Abstract

We propose a simple design of a saturable absorber Q-switched all-fiber ring laser. By locating a saturable absorber fiber in the intensity-enhanced section of a ring resonator, the laser is passively Q-switched. A set of location-dependent rate equations is established for Q-switching modeling. The design has been numerically and experimentally demonstrated using Er3+ -doped fiber at the emission wavelength of 1550 nm. A single-mode Q-switched pulse with pulse energy of 0.37 μJ and pulse duration of 218 ns was achieved with 980-nm pump power near 7 mW.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, “Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1318–1319 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. A. Álvarez-Chávez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A: Clarckson, and D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 37–39 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Paschotta, R. Haring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Passively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 μm,” Opt. Lett. 24, 388 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Laroche, A. M. Chardon, J. Nilsson, D. P. Shepherd, and W. A. Clarkson, “Compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched tunable double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1980–1982 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Y. Huang, H. C. Liang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, “High power passively Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser with Cr4+:YAG as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 15, 473–479 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, “High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1317–1318 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz, and M.V. Andrés, “High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 244, 315–319 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Delgado-Pinar, D. Zalvidea, A. Díez, P. Pérez-Millán, and M. V. Andrés, “Q-switching of an all-fiber laser by acousto-optic modulation of a fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 14, 1106 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, and S. Jiang, “Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550 nm,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (2004).
  11. N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210, 361–366 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. Pérez-Millán, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, D. Zalvidea, and R. Duchowicz, “Q-switched all-fiber laser based on magnetostriction modulation of a Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 13, 5046–5051 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. Dussardier, A. Saissy, and L. Tordella, “A passively Q-switched Er3+-doped fiber laser using a Co2+-doped fiber as saturable absorber,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 562.
  14. L. Luo and P.L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir’yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, and M.V. Andres, “Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser,” Quantum. Electron. 34, 310–314 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. A. Fotiadi, A. S. Kurkov, and I. M. Razdobreev, “All-fiber passively Q-switched Ytterbium laser,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 515.
  17. A. Siegman, “Passive Saturable Absorber Q-switching,” in Chap. 26.3, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), pp. 1024–1033.

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

P. Pérez-Millán, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, D. Zalvidea, and R. Duchowicz, “Q-switched all-fiber laser based on magnetostriction modulation of a Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 13, 5046–5051 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz, and M.V. Andrés, “High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 244, 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir’yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, and M.V. Andres, “Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser,” Quantum. Electron. 34, 310–314 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

M. Laroche, A. M. Chardon, J. Nilsson, D. P. Shepherd, and W. A. Clarkson, “Compact diode-pumped passively Q-switched tunable double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1980–1982 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210, 361–366 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. A. Álvarez-Chávez, H. L. Offerhaus, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, W. A: Clarckson, and D. J. Richardson, “High-energy, high-power ytterbium-doped Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 37–39 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

R. Paschotta, R. Haring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller, “Passively Q-switched 0.1-mJ fiber laser system at 1.53 μm,” Opt. Lett. 24, 388 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Luo and P.L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, “Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1318–1319 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, “High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1317–1318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Álvarez-Chávez, J. A.

Andres, M.V.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir’yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, and M.V. Andres, “Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser,” Quantum. Electron. 34, 310–314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Andrés, M. V.

Andrés, M.V.

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz, and M.V. Andrés, “High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 244, 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barmenkov, Y.O.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir’yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, and M.V. Andres, “Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser,” Quantum. Electron. 34, 310–314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chardon, A. M.

Chen, Y. F.

Chu, P.L.

L. Luo and P.L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
[Crossref]

Clarckson, W. A:

Clarkson, W. A.

Cruz, J. L.

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210, 361–366 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cruz, J.L.

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz, and M.V. Andrés, “High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 244, 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

Delgado-Pinar, M.

M. Delgado-Pinar, D. Zalvidea, A. Díez, P. Pérez-Millán, and M. V. Andrés, “Q-switching of an all-fiber laser by acousto-optic modulation of a fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 14, 1106 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz, and M.V. Andrés, “High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 244, 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

Díez, A.

Duchowicz, R.

P. Pérez-Millán, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, D. Zalvidea, and R. Duchowicz, “Q-switched all-fiber laser based on magnetostriction modulation of a Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 13, 5046–5051 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz, and M.V. Andrés, “High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 244, 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210, 361–366 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dussardier, B.

B. Dussardier, A. Saissy, and L. Tordella, “A passively Q-switched Er3+-doped fiber laser using a Co2+-doped fiber as saturable absorber,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 562.

Fotiadi, A. A.

A. A. Fotiadi, A. S. Kurkov, and I. M. Razdobreev, “All-fiber passively Q-switched Ytterbium laser,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 515.

Gamez, M.A.M.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir’yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, and M.V. Andres, “Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser,” Quantum. Electron. 34, 310–314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.

Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, and S. Jiang, “Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550 nm,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (2004).

Gini, E.

Haring, R.

Hu, Y.

Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, and S. Jiang, “Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550 nm,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (2004).

Huang, D. W.

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. Y.

Jiang, S.

Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, and S. Jiang, “Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550 nm,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (2004).

Kaneda, Y.

Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, and S. Jiang, “Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550 nm,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (2004).

Kee, H. H.

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, “Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1318–1319 (1998).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

Kir’yanov, A.V.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir’yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, and M.V. Andres, “Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser,” Quantum. Electron. 34, 310–314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kurkov, A. S.

