Abstract

We report an in-reflection photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometer which exhibits high sensitivity to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs), without the need of any permeable material. The interferometer is compact, robust, and consists of a stub of PCF spliced to standard optical fiber. In the splice the voids of the PCF are fully collapsed, thus allowing the excitation and recombination of two core modes. The device reflection spectrum exhibits sinusoidal interference pattern which shifts differently when the voids of the PCF are infiltrated with VOC molecules. The volume of voids responsible for the shift is less than 600 picoliters whereas the detectable levels are in the nanomole range.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12,4080-4087 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Henningsen, J. Hald, and J. C. Peterson, "Saturated absorption in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 10475-10482 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Thapa, K. Knabe, M. Faheem, A. Naweed, O.L. Weaver, K. L. Corwin, "Saturated absorption spectroscopy of acetylene gas inside large-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2489-2491 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L.W. Kornaszewski, N. Gayraud, J.M. Stone, W.N. MacPherson, A.K. George, J.C. Knight, D.P. Hand, D.T. Reid, "Mid-infrared methane detection in a photonic bandgap fiber using a broadband optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express 15, 11219-11224 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. M. Cubillas, M. Silva-Lopez, J. M. Lazaro, O. M. Conde, M. N. Petrovich, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, "Methane detection at 1670-nm band using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber and a multiline algorithm," Opt. Express 15, 17570-17576 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. O. Konorov, A. Zheltikov, and M. Scalora, "Photonic-crystal fiber as a multifunctional optical sensor and sample collector," Opt. Express 13,3454-3459 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, "Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications," Opt. Express 14,13056-13066 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,"Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Sun, X. Yu, N. T. Nguyen, P. Shum, and Y. C. Kwok, "Long path-length axial absorption detection in photonic crystal fiber," Anal. Chem. 80, 4220-4224 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, N. J. Farrer, M. Scharrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers" J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. M. B. Cordeiro, E. M. dos Santos, C. H. Brito Cruz, C. J. de Matos, and D. S. Ferreiira, "Lateral access to the holes of photonic crystal fibers - selective filling and sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 8403-8412 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. M. Cox, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, "Opening up optical fibres," Opt. Express 15, 11843-11848 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. P. Minkovich, A.V. Kiryanov, A.B. Sotsky, and L.I. Sotskaya, "Large-mode-area holey fibers with a few air channels in cladding: modeling and experimental investigation of the modal properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1161-1169 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Express 15, 1491-1496 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Káčik, I. Turek, I. Martinček, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, "Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 12, 3465-3470 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Sun and X. Fan, "Analysis of ring resonators for chemical vapor sensor development," Opt. Express 16, 10254-10268 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, "Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: A review," Sensors 6, 1440-1465 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. L. Lowder, J. D. Gordon, S. M. Schultz, and R. H. Selfridge, "Volatile organic compound sensing using a surface-relief D-shaped fiber Bragg grating and a polydimethylsiloxane layer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2523-2525 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, G. Frye-Mason, and X. Fan, "Rapid chemical-vapor sensing using optofluidic ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 33, 788-790 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Zhang, X. Tang, J. Dong, T. Wei, and H. Xiao, "Zeolite thin film-coated long period fiber grating sensor for measuring trace chemical," Opt. Express 16, 8317-8323 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, and G. Badenes, "Photonic crystal fiber microtaper supporting two selective higher-order modes with high sensitivity to gas molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (6)

Y. Sun, X. Yu, N. T. Nguyen, P. Shum, and Y. C. Kwok, "Long path-length axial absorption detection in photonic crystal fiber," Anal. Chem. 80, 4220-4224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, N. J. Farrer, M. Scharrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers" J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, and G. Badenes, "Photonic crystal fiber microtaper supporting two selective higher-order modes with high sensitivity to gas molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, G. Frye-Mason, and X. Fan, "Rapid chemical-vapor sensing using optofluidic ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 33, 788-790 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, X. Tang, J. Dong, T. Wei, and H. Xiao, "Zeolite thin film-coated long period fiber grating sensor for measuring trace chemical," Opt. Express 16, 8317-8323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and X. Fan, "Analysis of ring resonators for chemical vapor sensor development," Opt. Express 16, 10254-10268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

Arregui, F. J.

C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, "Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: A review," Sensors 6, 1440-1465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, and G. Badenes, "Photonic crystal fiber microtaper supporting two selective higher-order modes with high sensitivity to gas molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Express 15, 1491-1496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bariain, C.

C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, "Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: A review," Sensors 6, 1440-1465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barretto, E. C. S.

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brito Cruz, C. H.

Canning, J.

Chen, J. S. Y.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, N. J. Farrer, M. Scharrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers" J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chesini, G.

Conde, O. M.

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cox, F. M.

Cubillas, A. M.

de Matos, C. J.

Dong, J.

dos Santos, E. M.

Elosua, C.

C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, "Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: A review," Sensors 6, 1440-1465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Euser, T. G.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, N. J. Farrer, M. Scharrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers" J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faheem, M.

Fan, X.

Farrer, N. J.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, N. J. Farrer, M. Scharrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers" J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferreiira, D. S.

Finazzi, V.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A. R.

Frye-Mason, G.

Gayraud, N.

George, A.K.

Gordon, J. D.

Hald, J.

Hand, D.P.

Hansen, T. P.

Henningsen, J.

Issa, N.

Kácik, D.

Kiryanov, A.V.

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.C.

Konorov, S. O.

Kornaszewski, L.W.

Kreuzer, M. P.

