Abstract

The beam attenuation serves as a proxy for particulate matter and is a key parameter in visibility algorithms for the aquatic environment. It is well known, however, that the beam attenuation is a function of the acceptance angle of the transmissometer used to measure it. Here we compare eight different transmissometers with four different acceptance angles using four different deployment strategies and sites, and find that their mean attenuation values differ markedly and in a consistent way with instrument acceptance angle: smaller acceptance angles provide higher beam attenuation values. This difference is due to variations in scattered light collected with different acceptance angles and is neither constant nor easy to parameterize. Variability (in space or time) in the ratios of beam attenuations measured by two different instruments correlates, in most cases, with the particle size parameter (as expected from Mie theory), but this correlation is often weak and can be the opposite of expectations based on particle size changes. We recommended careful consideration of acceptance angle in applications of beam transmission data especially when comparing data from different instruments.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  35. H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, "Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method," Biogeosciences 5, 463-474 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. B. Bishop and T. J. Wood, "Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the twilight zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 sites," Deep-Sea Res. I 55, 1684-1706 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, "Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method," Biogeosciences 5, 463-474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, "Calibrated Near-Forward Volume Scattering Function Obtained from the LISST Particle Sizer," Opt. Express 14, 3602-3615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, "Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass," J. Mar. Res. 64, 431-451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2001

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, "Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport," Marine Geology 168, 89-114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. K. B. Bishop, "Transmissometer measurement of POC," Deep-Sea Res. I 46, 353-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. J. Bogucki, J. A. Domaradzki, D. Stramski, and R. Zaneveld, "Near-forward scattering on turbulence - comparison with scattering on oceanic particulates," Appl. Opt. 37, 4669-4677 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, "Resource competition in a discrete environment: Why are plankton distributions paradoxical?," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1133-1146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, "Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-, and nanoplankton," Deep-Sea Research II,  43, 891-906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

I. D. Walsh, S. P. Chung, M. J. Richardson, and W. D. Gardner, "The Diel Cycle in the Integrated Particle Load in the Equatorial Pacific: A Comparison with Primary Production," Deep-Sea Res. II,  42, 465-478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 193 - 199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Quan and E. S. Fry, "An empirical expression for the index of refraction of seawater," Appl. Opt. 34,3477-3480 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, "Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic," Deep-Sea Res. II,  40, 171-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and R. W. Austin, "Beam-attenuation measurements error due to small-angle scattering acceptance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 113-121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, "Variability of bio-optical properties of the upper ocean associated with diel cycles in phytoplankton population," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17873-17887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. A. Siegel, "Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean," Deep-Sea Res. Part A 36, 211-222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. Pak, D. A. Kiefer, and J. C. Kitchen "Meridional variations in the concentration of chlorophyll and microparticles in the North Pacific Ocean," Deep-Sea Res. 35, 1151-1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, "The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions," J. Geophys Res. 89, 8197-8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. C. Kitchen, "A study of the optical characteristics of the suspended particles in the benthic nepheloid layer of the Scotian shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 7641-7645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, Y. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, "Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport," Marine Geology 168, 89-114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

K. J. Voss and R. W. Austin, "Beam-attenuation measurements error due to small-angle scattering acceptance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 113-121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, E. T.

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, "The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions," J. Geophys Res. 89, 8197-8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, "Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass," J. Mar. Res. 64, 431-451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, "Direct contribution of phytoplankton-sized particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean" submitted toBiogeosciences.

Berthon, J. F.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, J. K. B.

J. K. B. Bishop and T. J. Wood, "Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the twilight zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 sites," Deep-Sea Res. I 55, 1684-1706 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. B. Bishop, "Transmissometer measurement of POC," Deep-Sea Res. I 46, 353-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bogucki, D. J.

Boss, E.

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, "Calibrated Near-Forward Volume Scattering Function Obtained from the LISST Particle Sizer," Opt. Express 14, 3602-3615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, "Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass," J. Mar. Res. 64, 431-451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, "Direct contribution of phytoplankton-sized particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean" submitted toBiogeosciences.

Chang, G. C.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chant, R. J.

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. P.

