Abstract

We present a high speed phase shifting interferometer which utilizes the self injection locking of a frequency tunable laser diode. By using a confocal Fabry-Perot cavity made of ultra low expansion glass, and linearly modulating the laser diode current, the laser frequency could be injection locked to the resonant modes of the Fabry-Perot cavity consecutively. It provided equal phase steps to the interferograms which are ideal to be analyzed by the Carré algorithm. The phase step error was evaluated to be about 3 MHz which corresponds to 0.2 nm in length measurement. With this technique, profile measurements are insensitive to external vibration since four 640×480 pixels images can be acquired within 4 ms. Difference of two profile measurements, each made with and without vibration isolation, respectively, was evaluated to be 0.5 nm (rms).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, "Development of a three-dimensional noncontact digital optical profiler," J. Tribol. 108, 1-8 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. K. Hamilton and T. Wilson, "Three-dimensional surface measurement using the confocal scanning microscope," Appl. Phys. B 27, 211-213 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, J. C. Wyant, "Improved vertical-scanning interferometry," Appl. Opt. 39, 2107-2115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, J. C. Wyant, "Dynamic interferometry," Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F1-58750F10 (2005).
  5. H. Kihm and S.-W. Kim, "Fiber-diffraction interferometer for vibration desensitization," Opt. Lett. 16, 2059-2061 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Ishii, J. Chen, and K. Murata, "Digital phase-measuring interferometry with a tunable laser diode," Opt. Lett. 12,233-235 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Dahmani, L. Hollberg, and R. Drullinger, "Frequency stabilization of semiconductor lasers by resonant optical feedback," Opt. Lett. 12, 876-878 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Bitou, H. Inaba, F.-L. Hong, T. Takatsuji, and A. Onae, "Phase-shifting interferometry with equal phase steps by use of a frequency-tunable diode laser and a Fabry-Perot cavity," Appl. Opt. 44, 5403-5407 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Q. Kemao, S. Fangjun, and W. Xiaoping, "Determination of the best phase step of the Carré algorithm in phase shifting interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1220-1223 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2000 (2)

Q. Kemao, S. Fangjun, and W. Xiaoping, "Determination of the best phase step of the Carré algorithm in phase shifting interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1220-1223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, J. C. Wyant, "Improved vertical-scanning interferometry," Appl. Opt. 39, 2107-2115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, "Development of a three-dimensional noncontact digital optical profiler," J. Tribol. 108, 1-8 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. K. Hamilton and T. Wilson, "Three-dimensional surface measurement using the confocal scanning microscope," Appl. Phys. B 27, 211-213 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Basila, D.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, "Development of a three-dimensional noncontact digital optical profiler," J. Tribol. 108, 1-8 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, B.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, "Development of a three-dimensional noncontact digital optical profiler," J. Tribol. 108, 1-8 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bitou, Y.

Chen, J.

Dahmani, B.

Drullinger, R.

Fangjun, S.

Q. Kemao, S. Fangjun, and W. Xiaoping, "Determination of the best phase step of the Carré algorithm in phase shifting interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1220-1223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. K.

D. K. Hamilton and T. Wilson, "Three-dimensional surface measurement using the confocal scanning microscope," Appl. Phys. B 27, 211-213 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Harasaki, A.

Hollberg, L.

Hong, F.-L.

Inaba, H.

Ishii, Y.

Kemao, Q.

Q. Kemao, S. Fangjun, and W. Xiaoping, "Determination of the best phase step of the Carré algorithm in phase shifting interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1220-1223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, H.

H. Kihm and S.-W. Kim, "Fiber-diffraction interferometer for vibration desensitization," Opt. Lett. 16, 2059-2061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-W.

H. Kihm and S.-W. Kim, "Fiber-diffraction interferometer for vibration desensitization," Opt. Lett. 16, 2059-2061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koliopoulos, C. L.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, "Development of a three-dimensional noncontact digital optical profiler," J. Tribol. 108, 1-8 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Murata, K.

Onae, A.

Schmit, J.

Takatsuji, T.

Wilson, T.

D. K. Hamilton and T. Wilson, "Three-dimensional surface measurement using the confocal scanning microscope," Appl. Phys. B 27, 211-213 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, J. C. Wyant, "Improved vertical-scanning interferometry," Appl. Opt. 39, 2107-2115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, "Development of a three-dimensional noncontact digital optical profiler," J. Tribol. 108, 1-8 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Xiaoping, W.

Q. Kemao, S. Fangjun, and W. Xiaoping, "Determination of the best phase step of the Carré algorithm in phase shifting interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1220-1223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. K. Hamilton and T. Wilson, "Three-dimensional surface measurement using the confocal scanning microscope," Appl. Phys. B 27, 211-213 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Tribol. (1)

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, "Development of a three-dimensional noncontact digital optical profiler," J. Tribol. 108, 1-8 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Q. Kemao, S. Fangjun, and W. Xiaoping, "Determination of the best phase step of the Carré algorithm in phase shifting interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 1220-1223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

N. Brock, J. Hayes, B. Kimbrough, J. Millerd, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, J. C. Wyant, "Dynamic interferometry," Proc. SPIE 5875, 58750F1-58750F10 (2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the high speed phase-shifting interferometry. LD: laser diode; L1,L2, L3, L4: lens; PH: pinhole; BS1, BS2, BS3: beam splitter; OI: optical isolator; CFPC: confocal Fabry-Perot cavity; PD1, PD2, PD3: photo detector; FCL1, FCL2: fiber collimating lens; FBS: fiber-optic beam splitter; FPE: Fabry-Perot etalon; CL: collimating lens; M: mirror; RM: reference mirror; A: aperture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

LD current, laser frequency, transmitted intensity after FPC, and the trigger signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Difference between two surface profiles measured with and without vibration isolation.

Equations (2)

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c 4 nl = 2.5 GHz
Δ L = c 4 πn Δ f × 110 ° 18 mm ,

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