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, and G. Badenes, "Photonic crystal fiber microtaper supporting two selective higher-order modes with high sensitivity to gas molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, Y. C.

Y. Sun, X. Yu, N. T. Nguyen, P. Shum, and Y. C. Kwok, "Long path-length axial absorption detection in photonic crystal fiber," Anal. Chem. 80, 4220-4224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C. J.

Lazaro, J. M.

Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

Lowder, T. L.

Ludvigsen, H.

Lwin, R.

Lyytikäinen, K.

MacPherson, W.N.

Martincek, I.

Matias, I. R.

C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, "Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: A review," Sensors 6, 1440-1465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minkovich, V. P.

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, and G. Badenes, "Photonic crystal fiber microtaper supporting two selective higher-order modes with high sensitivity to gas molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Express 15, 1491-1496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Minkovich, A.V. Kiryanov, A.B. Sotsky, and L.I. Sotskaya, "Large-mode-area holey fibers with a few air channels in cladding: modeling and experimental investigation of the modal properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1161-1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, and G. Badenes, "Photonic crystal fiber microtaper supporting two selective higher-order modes with high sensitivity to gas molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naweed, A.

Nguyen, N. T.

Y. Sun, X. Yu, N. T. Nguyen, P. Shum, and Y. C. Kwok, "Long path-length axial absorption detection in photonic crystal fiber," Anal. Chem. 80, 4220-4224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. C.

Peterson, J. C.

Petrovich, M. N.

Poletti, F.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,"Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Express 15, 1491-1496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D.T.

Richardson, D. J.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,"Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

Russell, P. St. J.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, N. J. Farrer, M. Scharrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers" J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sadler, P. J.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, N. J. Farrer, M. Scharrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers" J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,"Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

Scharrer, M.

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, N. J. Farrer, M. Scharrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers" J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S. M.

Selfridge, R. H.

Shopova, S. I.

Shum, P.

Y. Sun, X. Yu, N. T. Nguyen, P. Shum, and Y. C. Kwok, "Long path-length axial absorption detection in photonic crystal fiber," Anal. Chem. 80, 4220-4224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silva-Lopez, M.

Simonsen, H. R.

Sørensen, T.

Sotskaya, L.I.

Sotsky, A.B.

Stone, J.M.

Sun, Y.

Tang, X.

Thapa, R.

Tuominen, J.

Turek, I.

Villatoro, J.

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, and G. Badenes, "Photonic crystal fiber microtaper supporting two selective higher-order modes with high sensitivity to gas molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Express 15, 1491-1496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, O.L.

Webb, A. S.

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,"Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Xiao, H.

Yu, X.

Y. Sun, X. Yu, N. T. Nguyen, P. Shum, and Y. C. Kwok, "Long path-length axial absorption detection in photonic crystal fiber," Anal. Chem. 80, 4220-4224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zheltikov, A.

Anal. Chem. (1)

Y. Sun, X. Yu, N. T. Nguyen, P. Shum, and Y. C. Kwok, "Long path-length axial absorption detection in photonic crystal fiber," Anal. Chem. 80, 4220-4224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Monzón-Hernández, V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, M. P. Kreuzer, and G. Badenes, "Photonic crystal fiber microtaper supporting two selective higher-order modes with high sensitivity to gas molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. G. Euser, J. S. Y. Chen, N. J. Farrer, M. Scharrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Quantitative broadband chemical sensing in air-suspended solid-core fibers" J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. S. Webb, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, "Suspended-core holey fiber for evanescent-field sensing,"Opt. Eng. 46, 010503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

D. Káčik, I. Turek, I. Martinček, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, "Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 12, 3465-3470 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. P. Hansen, and H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12,4080-4087 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Konorov, A. Zheltikov, and M. Scalora, "Photonic-crystal fiber as a multifunctional optical sensor and sample collector," Opt. Express 13,3454-3459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Henningsen, J. Hald, and J. C. Peterson, "Saturated absorption in acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 10475-10482 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, E. M. dos Santos, C. H. Brito Cruz, C. J. de Matos, and D. S. Ferreiira, "Lateral access to the holes of photonic crystal fibers - selective filling and sensing applications," Opt. Express 14, 8403-8412 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, M. A. R. Franco, G. Chesini, E. C. S. Barretto, R. Lwin, C. H. Brito Cruz, and M. C. J. Large, "Microstructured-core optical fibre for evanescent sensing applications," Opt. Express 14,13056-13066 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, and G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Express 15, 1491-1496 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L.W. Kornaszewski, N. Gayraud, J.M. Stone, W.N. MacPherson, A.K. George, J.C. Knight, D.P. Hand, D.T. Reid, "Mid-infrared methane detection in a photonic bandgap fiber using a broadband optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express 15, 11219-11224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Cox, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, "Opening up optical fibres," Opt. Express 15, 11843-11848 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Cubillas, M. Silva-Lopez, J. M. Lazaro, O. M. Conde, M. N. Petrovich, and J. M. Lopez-Higuera, "Methane detection at 1670-nm band using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber and a multiline algorithm," Opt. Express 15, 17570-17576 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, X. Tang, J. Dong, T. Wei, and H. Xiao, "Zeolite thin film-coated long period fiber grating sensor for measuring trace chemical," Opt. Express 16, 8317-8323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and X. Fan, "Analysis of ring resonators for chemical vapor sensor development," Opt. Express 16, 10254-10268 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sensors (1)

C. Elosua, I. R. Matias, C. Bariain, and F. J. Arregui, "Volatile organic compound optical fiber sensors: A review," Sensors 6, 1440-1465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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