Abstract

A diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system was modified as a step towards miniaturization and spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering. The modified system uses a tunable source and an optical fiber for illumination and a photodiode in contact with tissue for detection. Compared to the previous system, it is smaller, less costly, and has comparable performance in extracting optical properties in tissue phantoms. Wavelength reduction simulations show the feasibility of replacing the source with LEDs to further decrease system size and cost. Simulated crosstalk analysis indicates that this evolving system can be multiplexed for spectral imaging in the future.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Cerussi, D. Hsiang, N. Shah, R. Mehta, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Predicting response to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy using diffuse optical spectroscopy," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 4014-4019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, A. E. Cerussi, D. Saltzman, T. Waddington, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, "Hemoglobin measurement patterns during noninvasive diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of hypovolemic shock and fluid replacement," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Moeller, R. A. Richardson, and M. W. Dewhirst, "Hypoxia and radiotherapy: opportunities for improved outcomes in cancer treatment," Cancer Metastasis Rev. 26, 241-248 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Moon, D. M. Brizel, J. T. Chi, and M. W. Dewhirst, "The potential role of intrinsic hypoxia markers as prognostic variables in cancer," Antioxid. Redox Signal 9, 1237-1294 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express. 15, 7863-7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A'Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media," Appl. Opt. 46, 7317-7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, "Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, J. Gibbs, D. Wolverton, A. Cerussi, N. Hylton, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined diffuse optical spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, "Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research," Cancer Biolther. 3, 259-267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1997

A'Amar, O.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A'Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media," Appl. Opt. 46, 7317-7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amorosino, M. S.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. R.

Atkinson, E. N.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

Bean, S. M.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, "Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo via optical spectroscopy," Neoplasia. (to be published).

Bender, J. E.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Bennett, C. L.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, R.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, "Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo via optical spectroscopy," Neoplasia. (to be published).

Bevilacqua, F.

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A'Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media," Appl. Opt. 46, 7317-7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, "Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research," Cancer Biolther. 3, 259-267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, "Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research," Cancer Biolther. 3, 259-267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

J. Lee, A. E. Cerussi, D. Saltzman, T. Waddington, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, "Hemoglobin measurement patterns during noninvasive diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of hypovolemic shock and fluid replacement," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Fishkin, O. Coquoz, E. R. Anderson, M. Brenner, and B. J. Tromberg "Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject," Appl. Opt. 36, 10-20 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breslin, T. M.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 714-724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis," Appl. Opt. 45, 1072-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, "Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brizel, D. M.

E. J. Moon, D. M. Brizel, J. T. Chi, and M. W. Dewhirst, "The potential role of intrinsic hypoxia markers as prognostic variables in cancer," Antioxid. Redox Signal 9, 1237-1294 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Butler, J.

A. Cerussi, D. Hsiang, N. Shah, R. Mehta, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Predicting response to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy using diffuse optical spectroscopy," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 4014-4019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabro, K. W.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cartwright, P. S.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, "Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo via optical spectroscopy," Neoplasia. (to be published).

Cerussi, A.

A. Cerussi, D. Hsiang, N. Shah, R. Mehta, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Predicting response to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy using diffuse optical spectroscopy," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 4014-4019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, J. Gibbs, D. Wolverton, A. Cerussi, N. Hylton, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined diffuse optical spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

J. Lee, A. E. Cerussi, D. Saltzman, T. Waddington, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, "Hemoglobin measurement patterns during noninvasive diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of hypovolemic shock and fluid replacement," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, V.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Chang, V. T.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, "Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo via optical spectroscopy," Neoplasia. (to be published).

Chi, J. T.

E. J. Moon, D. M. Brizel, J. T. Chi, and M. W. Dewhirst, "The potential role of intrinsic hypoxia markers as prognostic variables in cancer," Antioxid. Redox Signal 9, 1237-1294 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coquoz, O.

Cox, D.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewhirst, M. W.

