Abstract

We demonstrate horizontal slot waveguides using high-index layers of polycrystalline and single crystalline silicon separated by a 10 nm layer of silicon dioxide. We measure waveguide propagation loss of 7 dB/cm and a ring resonator intrinsic quality factor of 83,000. The electric field of the optical mode is strongly enhanced in the low-index oxide layer, which can be used to induce a strong modal gain when an active material is embedded in the slot. Both high-index layers are made of electrically conductive silicon which can efficiently transport charge to the slot region. The incorporation of conductive silicon materials with high-Q slot waveguide cavities is a key step for realizing electrical tunneling devices such as electrically pumped silicon-based light sources.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (4)

2007 (3)

2006 (6)

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Monolithic 3-D Silicon Photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Orobtchouk, S. Jeannot, B. Han, T. Benyattou, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Mur, "Ultra compact optical link made in amorphous silicon waveguide," Proc. SPIE 6183, 618304-618310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rojo Romeo, J. Van Campenhout, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Di Cioccio, "Heterogeneous integration of electrically driven microdisk based laser sources for optical interconnects and photonic ICs," Opt. Express 14, 3864-3871 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Sangwoo, S. Taichi, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, "Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, "Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997-1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198-1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, and A. Polman, "Optimization of an Er-doped silica glass optical waveguide amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1680-1684 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234-250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, M. Shimizu, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kobayashi, "Guided-wave laser based on erbium-doped silica planar lightwave circuit," Electron. Lett. 27, 334-335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. B. Lasky, "Wafer bonding for silicon-on-insulator technologies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 78-80 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Andreani, L. C.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Barrios, C. A.

Basu, S. N.

L. D. Negro, R. Li, J. Warga, and S. N. Basu, "Sensitized erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 181105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Belotti, M.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benyattou, T.

R. Orobtchouk, S. Jeannot, B. Han, T. Benyattou, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Mur, "Ultra compact optical link made in amorphous silicon waveguide," Proc. SPIE 6183, 618304-618310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

Bowers, J. E.

Canino, A.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, "Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997-1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

de Rosa, R.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, "Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997-1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Della Corte, F. G.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, "Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997-1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dell'Olio, F.

Denton, J. P.

P. Sangwoo, S. Taichi, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, "Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Dong, P.

Duan, X.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, N. N.

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198-1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, B.

R. Orobtchouk, S. Jeannot, B. Han, T. Benyattou, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Mur, "Ultra compact optical link made in amorphous silicon waveguide," Proc. SPIE 6183, 618304-618310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, K.

T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, M. Shimizu, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kobayashi, "Guided-wave laser based on erbium-doped silica planar lightwave circuit," Electron. Lett. 27, 334-335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198-1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hollinger, G.

Hong, C. Y.

Indukuri, T.

Irrera, A.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jeannot, S.

R. Orobtchouk, S. Jeannot, B. Han, T. Benyattou, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Mur, "Ultra compact optical link made in amorphous silicon waveguide," Proc. SPIE 6183, 618304-618310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T.

Jones, R.

Kalkman, J.

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kanzawa, Y.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198-1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kazmierczak, A.

Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, T.

T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, M. Shimizu, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kobayashi, "Guided-wave laser based on erbium-doped silica planar lightwave circuit," Electron. Lett. 27, 334-335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, M. Shimizu, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kobayashi, "Guided-wave laser based on erbium-doped silica planar lightwave circuit," Electron. Lett. 27, 334-335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koonath, P.

Kwong, D. L.

Lasky, J. B.

J. B. Lasky, "Wafer bonding for silicon-on-insulator technologies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 78-80 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

Li, R.

L. D. Negro, R. Li, J. Warga, and S. N. Basu, "Sensitized erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 181105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liscidini, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Michel, J.

Min, B.

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234-250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miritello, M.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mur, P.

R. Orobtchouk, S. Jeannot, B. Han, T. Benyattou, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Mur, "Ultra compact optical link made in amorphous silicon waveguide," Proc. SPIE 6183, 618304-618310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

L. D. Negro, R. Li, J. Warga, and S. N. Basu, "Sensitized erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 181105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neudeck, G. W.

P. Sangwoo, S. Taichi, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, "Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nitkowski, A.

Ohmori, Y.

T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, M. Shimizu, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kobayashi, "Guided-wave laser based on erbium-doped silica planar lightwave circuit," Electron. Lett. 27, 334-335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Orobtchouk, R.

R. Orobtchouk, S. Jeannot, B. Han, T. Benyattou, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Mur, "Ultra compact optical link made in amorphous silicon waveguide," Proc. SPIE 6183, 618304-618310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Passaro, V. M.

Patrini, M.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Politi, A.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, and A. Polman, "Optimization of an Er-doped silica glass optical waveguide amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1680-1684 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Priolo, F.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, "Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997-1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Rojo Romeo, P.

Rubino, A.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, "Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997-1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sangwoo, P.

P. Sangwoo, S. Taichi, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, "Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Savio, R. L.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Seassal, C.

Shimizu, M.

T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, M. Shimizu, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kobayashi, "Guided-wave laser based on erbium-doped silica planar lightwave circuit," Electron. Lett. 27, 334-335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Snoeks, E.

