Abstract

We describe the fabrication of elliptical hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (EC-PBGFs). It was shown that the aspect ratio of the hollow core can be controlled by tuning the negative pressure in the space between the intermediate preform cane and outer jacketing tube, and by placing this preform assembly off-center in the furnace, resulting in lateral tension during the final draw. Modal birefringences of fabricated PBGFs with different aspect ratio were measured using a Sagnac loop interferometer. For the elliptical hollow core PBGF with aspect ratio of 2.34, the modal birefringence was measured to be about 4.6×10-2 at 1,550nm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. St. J. Russsell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "Optical properties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 9,676-680 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-13-676.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1375-1377 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-Elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Y. cho, G. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. -M. Jeong, "Study on the fabrication process of polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers and their optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 19-24 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett 29, 1336-1338 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-12-1336.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Poletti, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "The effect of core asymmetries on the polarization properties of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9115-9124 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9115.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russsell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-14-1613.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Chen, Ming-Jun. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, W. A. Wood, A. M. Crowley, J. P. Carberry, L. A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 30, 3888-3893 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3888.
  15. L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, and Chun-liu Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightwave. Technol. Lett 22, 3563-3574 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D.-H. Kim and J. U. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4490.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

T. Y. cho, G. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. -M. Jeong, "Study on the fabrication process of polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers and their optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 19-24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, and Chun-liu Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightwave. Technol. Lett 22, 3563-3574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Poletti, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "The effect of core asymmetries on the polarization properties of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9115-9124 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9115.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Ming-Jun. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, W. A. Wood, A. M. Crowley, J. P. Carberry, L. A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 30, 3888-3893 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3888.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

D.-H. Kim and J. U. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4490.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett 29, 1336-1338 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-12-1336.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-Elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1375-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. St. J. Russsell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russsell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-14-1613.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, "Optical properties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 9,676-680 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-13-676.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
[CrossRef]

Alam, M. S.

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arriaga, J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Brong, J.

T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhuri, P. R.

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-Elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Ming-Jun. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, W. A. Wood, A. M. Crowley, J. P. Carberry, L. A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 30, 3888-3893 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3888.

cho, T. Y.

Couny, F.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, F.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett 29, 1336-1338 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-12-1336.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demokan, M. S.

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, and Chun-liu Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightwave. Technol. Lett 22, 3563-3574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1375-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farr, L.

Fellew, M.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett 29, 1336-1338 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-12-1336.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, M.

Gerome, F.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, T. P.

T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henry, G.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett 29, 1336-1338 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-12-1336.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Issa, N. A.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett 29, 1336-1338 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-12-1336.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, J. R.

T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. -M.

Jin, W.

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, and Chun-liu Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightwave. Technol. Lett 22, 3563-3574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1375-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J.

J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1375-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Kawanishi, S.

Kim, D.-H.

Kim, G. H.

Knight, J. C.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russsell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-14-1613.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, E.

T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, K. W.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

Large, M. C. J.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett 29, 1336-1338 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-12-1336.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

Lee, S. B.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libori, S. E. B.

T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-Elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

Mangan, B. J.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russsell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-14-1613.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
[CrossRef]

Paulose, V.

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-Elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poletti, F.

Richardson, D. J.

Roberts, P. J.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
[CrossRef]

Russsell, P. St. J.

Sabert, H.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russsell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-14-1613.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H.

T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. M.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

Tanaka, M.

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett 29, 1336-1338 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-12-1336.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, and Chun-liu Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightwave. Technol. Lett 22, 3563-3574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

West, J. A.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. P.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, L.

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, and Chun-liu Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightwave. Technol. Lett 22, 3563-3574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-Elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Chun-liu

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, and Chun-liu Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightwave. Technol. Lett 22, 3563-3574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (2)

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-Elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1375-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Hansen, J. Brong, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol. Lett (1)

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, and Chun-liu Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightwave. Technol. Lett 22, 3563-3574 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt Express (3)

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett (3)

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett 25, 1325-1327 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1325.
[CrossRef]

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett 29, 1336-1338 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-12-1336.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. St. J. Russsell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of fabrication of EC-PBGFs; (A) Drawing thin-walled silica tube to ~1 mm capillary and ~3 mm capillary tube, (B) Stacking capillaries(1 mm) based on hexagonal lattice and then removing the inner seven capillaries for hollow core region, (C) First drawing, (D) Second drawing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Perspective view of intermediate preform cane, drawn from the first preform.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM image of fabricated EC-PBGFs; (a) EC-PBGF1 (P=-5 mmH2O; 17.6 μm by 12.9 μm), (b) EC-PBGF2 (P=-10 mmH2O; 19.3 μm by 12.7 μm), (c) EC-PBGF3 (P=-18 mmH2O; 22.6 μm by 9.6 μm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra of fabricated EC-PBFGs; (a) EC-PBGF1, (b) EC-PBGF2, (c) EC-PBGF3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical spectra of EC-PBGFs-based Sagnac loop interferometer (L=1m) (a) EC-PBGF1, (b) EC-PBGF2, (c) EC-PBGF3.

Equations (1)

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Δ n = λ 2 Δ λ · L

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