E. J. Moon, D. M. Brizel, J. T. Chi, and M. W. Dewhirst, "The potential role of intrinsic hypoxia markers as prognostic variables in cancer," Antioxid. Redox Signal 9, 1237-1294 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Moeller, R. A. Richardson, and M. W. Dewhirst, "Hypoxia and radiotherapy: opportunities for improved outcomes in cancer treatment," Cancer Metastasis Rev. 26, 241-248 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A.

A. Cerussi, D. Hsiang, N. Shah, R. Mehta, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Predicting response to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy using diffuse optical spectroscopy," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 4014-4019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M.S.

Fishkin, J. B.

Fitzmaurice, M.

Follen, M.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gall, J. A.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express. 15, 7863-7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs, J.

N. Shah, J. Gibbs, D. Wolverton, A. Cerussi, N. Hylton, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined diffuse optical spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, K. W.

Harter, J.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 714-724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiang, D.

A. Cerussi, D. Hsiang, N. Shah, R. Mehta, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Predicting response to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy using diffuse optical spectroscopy," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 4014-4019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hylton, N.

N. Shah, J. Gibbs, D. Wolverton, A. Cerussi, N. Hylton, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined diffuse optical spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakubowski, D. B.

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelley, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakhani, S.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, A. E. Cerussi, D. Saltzman, T. Waddington, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, "Hemoglobin measurement patterns during noninvasive diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of hypovolemic shock and fluid replacement," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, W. C.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loschenov, V. B.

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

Matchette, L. S.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, R.

A. Cerussi, D. Hsiang, N. Shah, R. Mehta, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Predicting response to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy using diffuse optical spectroscopy," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 4014-4019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirabal, Y. N.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moeller, B. J.

B. J. Moeller, R. A. Richardson, and M. W. Dewhirst, "Hypoxia and radiotherapy: opportunities for improved outcomes in cancer treatment," Cancer Metastasis Rev. 26, 241-248 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, E. J.

E. J. Moon, D. M. Brizel, J. T. Chi, and M. W. Dewhirst, "The potential role of intrinsic hypoxia markers as prognostic variables in cancer," Antioxid. Redox Signal 9, 1237-1294 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, L. K.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express. 15, 7863-7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms," Appl. Opt. 45, 1062-1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis," Appl. Opt. 45, 1072-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 714-724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, "Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, "Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo via optical spectroscopy," Neoplasia. (to be published).

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Perelman, L.T.

Pfefer, T. J.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickard, D.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express. 15, 7863-7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 714-724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis," Appl. Opt. 45, 1072-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms," Appl. Opt. 45, 1062-1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, "Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, "Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo via optical spectroscopy," Neoplasia. (to be published).

Reif, R.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, O. A'Amar, and I. J. Bigio, "Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media," Appl. Opt. 46, 7317-7328 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, R. A.

B. J. Moeller, R. A. Richardson, and M. W. Dewhirst, "Hypoxia and radiotherapy: opportunities for improved outcomes in cancer treatment," Cancer Metastasis Rev. 26, 241-248 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripley, P. M.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, I. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saltzman, D.

J. Lee, A. E. Cerussi, D. Saltzman, T. Waddington, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, "Hemoglobin measurement patterns during noninvasive diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of hypovolemic shock and fluid replacement," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

A. Cerussi, D. Hsiang, N. Shah, R. Mehta, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Predicting response to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy using diffuse optical spectroscopy," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 4014-4019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, J. Gibbs, D. Wolverton, A. Cerussi, N. Hylton, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined diffuse optical spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. K.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express. 15, 7863-7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stratonnikov, A. A.

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toms, S. A.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

A. Cerussi, D. Hsiang, N. Shah, R. Mehta, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Predicting response to breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy using diffuse optical spectroscopy," Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 4014-4019 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, A. E. Cerussi, D. Saltzman, T. Waddington, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, "Hemoglobin measurement patterns during noninvasive diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of hypovolemic shock and fluid replacement," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, J. Gibbs, D. Wolverton, A. Cerussi, N. Hylton, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined diffuse optical spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Fishkin, O. Coquoz, E. R. Anderson, M. Brenner, and B. J. Tromberg "Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject," Appl. Opt. 36, 10-20 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

Vishwanath, K.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Vrotsos, K. M.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express. 15, 7863-7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waddington, T.