I. D. Walsh, S. P. Chung, M. J. Richardson, and W. D. Gardner, "The Diel Cycle in the Integrated Particle Load in the Equatorial Pacific: A Comparison with Primary Production," Deep-Sea Res. II,  42, 465-478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, "Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method," Biogeosciences 5, 463-474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dall’Olmo, G.

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, "Direct contribution of phytoplankton-sized particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean" submitted toBiogeosciences.

Dickey, T. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, "Variability of bio-optical properties of the upper ocean associated with diel cycles in phytoplankton population," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17873-17887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Domaradzki, J. A.

Donaghay, P. L.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DuRand, M. D.

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, "Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-, and nanoplankton," Deep-Sea Research II,  43, 891-906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ecke, R. E.

Fry, E. S.

Gardner, W. D.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Walsh, S. P. Chung, M. J. Richardson, and W. D. Gardner, "The Diel Cycle in the Integrated Particle Load in the Equatorial Pacific: A Comparison with Primary Production," Deep-Sea Res. II,  42, 465-478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, "Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic," Deep-Sea Res. II,  40, 171-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, "Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method," Biogeosciences 5, 463-474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hill, P. S.

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huot, Y.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, "Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method," Biogeosciences 5, 463-474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jago1, C. F.

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. E.

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

H. Pak, D. A. Kiefer, and J. C. Kitchen "Meridional variations in the concentration of chlorophyll and microparticles in the North Pacific Ocean," Deep-Sea Res. 35, 1151-1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

H. Pak, D. A. Kiefer, and J. C. Kitchen "Meridional variations in the concentration of chlorophyll and microparticles in the North Pacific Ocean," Deep-Sea Res. 35, 1151-1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. C. Kitchen, "A study of the optical characteristics of the suspended particles in the benthic nepheloid layer of the Scotian shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 7641-7645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Krivtsov, V.

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lavelle, J. W.

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, "The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions," J. Geophys Res. 89, 8197-8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, "Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method," Biogeosciences 5, 463-474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mériaux, X.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, O. A.

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milligan, T. G.

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mitchelson-Jacob, G.

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Obernosterer, I.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, "Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method," Biogeosciences 5, 463-474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olson, R. J.

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, "Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-, and nanoplankton," Deep-Sea Research II,  43, 891-906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pak, H.

H. Pak, D. A. Kiefer, and J. C. Kitchen "Meridional variations in the concentration of chlorophyll and microparticles in the North Pacific Ocean," Deep-Sea Res. 35, 1151-1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

J. R.  Zaneveld and W. S.  Pegau, "Robust underwater visibility parameter," Opt. Express  11, 2997-3009 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 193 - 199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pottsmith, H. C.

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, "Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport," Marine Geology 168, 89-114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quan, X.

Richardson, M. J.

I. D. Walsh, S. P. Chung, M. J. Richardson, and W. D. Gardner, "The Diel Cycle in the Integrated Particle Load in the Equatorial Pacific: A Comparison with Primary Production," Deep-Sea Res. II,  42, 465-478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, "Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic," Deep-Sea Res. II,  40, 171-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, "Resource competition in a discrete environment: Why are plankton distributions paradoxical?," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1133-1146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, "Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean," Deep-Sea Res. Part A 36, 211-222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Slade, W. H.

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, "Calibrated Near-Forward Volume Scattering Function Obtained from the LISST Particle Sizer," Opt. Express 14, 3602-3615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, "Direct contribution of phytoplankton-sized particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean" submitted toBiogeosciences.

Spinrad, R. W.

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. C. Kitchen, "A study of the optical characteristics of the suspended particles in the benthic nepheloid layer of the Scotian shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 7641-7645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stramska, M.

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, "Variability of bio-optical properties of the upper ocean associated with diel cycles in phytoplankton population," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17873-17887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

Sullivan, J. M.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tailliez, D.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, "Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method," Biogeosciences 5, 463-474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Truman, C. R.

Twardowski, M. S.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 193 - 199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and R. W. Austin, "Beam-attenuation measurements error due to small-angle scattering acceptance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 113-121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, I. D.

