presence of such coatings in the near field of the sample can often cause a substantial change in the sample emission properties. For the first time, the authors demonstrate near-field imaging on a metal substrate with a metal-free probe made from a novel structured optical fiber, designed to maximize optical throughput and potentially remove the need for the metal.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Poujet, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Near-field optical images of subwavelength annular aperture arrays exhibiting an extraordinary transmission," J. Microsc. 229, 203 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. M. Orbons, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, D. N. Jamieson, and A. Roberts, "Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials," Physica B 394, 176-179 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Poujet, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Near-field optical images of subwavelength annular aperture arrays exhibiting an extraordinary transmission," J. Microsc. 229, 203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. M. Orbons, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, D. N. Jamieson, and A. Roberts, "Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials," Physica B 394, 176-179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Huntington and F. Ladouceur, "Evanescent fields - Direct measurement, modeling, and application," Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 181-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim and K.-B. Song, "Recent progress of nano-technology with NSOM," Micron 38, 409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, "A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes," Opt. Express 15, 2468-2475 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2468.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, "Bend loss in structured optical fibres," Opt. Express 15, 17639-17644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. Poujet, M. Roussey, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Super-transmission of light through subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films: Spectral analysis and near-field optical images in the visible range," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 4, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kühn and V. Sandoghdar, "Modification of single molecule fluorescence by a scanning probe," Appl. Phys.B Lasers Opt. (Germany) B84, 211-217 (2006).

2004

2003

2001

1999

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobia, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, "High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy," Nature 399, 134-137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Lambelet, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, C. Philipona, and F. Marquis-Weible, "Chemically etched fiber tips for near-field optical microscopy: a process for smoother tips," Appl. Opt. 37, 7289-7292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. Sandoghdar and S. Wegscheider, "Reflection scanning near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fiber tips: How good is the," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2499 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. I. Kavaldjiev, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Vaez-Iravani, "On the heating of the fiber tip in a near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2771-2773 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit, and R. P. Salathe, "Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips," Ultramicroscopy 61, 165-170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, and G. H. Morrison, "Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes," Appl. Opt. 34, 1215-1228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. L. Buckland, P. J. Moyer, and M. A. Paesler, "Resolution in collection-mode scanning optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1018-1028 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, and T. L. Ferrell, "Photon scanning tunneling microscopy," Rev. Scie. Instrum. 61, 3669-3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, and S. Leblanc, "External and internal reflection near field microscopy: experiments and results," Appl. Opt. 29, 3734-3740 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, "Scanning tunneling optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 71, 23-28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. BSolid State 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Baida, F. I.

Y. Poujet, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Near-field optical images of subwavelength annular aperture arrays exhibiting an extraordinary transmission," J. Microsc. 229, 203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Poujet, M. Roussey, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Super-transmission of light through subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films: Spectral analysis and near-field optical images in the visible range," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 4, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckland, E. L.

E. L. Buckland, P. J. Moyer, and M. A. Paesler, "Resolution in collection-mode scanning optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1018-1028 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, E.

Canning, J.

Chavez-Pirson, A.

Chilcott, D. W.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, and T. L. Ferrell, "Photon scanning tunneling microscopy," Rev. Scie. Instrum. 61, 3669-3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. BSolid State 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

Deckert, V.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobia, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, "High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Digweed-Lyytikainen, K.

Dutoit, B.

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit, and R. P. Salathe, "Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips," Ultramicroscopy 61, 165-170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, and T. L. Ferrell, "Photon scanning tunneling microscopy," Rev. Scie. Instrum. 61, 3669-3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fokas, C.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobia, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, "High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D.

S. M. Orbons, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, D. N. Jamieson, and A. Roberts, "Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials," Physica B 394, 176-179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B. C.

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

R. Stöckle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobia, B. Sick, B. Hecht, and U. P. Wild, "High-quality near-field optical probes by tube etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, P.

Y. Poujet, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Near-field optical images of subwavelength annular aperture arrays exhibiting an extraordinary transmission," J. Microsc. 229, 203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Poujet, M. Roussey, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Super-transmission of light through subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films: Spectral analysis and near-field optical images in the visible range," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 4, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit, and R. P. Salathe, "Comparison of mechanically drawn and protection layer chemically etched optical fiber tips," Ultramicroscopy 61, 165-170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holton, M.

Huntington, S. T.