E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, and A. Polman, "Optimization of an Er-doped silica glass optical waveguide amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1680-1684 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. F.

Sparacin, D. K.

Spector, S. J.

Sun, R.

Taichi, S.

P. Sangwoo, S. Taichi, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, "Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

Terzini, E.

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, "Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997-1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

van den Hoven, G. N.

E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, and A. Polman, "Optimization of an Er-doped silica glass optical waveguide amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1680-1684 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Warga, J.

L. D. Negro, R. Li, J. Warga, and S. N. Basu, "Sensitized erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 181105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamamoto, K.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198-1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198-1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198-1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Negro, R. Li, J. Warga, and S. N. Basu, "Sensitized erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 181105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037-1039 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Lasky, "Wafer bonding for silicon-on-insulator technologies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 78-80 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, M. Shimizu, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kobayashi, "Guided-wave laser based on erbium-doped silica planar lightwave circuit," Electron. Lett. 27, 334-335 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

P. Sangwoo, S. Taichi, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, "Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, and A. Polman, "Optimization of an Er-doped silica glass optical waveguide amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1680-1684 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, "Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997-1002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (10)

C. A. Barrios and M. Lipson, "Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 10092-10101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sun, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, C. Y. Hong, J. Michel, M. Lipson, and L. Kimerling, "Horizontal single and multiple slot waveguides: optical transmission at λ = 1550 nm," Opt. Express 15, 17967-17972 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rojo Romeo, J. Van Campenhout, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Di Cioccio, "Heterogeneous integration of electrically driven microdisk based laser sources for optical interconnects and photonic ICs," Opt. Express 14, 3864-3871 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 16659-16669 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nitkowski, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "Cavity-enhanced on-chip absorption spectroscopy using microring resonators," Opt. Express 16, 11930-11936 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dell'Olio and V. M. Passaro, "Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 4977-4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Borselli, T. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment," Opt. Express 13, 1515-1530 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Preston, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, "Polysilicon photonic resonators for large-scale 3D integration of optical networks," Opt. Express 15, 17283-17290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, "Low loss (~6.45dB/cm) sub-micron polycrystalline silicon waveguide integrated with efficient SiON waveguide coupler," Opt. Express 16, 6425-6432 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Orobtchouk, S. Jeannot, B. Han, T. Benyattou, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Mur, "Ultra compact optical link made in amorphous silicon waveguide," Proc. SPIE 6183, 618304-618310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. J. Conway, A. T. Pomerene, D. N. Carothers, M. J. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, and A. E. White, "Low-Loss Amorphous Silicon Channel Waveguides for Integrated Photonics," in Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp.255-257.

R. A. Street, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (Cambridge University Press, 1991).

T. Kamins, Polycrystalline Silicon for Integrated Circuits and Displays, 2nd ed. (Kluwer, 1998).

L. Pavesi, "Silicon-Based Light Sources for Silicon Integrated Circuits," Advances in Optical Technologies (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, "Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of Slot Waveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications," in Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp.222-224.

R. M. Pafchek, J. Li, R. S. Tummidi, and T. L. Koch, "Low loss Si-SiO2-Si 8nm slot waveguides," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThT3.

Y. Lebour, R. Guider, E. Jordana, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernandez, B. Garrido, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, "High quality coupled ring resonators based on silicon clusters slot waveguide," in Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp.215-217.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

E2 of the fundamental y-polarized quasi-TM slot mode at λ = 1550 nm as calculated by a finite difference mode solver. The high-index regions (bounded by black) have nSi = 3.48 and the slot and cladding have noxide = 1.46. The bottom and top silicon layers are 140 nm tall and 120 nm tall respectively, and the slot is 10 nm tall. The effective index is neff = 1.87 and the slot confinement factor is Γ = 0.28.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

AFM measurement of the polysilicon top surface over a 10 μm square field. The rms roughness is 0.5 nm and the total range is ±3.7 nm from the mean value.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Dark field STEM (scanning tunneling electron microscope) image of the fabricated material stack. (b) Bright field TEM image of the slot region showing the polycrystalline, amorphous, and single crystalline layers (top to bottom).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement of propagation loss in slot waveguides using the cutback method. (inset) Single measurement at λ = 1550 nm with a loss of 7.3 ± 0.4 dB/cm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Tilted angle SEM (before oxide cladding) and optical microscope image of 100 μm radius ring resonator and bus waveguide. (b) Experimental measurement (dots) of the group index based on the measured free spectral range as a function of wavelength. The comparison with simulation indicates we are operating in the TM-polarized slot mode shown in Fig. 1. (c) Resonance at λ0 = 1552.12 nm with intrinsic quality factor Q0 = 82,000. (inset) Wider sweep showing FSR used to calculate group index in (b).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T = ( a r ) 2 + 4 π 2 ra L 2 n g 2 λ 0 4 ( λ λ 0 ) 2 ( 1 ra ) 2 + 4 π 2 ra L 2 n g 2 λ 0 4 ( λ λ 0 ) 2 .
Γ = n slot slot E 2 dxdy Z 0 Re { E × H } · z ̂ dxdy .

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