Abstract

We present a technique based on the selective liquid infiltration of photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides to produce very small dispersion slow light over a substantial bandwidth. We numerically demonstrate that this approach allows one to control the group velocity (from c/20 to c/110) from a single PhC waveguide design, simply by choosing the index of the liquid to infiltrate. In addition, we show that this method is tolerant to deviations in the PhC parameters such as the hole size, which relaxes the constraint on the PhC fabrication accuracy as compared to previous structural-based methods for slow light dispersion engineering.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (7)

2007 (7)

2006 (5)

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

A. Yu. Petrov and M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Wild, R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, M. Mulot, S. Anand and C. J. M. Smith, "Temperature tuning of the optical properties of planar photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 846-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann and K. Busch, "Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2858-2860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

K. Busch and S. John "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: The tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama and M. Ozaki, "Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932-934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ahopelto, J.

Anand, S.

B. Wild, R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, M. Mulot, S. Anand and C. J. M. Smith, "Temperature tuning of the optical properties of planar photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 846-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, K.

Baba, T.

T. Baba, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photonics 2, 465-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balet, L.

Balog, S.

Bettotti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bog, U.

Borel, P. I.

Busch, K.

S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann and K. Busch, "Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2858-2860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch and S. John "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: The tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Citrin, D. S.

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drouard, E.

Eggleton, B. J.

Eich, M.

A. Yu. Petrov and M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

El-Kallassi, P.

Emery, T.

Engelen, R. J. P.

Erickson, D.

Fage-Pedersen, J.

Fan, S. H.

Ferrini, R.

P. El-Kallassi, S. Balog, R. Houdré, L. Balet, L. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, R. Ferrini and L. Zuppiroli, "Local infiltration of planar photonic crystals with UV-curable polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1562-1567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Wild, R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, M. Mulot, S. Anand and C. J. M. Smith, "Temperature tuning of the optical properties of planar photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 846-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

Francardi, M.

Frandsen, L. H.

Gerardino, A.

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

Grillet, C.

Hattori, H.

Hermann, D.

Hochberg, M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houdre, R.

B. Wild, R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, M. Mulot, S. Anand and C. J. M. Smith, "Temperature tuning of the optical properties of planar photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 846-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

Hugonin, J. P.

Ibanescu, M.

Ikeda, N.

Intonti, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

John, S.

K. Busch and S. John "Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: The tunable electromagnetic vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

Karnutsch, C.

Kawagishi, Y.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama and M. Ozaki, "Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932-934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazmierczak, A.

Korterik, J. P.

Krauss, T. F.

Kubo, S.

Kuipers, L.

Kurt, H.

Lalanne, P.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

Lee, M. W.

Letartre, X.

Li, J.

Li, L.

Lipsanen, H.

Loncar, M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

Michaeli, A.

Mingaleev, S. F.

Monat, C.

Mulot, M.

A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, "Dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides with ring-shaped holes," Opt. Express 15, 8323-8328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wild, R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, M. Mulot, S. Anand and C. J. M. Smith, "Temperature tuning of the optical properties of planar photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 846-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, K.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama and M. Ozaki, "Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932-934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’ Faolain, L.

O'Faolain, L.

Ozaki, M.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama and M. Ozaki, "Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932-934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. Yu.

A. Yu. Petrov and M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer and D. Psaltis, "Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits," Opt. Lett. 31, 59-61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y. M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockwood, T.

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Salib, M.

Säynätjoki, A.

Scherer, A.

D. Erickson, T. Rockwood, T. Emery, A. Scherer and D. Psaltis, "Nanofluidic tuning of photonic crystal circuits," Opt. Lett. 31, 59-61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schillinger, M.

Schweizer, S. L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Settle, M. D.

Shimoda, Y.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama and M. Ozaki, "Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932-934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. J. M.

B. Wild, R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, M. Mulot, S. Anand and C. J. M. Smith, "Temperature tuning of the optical properties of planar photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 846-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L.

Smith, C. L. C.

U. Bog, C. L. C. Smith, M. W. Lee, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, C. Monat, L. O'Faolain, C. Karnutsch, T. F. Krauss, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, "High-Q microfluidic cavities in silicon-based two-dimensional photonic crystal structures," Opt. Lett. 33, 2206-2208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D, Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103, 1-3, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

Sugimoto, Y.