S. T. Huntington and F. Ladouceur, "Evanescent fields - Direct measurement, modeling, and application," Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 181-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikainen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, "A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes," Opt. Express 15, 2468-2475 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2468.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, "Bend loss in structured optical fibres," Opt. Express 15, 17639-17644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Orbons, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, D. N. Jamieson, and A. Roberts, "Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials," Physica B 394, 176-179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jamieson, D. N.

S. M. Orbons, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, D. N. Jamieson, and A. Roberts, "Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials," Physica B 394, 176-179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. BSolid State 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. T.

Kavaldjiev, D. I.

D. I. Kavaldjiev, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Vaez-Iravani, "On the heating of the fiber tip in a near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2771-2773 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy," Nature 399, 134-137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim and K.-B. Song, "Recent progress of nano-technology with NSOM," Micron 38, 409 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy," Nature 399, 134-137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühn, S.

S. Kühn and V. Sandoghdar, "Modification of single molecule fluorescence by a scanning probe," Appl. Phys.B Lasers Opt. (Germany) B84, 211-217 (2006).

Ladouceur, F.

S. T. Huntington and F. Ladouceur, "Evanescent fields - Direct measurement, modeling, and application," Microsc. Res. Tech. 70, 181-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lambelet, P.

Leblanc, S.

Lee, Y. H.

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Love, J. D.

Luther-Davies, B.

S. M. Orbons, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, D. N. Jamieson, and A. Roberts, "Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials," Physica B 394, 176-179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyytikainen, K.

Marquis-Weible, F.

Martelli, C.

Morrison, G. H.

Moyer, P. J.

E. L. Buckland, P. J. Moyer, and M. A. Paesler, "Resolution in collection-mode scanning optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1018-1028 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O'Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Orbons, S. M.

S. M. Orbons, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, D. N. Jamieson, and A. Roberts, "Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials," Physica B 394, 176-179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

E. L. Buckland, P. J. Moyer, and M. A. Paesler, "Resolution in collection-mode scanning optical microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1018-1028 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Perentes, A.

Y. Poujet, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Near-field optical images of subwavelength annular aperture arrays exhibiting an extraordinary transmission," J. Microsc. 229, 203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Poujet, M. Roussey, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Super-transmission of light through subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films: Spectral analysis and near-field optical images in the visible range," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 4, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeffer, M.

Philipona, C.

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, "Optics at the nanometre scale," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A-Math.Phy. Engin. Scie. 362, 701-717 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poujet, Y.

Y. Poujet, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Near-field optical images of subwavelength annular aperture arrays exhibiting an extraordinary transmission," J. Microsc. 229, 203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Poujet, M. Roussey, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Super-transmission of light through subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films: Spectral analysis and near-field optical images in the visible range," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 4, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qianfan, X.

Reddick, R. C.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, D. W. Chilcott, S. L. Sharp, and T. L. Ferrell, "Photon scanning tunneling microscopy," Rev. Scie. Instrum. 61, 3669-3677 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

S. M. Orbons, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, D. N. Jamieson, and A. Roberts, "Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials," Physica B 394, 176-179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roussey, M.

Y. Poujet, M. Roussey, J. Salvi, F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, C. Santschi, and P. Hoffmann, "Super-transmission of light through subwavelength annular aperture arrays in metallic films: Spectral analysis and near-field optical images in the visible range," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 4, 47-53 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

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F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) CCD image of the cleaved end-face of the fractal fiber (outer diameter of 125 μm) and (b) a schematic diagram illustrating how the fractal fiber design allows enhanced modal confinement along a taper: the inner ring of holes collapses into the core region and the modal field is then confined by the successive rings of holes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SEM image of a 5 × 5 μm section of the silver film sample. (b) The polarization direction for the simulated images in (d) and (e). (c) The normalized intensity scale for the simulated images ranges from dark blue to black corresponding to 0 and 1, respectively. The magnitude of the electric field simulated in the absence of a probe for a height of 5 nm above a 5 × 5 μm section with incident light at (b) 1650 nm and (c) 532 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of the three types of probes used in this work: (a) metal-coated standard fiber, (b) uncoated standard fiber and (c) uncoated fractal fiber. Each image is 2 × 2 μm in size.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Unprocessed intensity maps scanned in collection mode over 5 × 5 μm sections of the test sample by (a) the metal-coated probe, (b) the uncoated standard fiber probe and (c) the uncoated fractal fiber probe. The intensity scale used ranges from dark blue to black corresponding to 0 and 1, respectively.

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