J. Lee, A. E. Cerussi, D. Saltzman, T. Waddington, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, "Hemoglobin measurement patterns during noninvasive diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of hypovolemic shock and fluid replacement," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, J. N.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolverton, D.

N. Shah, J. Gibbs, D. Wolverton, A. Cerussi, N. Hylton, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined diffuse optical spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis," Appl. Opt. 45, 1072-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, "Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, "Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis," Appl. Opt. 45, 1072-1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 714-724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, "Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

Antioxid. Redox Signal

E. J. Moon, D. M. Brizel, J. T. Chi, and M. W. Dewhirst, "The potential role of intrinsic hypoxia markers as prognostic variables in cancer," Antioxid. Redox Signal 9, 1237-1294 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Cancer Biolther.

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, "Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research," Cancer Biolther. 3, 259-267 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Metastasis Rev.

B. J. Moeller, R. A. Richardson, and M. W. Dewhirst, "Hypoxia and radiotherapy: opportunities for improved outcomes in cancer treatment," Cancer Metastasis Rev. 26, 241-248 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, "A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (to be published).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, and N. Ramanujam, "Use of a multiseparation fiber optic probe for the optical diagnosis of breast cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024032 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Stratonnikov and V. B. Loschenov, "Evaluation of blood oxygen saturation in vivo from diffuse reflectance spectra," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 457-467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 221-228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, A. E. Cerussi, D. Saltzman, T. Waddington, B. J. Tromberg, and M. Brenner, "Hemoglobin measurement patterns during noninvasive diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring of hypovolemic shock and fluid replacement," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, C. L. Bennett, J. A. Gall, J. N. Wilke, A. J. Durkin, and M. N. Ediger, "Reflectance-based determination of optical properties in highly attenuating tissue," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 206-215 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Jakubowski, A. E. Cerussi, F. Bevilacqua, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "Monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 230-238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Shah, J. Gibbs, D. Wolverton, A. Cerussi, N. Hylton, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined diffuse optical spectroscopy and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

C. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, "Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 714-724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia.

V. T. Chang, P. S. Cartwright, S. M. Bean, G. M. Palmer, R. Bentley, and N. Ramanujam, "Quantitative physiology of the precancerous cervix in vivo via optical spectroscopy," Neoplasia. (to be published).

Opt. Express.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, K. M. Vrotsos, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, "Comparison of a physical model and principal component analysis for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasias in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Opt. Express. 15, 7863-7875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 396-402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of original benchtop system and probe tip.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of modified diffuse reflectance system and probe tip.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A 3×3 imaging array used for simulating crosstalk

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of (a) μa and (b) μs’ extractions by the original benchtop and modified systems.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental reflectance spectra from lightest and darkest phantoms with the 5 wavelengths chosen to for MC inversions

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Extractions of (a) μa and (b) μs’ after wavelength reduction simulation

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Reconstructed Hb spectra averaged over all phantoms using extracted μa values at the 5 chosen wavelengths; (b) Extractions of Hb concentration by inverting wavelength-reduced data

Tables (4)

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Table 1. Average optical properties over 400-600 nm for 2 sets of phantoms (μa and μs’ in cm-1, Hb in μM)

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Table 2. Comparison of throughput-related parameters of original and modified systems

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Table 3. A table of comparison for the original benchtop system and modified system with its wavelength-reduced inversion errors, averaged for all reference-target phantom combinations

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Table 4.a and μs’ extraction errors (%) for each detector in the presence of crosstalk in phantoms ranging from low to high absorption coefficients (μa = 0.4 - 2.0 cm-1) and mid reduced scattering coefficients (μs’ = 10 cm-1), averaged for all reference-target phantom combinations.

Metrics