I. D. Walsh, S. P. Chung, M. J. Richardson, and W. D. Gardner, "The Diel Cycle in the Integrated Particle Load in the Equatorial Pacific: A Comparison with Primary Production," Deep-Sea Res. II,  42, 465-478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, "Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic," Deep-Sea Res. II,  40, 171-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Westberry, T. K.

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, "Direct contribution of phytoplankton-sized particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean" submitted toBiogeosciences.

Wood, T. J.

J. K. B. Bishop and T. J. Wood, "Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the twilight zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 sites," Deep-Sea Res. I 55, 1684-1706 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 193 - 199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. C. Kitchen, "A study of the optical characteristics of the suspended particles in the benthic nepheloid layer of the Scotian shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 7641-7645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, R.

Appl. Opt.

Biogeosciences

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, "Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method," Biogeosciences 5, 463-474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biogeosciences.

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, "Direct contribution of phytoplankton-sized particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean" submitted toBiogeosciences.

Deep-Sea Res.

H. Pak, D. A. Kiefer, and J. C. Kitchen "Meridional variations in the concentration of chlorophyll and microparticles in the North Pacific Ocean," Deep-Sea Res. 35, 1151-1171 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. I

J. K. B. Bishop and T. J. Wood, "Particulate matter chemistry and dynamics in the twilight zone at VERTIGO ALOHA and K2 sites," Deep-Sea Res. I 55, 1684-1706 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. B. Bishop, "Transmissometer measurement of POC," Deep-Sea Res. I 46, 353-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, "Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic," Deep-Sea Res. II,  40, 171-195 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Walsh, S. P. Chung, M. J. Richardson, and W. D. Gardner, "The Diel Cycle in the Integrated Particle Load in the Equatorial Pacific: A Comparison with Primary Production," Deep-Sea Res. II,  42, 465-478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. Part A

D. A. Siegel, "Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean," Deep-Sea Res. Part A 36, 211-222 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Research II

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, "Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-, and nanoplankton," Deep-Sea Research II,  43, 891-906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "Microscale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an ac-9," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 691-707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

K. J. Voss and R. W. Austin, "Beam-attenuation measurements error due to small-angle scattering acceptance," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 113-121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys Res.

E. T. Baker and J. W. Lavelle, "The effect of particle size on the light attenuation coefficient of natural suspensions," J. Geophys Res. 89, 8197-8203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and J. C. Kitchen, "A study of the optical characteristics of the suspended particles in the benthic nepheloid layer of the Scotian shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 7641-7645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and K. J. Voss, "Toward closure of the inherent optical properties of natural waters," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 193 - 199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, W. D. Gardner, J. R. V. Zaneveld, A. H. Barnard, M. S. Twardowski, G. C. Chang, and T. D. Dickey, "Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9509-9516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, "Variability of bio-optical properties of the upper ocean associated with diel cycles in phytoplankton population," J. Geophys. Res. 97, 17873-17887 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res.

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, "Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass," J. Mar. Res. 64, 431-451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation to their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, "Resource competition in a discrete environment: Why are plankton distributions paradoxical?," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1133-1146 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods

O. A. Mikkelsen, T. G. Milligan, P. S. Hill, R. J. Chant, C. F. Jago1, S. E. Jones, V. Krivtsov, and G. Mitchelson-Jacob, "The influence of schlieren on in situ optical measurements used for particle characterization," Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 133-143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marine Geology

Y. C. Agrawal and H. C. Pottsmith, "Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport," Marine Geology 168, 89-114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

M. Jonasz and G. Fournier, Light Scattering by Particles in Water: Theoretical and Experimental Foundations (Academic Press, 2007).

T. J. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters," Tech. Rep. SIO 72-78, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif. (1972).

M. Jonasz and E. Boss, "Volume scattering function at the small angles," Top. Part. Disp. Sci. (2006), www.tpdsci.com/Tpc/VsfSmlAngNatDsp.php.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

R. J. Gibbs, Suspended Solids in Water (Plenum Press, 1974).

N. G. Jerlov, "Marine optics," in Suspended Solids in Water, R. J. Gibbs, ed. (Plenum Press, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

W. H. Slade and E. Boss, "Significant of particle aggregation on optical properties", Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XIX conference (2008).

