Abstract

We present an in vivo study of the reduced scattering coefficient of normal skin and of common melanocytic nevi in Caucasian subjects. The spectral shape of the reduced scattering coefficient is described well by a power-law dependence on the wavelength, in accordance with previous studies of light scattering by biological tissues. We investigate statistical variations in the scattering spectrum slope and also identify an inherent correlation between scattering intensity and scattering spectral slope, observed mainly in normal skin. In addition, we do not find any significant differences between the scattering properties of normal skin and common melanocytic nevi. Finally, we also provide a short review of previously published studies reporting on the light scattering properties of human skin both in vivo and in vitro.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Marchesini, C. Clemente, E. Pignoli, and M. Brambilla, "Optical properties of in vitro epidermis and their possible relationship with optical properties of in vivo skin," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 127-140 (1992).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using Monte Carlo inversion technique," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-981 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
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  21. J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Xu and R. R. Alfano, "Fractal mechanisms of light scattering in biological tissue and cells," Opt. Lett. 30, 3051-3053 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "In vivo absorption, scattering and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044005 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, and M. H. Koelink, "Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations," Appl. Opt. 31, 1370-1376 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Zonios, A. Dimou, and D. Galaris, "Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 269-278 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. D. G. Papageorgiou, I. N. Demetropoulos, and I. E. Lagaris, "MERLIN-3.0 - A multidimensional optimization environment," Comput. Phys. Commun. 109, 227-249 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, "Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method," Appl. Opt. 32, 559-568 (1993).
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  36. W. A. G. Bruls and J. C. van der Leun, "Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers," Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 231-242 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, "In-vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin—melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias, "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. M. Larsson, H. Nilsson, and T. Strömberg, "In vivo determination of local skin optical properties and photon path length by use of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance with applications in laser Doppler flowmetry," Appl. Opt. 42, 124-134 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, and M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. P. M. Johnson, S. Faez, and A. Lagendijk, "Full characterization of anisotropic diffuse light," Opt. Express 16, 7435-7446 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. J. Riesz, J. Gilmore, and P. Meredith, "Quantitative scattering of melanin solutions," Biophys. J. 90, 4137-4144 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2008

S. H. Tseng, A. Grant, and A. J. Durkin, "In vivo determination of skin near-infrared optical properties using diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, "Melanin absorption spectroscopy: a new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, and D. Galaris, "Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 269-278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Johnson, S. Faez, and A. Lagendijk, "Full characterization of anisotropic diffuse light," Opt. Express 16, 7435-7446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios and A. Dimou, "Melanin optical properties provide evidence for chemical and structural disorder in vivo," Opt. Express 16, 8263-8268 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Riesz, J. Gilmore, and P. Meredith, "Quantitative scattering of melanin solutions," Biophys. J. 90, 4137-4144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios and A. Dimou, "Modeling diffuse reflectance from semi-infinite turbid media: application to the study of skin optical properties," Opt. Express 14, 8661-8674 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "In vivo absorption, scattering and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, "Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, R. Jung, L. O. Svaasand LO, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu and R. R. Alfano, "Fractal mechanisms of light scattering in biological tissue and cells," Opt. Lett. 30, 3051-3053 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias, "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Larsson, H. Nilsson, and T. Strömberg, "In vivo determination of local skin optical properties and photon path length by use of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance with applications in laser Doppler flowmetry," Appl. Opt. 42, 124-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, "Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 1452-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

X. Wu, S. Yeh, T. Jeng, and O. S. Khalil, "Noninvasive determination of hemoglobin and hematocrit using a temperature-controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer," Anal. Biochem. 287, 284-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, and M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using Monte Carlo inversion technique," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Papageorgiou, I. N. Demetropoulos, and I. E. Lagaris, "MERLIN-3.0 - A multidimensional optimization environment," Comput. Phys. Commun. 109, 227-249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. K. Nillson, C. Sturesson, D. L. Liu, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Changes in spectral shape of tissue optical properties in conjunction with laser-induced thermotherapy," Appl. Opt. 37, 1256-1267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