A. A. Fotiadi, A. S. Kurkov, and I. M. Razdobreev, “All-fiber passively Q-switched Ytterbium laser,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 515.

Laroche, M.

Lees, G. P.

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, “Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1318–1319 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liang, H. C.

Liu, W. F.

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[Crossref]

Luo, L.

L. Luo and P.L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
[Crossref]

Melchior, H.

Midavaine, T.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, “High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1317–1318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mora, J.

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210, 361–366 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mouneu, L.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, “High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1317–1318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Newson, T. P.

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, “Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1318–1319 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

Offerhaus, H. L.

Pagnoux, D.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, “High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1317–1318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

Pérez-Millán, P.

Razdobreev, I. M.

A. A. Fotiadi, A. S. Kurkov, and I. M. Razdobreev, “All-fiber passively Q-switched Ytterbium laser,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 515.

Richardson, D. J.

Roy, P.

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, “High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1317–1318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Russo, N. A.

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210, 361–366 (2002).
[Crossref]

Russo, N.A.

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz, and M.V. Andrés, “High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 244, 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

Saissy, A.

B. Dussardier, A. Saissy, and L. Tordella, “A passively Q-switched Er3+-doped fiber laser using a Co2+-doped fiber as saturable absorber,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 562.

Shepherd, D. P.

Siegman, A.

A. Siegman, “Passive Saturable Absorber Q-switching,” in Chap. 26.3, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), pp. 1024–1033.

Spiegelberg, C.

Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, and S. Jiang, “Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550 nm,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (2004).

Su, K. W.

Tordella, L.

B. Dussardier, A. Saissy, and L. Tordella, “A passively Q-switched Er3+-doped fiber laser using a Co2+-doped fiber as saturable absorber,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 562.

Turner, P. W.

Vicente, S.G.C.

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir’yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, and M.V. Andres, “Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser,” Quantum. Electron. 34, 310–314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zalvidea, D.

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. H. Kee, G. P. Lees, and T. P. Newson, “Narrow linewidth CW and Q-switched erbium-doped fibre loop laser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1318–1319 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, L. Mouneu, and T. Midavaine, “High efficiency 1.53-μm all-fibre pulsed source based on a Q-switched erbium doped fibre ring laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1317–1318 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. W. Huang, W. F. Liu, and C. C. Yang, “Q-switched all-fiber laser with an acoustically modulated fiber attenuator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1153–1155 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

D. Zalvidea, N.A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, J.L. Cruz, and M.V. Andrés, “High repetition rate acoustic-induced Q-switched all-fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 244, 315–319 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Luo and P.L. Chu, “Passive Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser with saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 161, 257–263 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. A. Russo, R. Duchowicz, J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “High-efficiency Q-switched erbium fiber laser using a Bragg grating-based modulator,” Opt. Commun. 210, 361–366 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Quantum. Electron. (1)

S.G.C. Vicente, M.A.M. Gamez, A.V. Kir’yanov, Y.O. Barmenkov, and M.V. Andres, “Diode-pumped self-Q-switched erbium-doped all-fibre laser,” Quantum. Electron. 34, 310–314 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

A. A. Fotiadi, A. S. Kurkov, and I. M. Razdobreev, “All-fiber passively Q-switched Ytterbium laser,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 515.

A. Siegman, “Passive Saturable Absorber Q-switching,” in Chap. 26.3, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), pp. 1024–1033.

B. Dussardier, A. Saissy, and L. Tordella, “A passively Q-switched Er3+-doped fiber laser using a Co2+-doped fiber as saturable absorber,” 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, p. 562.

Y. Kaneda, Y. Hu, C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, and S. Jiang, “Single-frequency, all-fiber Q-switched laser at 1550 nm,” presented at OSA Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid-State Photonics, (2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic design of a passively Q-switched all-fiber ring laser

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulse simulation of a passively Q-switched all-fiber ring laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Saturations of Ng (z) and Na (z) by the pulse, observed at the beginning, the top and the end of the pulse. The time points are marked with a, b, c in Fig.2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A steady output of sequentially SAQSed pulses. The square waveform was the driving current applied on the 980-nm pump laser diode. The measured pulse energy was 0.37 μJ, and the pulse duration was 218 ns.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Definitions of the variables and parameters in simulation

Equations (7)

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N a ( z a , k ) N a ( z a , k 1 ) = p a K a N a ( z a , k 1 ) n a ( z a , k 1 ) · t r ,
N g ( z g , k ) N g ( z g , k 1 ) = p g K g N g ( z g , k 1 ) n g ( z g , k 1 ) · t r ,
n g z g k = n ar z a 1 k 1 e α 2 exp ( σ g A g z g 1 z g N g z k dz ) in the gain region ,
n ai z a k = n g ( z g 2 , k ) e α 1 exp ( σ a A a z a 1 z a N g z k dz ) from z a 1 to z a 2 ,
n ar z a k = n ai ( z a 2 , k ) e α f exp ( σ a A a z a 1 z a N a z k dz ) from z a 2 to z a 1 ,
n a z a k = n ai ( z a , k ) + n ar ( z a , k ) in the absorber region ,
σ g A g z g 1 z g 2 N gth ( z , 0 ) dz = ( α 1 α f α 2 2 N T σ a l a ) ,

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