A. A. Kokhanovsky, Light scattering media optics (Springer, Praxis, 2004).

J. Trowbridge, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Bigelow 105A, MS#12, Woods Hole, Ma. 02543 (personal communication, 2005).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normalized volume scattering function as function of angles from Petzold’s average phase function ([11], blue curve) and measurements from MVCO (for 9/5/2005, see methods) [11]. The area under the curves to the left of the red lines represent the fraction of total scattering that does NOT contribute to attenuation for instruments with acceptance angles at the horizontal position of the red line (0.0269, 0.93 and 1.2°) corresponding to instruments whose measurements we analyze here (Table 1).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ratio of scattering coefficients based on integrating the VSF (β) from π to the acceptance angle to the total scattering coefficient for homogeneous spheres with three different indices of refraction (n=1.05+i0.005 (+), n=1.05+i0.0001 (o), 1.15+i0.0001 (x)) and four different acceptance angles matching those of the instruments we compare in this paper (1.2°-black, 0.93°-red, 0.026°-green, and 0.006°- blue, Table 1) as function of size.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurements taken 10m off the Darling Marine Center pier. Top panels: time series of the beam attenuation (660nm) measured with a 10cm pathlength c-star (top), measured with a 25cm ac-9 at 676nm (2nd from top) and measured with a 670nm LISST-B (3rd from top). Time series of the spectral slope of the beam attenuation coefficient (γ) based on the spectral measurements of the ac-9. Note: The color scale varies between the panels and that the LISST was not deployed at the same time or with the same package as the two other instruments (see text). Bottom panel: histograms of the frequency of occurrence of the ratios among the measured beam attenuations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Top panel: time series of 1-min averages of the beam attenuation measured with a 10cm pathlength ac-9 (blue), LISST-100X-B (green) and LISST-100X-Floc (red). Second panel: time series of the ratios of 1-min averages cp,ac-9/cpg,LISST-B (blue), cp,ac-9/ cpg,LISST-FLOC (green), and cpg,LISST-B/ cpg,LISST-FLOC (red). Third panel: time series of the spectral slope of the particulate beam attenuation (γ). Bottom panel: histograms of the frequency of occurrence of the ratios depicted in the second panel.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Top panel: spatial distribution of 1-min averages of the beam attenuation measured with a 25cm path-length ac-s (red) and a C-Star (blue) measured across equatorial Pacific at 140°W at 650nm (N=2397). Middle panel: spatial distribution of the ratios of 1-min averages cC-Star/ cac S. Bottom panel: spatial distribution of the spectral slope of the particulate beam attenuation, γ, a size-related parameter, where smaller γ implies larger mean particle size [24].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Aggregate size as function of time (blue line) and the corresponding ratio of the beam attenuation measured by the LISST-B at 670nm to that of the ac-9 at 676nm as function of time as measured during a laboratory clay aggregation experiment. Oscillations in the ratio are due to decrease of signal to noise ratio as the water clarifies of settling particles (cpg,LISST-B decreased from 12m-1 to 3m-1 during the experiment).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Top panel: time series of 1-min averages of the beam attenuation measured with a 10cm pathlength ac-9 corrected for acceptance angle difference as in Eq. (5) (blue), LISST-B (green). Bottom panel: histograms of the frequency of occurrence of the ratio of the two time series depicted in the top panel.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Top panel: time series of the ratio of 1-min averages of the beam attenuation measured with a 10cm pathlength ac-9 corrected for acceptance angle difference as in Eq. (5). Middle panel: Median diameter based on the LISST inversion of VSF to particulate size distribution. Bottom panel: slope of the spectral particulate beam attenuation of the ac-9.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Collimated commercial beam transmissometers whose measurements we compare in this study. For the ac meters we only display information for the wavelength used here. For reference the common Sea Tech transmissometer had an acceptance angle of 1.03° [4], a 660nm wavelength and a pathlength of 25cm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c = 1 L ln ( T ) .
b theory = 2 π o π β sin θ d θ .
c measured = a + 2 π θ acceptance π β sin θ d θ .
θ acceptance = sin 1 { 1 n sin [ tan 1 ( r f ) ] } .
c p , ac 9 corrected = c p , ac 9 + 2 π θ LISST B θ ac 9 β sin θ d θ .

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