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

Turck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

Watanabe, Y.

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wild, B.

B. Wild, R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, M. Mulot, S. Anand and C. J. M. Smith, "Temperature tuning of the optical properties of planar photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 846-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. K.

Wu, D. K. C.

C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D, Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103, 1-3, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama and M. Ozaki, "Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932-934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zuppiroli, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Yu. Petrov and M. Eich, "Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4866-4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama and M. Ozaki, "Temperature tuning of the stop band in transmission spectra of liquid-crystal infiltrated synthetic opal as tunable photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932-934 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Wild, R. Ferrini, R. Houdre, M. Mulot, S. Anand and C. J. M. Smith, "Temperature tuning of the optical properties of planar photonic crystal microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 846-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer and Y. M. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Turck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 2111171-2111173 (2006).
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C. L. C. Smith, D. K. C. Wu, M. W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, D, Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen, and Y. H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103, 1-3, (2007).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D. (1)

T. F. Krauss, "Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," J. Phys. D. 40, 2666-2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

T. F. Krauss, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photonics 2, 448-450 (2008).
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T. Baba, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photonics 2, 465-473 (2008).
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C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake and C. H. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

H. Kurt and D. S. Citrin, "Reconfigurable multimode photonic-crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 11995-12001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Smith, U. Bog, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. W. Lee, D. K. Wu, L. O'Faolain, C. Monat, C. Grillet, T. F. Krauss, C. Karnutsch, R. C. McPhedran, and B. J. Eggleton, "Reconfigurable microfluidic photonic crystal slab cavities," Opt. Express 16, 15887-15896 (2008).
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J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’ Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, "Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 6227-6232 (2008).
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A. Säynätjoki, M. Mulot, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, "Dispersion engineering of photonic crystal waveguides with ring-shaped holes," Opt. Express 15, 8323-8328 (2007).
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E. Drouard, H. Hattori, C. Grillet, A. Kazmierczak, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "Directional channel-drop filter based on a slow Bloch mode photonic crystal waveguide section," Opt. Express 13, 3037-3048 (2005).
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M. D. Settle, R. J. P. Engelen, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, L. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, "Flatband slow light in photonic crystals featuring spatial pulse compression and terahertz bandwidth," Opt. Express 15, 219-226 (2007).
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R. J. P. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, J. P. Korterik, N. Ikeda, N. F. van Hulst, K. Asakawa and L. Kuipers, "The effect of higher-order dispersion on slow light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1658-1672 (2006).
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L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, J. Fage-Pedersen, and P. I. Borel, "Photonic crystal waveguides with semi-slow light and tailored dispersion properties," Opt. Express 14, 9444-9450 (2006).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a–b) TE-polarization band structures of a conventional W09 PhC waveguide (a) and a W09 that has its first two rows infiltrated with a liquid having a refractive index of 1.85 (b). On the insets, the respective PhC waveguide geometries (with hole radii r/a =0.3) are shown. (c–d) Associated group index (ng, green) and GVD (β2 blue) of the fundamental W09 mode in (a–b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Even fundamental mode dispersion (bandstructure (a) and group index (b)) of the infiltrated W09 (with r/a =0.3) for various fluid refractive indices between 1.75 and 1.95. Only the first two rows are infiltrated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Maps of the group index–bandwidth product that is achieved for the infiltrated W09 for various liquid refractive indices and hole radii. The bandwidth is calculated by considering the group index constant within ± 5% (a) and ± 1% (b). The superimposed solid lines curves correspond to constant values of the group index.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Group index of the even fundamental mode of the infiltrated W09 PhC with (a) r/a=0.31, and nf=1.8 (b) r/a=0.32, and nf=1.8 (c) r/a=0.33, and nf=1.75 (d) r/a=0.34, and nf=1.7. These operating points are highlighted with white dots on Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic of the waveguide with ac=480nm and a=420nm (b) Transmission spectra obtained through FDTD simulation for a 28 period infiltrated W09 PhC waveguide surrounded by two ridge waveguides (green) and two coupler sections and ridge waveguides (blue). The group index dispersion calculated through PWM (red) and inferred from the FDTD calculations (blue circles) is also plotted.

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