J. M. Schmitt and G. Kumar, "Turbulent nature of refractive-index variations in biological tissue," Opt. Lett. 21, 1310-1312 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, "In-vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin—melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, "Mie and Rayleigh modeling of visible-light scattering in neonatal skin," Appl. Opt. 34, 7410-7418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, and M. H. Koelink, "Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations," Appl. Opt. 31, 1370-1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marchesini, C. Clemente, E. Pignoli, and M. Brambilla, "Optical properties of in vitro epidermis and their possible relationship with optical properties of in vivo skin," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 127-140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

W. A. G. Bruls and J. C. van der Leun, "Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers," Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 231-242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

Aalders, M. C.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A'Amar, O.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Alfano, R. R.

Amorosino, M. S.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Backman, V.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bassukas, I.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, "Melanin absorption spectroscopy: a new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, J.

Brambilla, M.

R. Marchesini, C. Clemente, E. Pignoli, and M. Brambilla, "Optical properties of in vitro epidermis and their possible relationship with optical properties of in vivo skin," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 127-140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruls, W. A. G.

W. A. G. Bruls and J. C. van der Leun, "Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers," Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 231-242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "In vivo absorption, scattering and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bykowski, J.

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, "Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 1452-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Calabro, K. W.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "In vivo absorption, scattering and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambers, J. G.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, E. K.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, R. Jung, L. O. Svaasand LO, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clemente, C.

R. Marchesini, C. Clemente, E. Pignoli, and M. Brambilla, "Optical properties of in vitro epidermis and their possible relationship with optical properties of in vivo skin," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 127-140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using Monte Carlo inversion technique," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 36, 386-396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cross, F. W.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dassel, A. C. M.

de Mul, F. F. M.

Dehghani, H.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

Demetropoulos, I. N.

D. G. Papageorgiou, I. N. Demetropoulos, and I. E. Lagaris, "MERLIN-3.0 - A multidimensional optimization environment," Comput. Phys. Commun. 109, 227-249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demul, F. F. M.

Dimou, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, and D. Galaris, "Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 269-278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, "Melanin absorption spectroscopy: a new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios and A. Dimou, "Melanin optical properties provide evidence for chemical and structural disorder in vivo," Opt. Express 16, 8263-8268 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios and A. Dimou, "Modeling diffuse reflectance from semi-infinite turbid media: application to the study of skin optical properties," Opt. Express 14, 8661-8674 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doornbos, R. M. P.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "In vivo absorption, scattering and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

S. H. Tseng, A. Grant, and A. J. Durkin, "In vivo determination of skin near-infrared optical properties using diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essenpreis, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, and M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using Monte Carlo inversion technique," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, "In-vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin—melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faez, S.

Farrell, T. J.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, and M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuselier, T.

Galaris, D.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, and D. Galaris, "Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 269-278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, "Melanin absorption spectroscopy: a new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giambattistelli, E.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilmore, J.

J. Riesz, J. Gilmore, and P. Meredith, "Quantitative scattering of melanin solutions," Biophys. J. 90, 4137-4144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopal, V.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graaff, R.

Grant, A.

S. H. Tseng, A. Grant, and A. J. Durkin, "In vivo determination of skin near-infrared optical properties using diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, "In-vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin—melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, and M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

Hsiang, D.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "In vivo absorption, scattering and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

Jeng, T.

X. Wu, S. Yeh, T. Jeng, and O. S. Khalil, "Noninvasive determination of hemoglobin and hematocrit using a temperature-controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer," Anal. Biochem. 287, 284-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, B.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, "Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. M.

Johnson, T. M.

Jung, R.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, R. Jung, L. O. Svaasand LO, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalashnikov, M.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaxiras, E.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, "Melanin absorption spectroscopy: a new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalil, O. S.

X. Wu, S. Yeh, T. Jeng, and O. S. Khalil, "Noninvasive determination of hemoglobin and hematocrit using a temperature-controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer," Anal. Biochem. 287, 284-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kochubey, V. I.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koelink, M. H.

Kogel, C.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl, M.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using Monte Carlo inversion technique," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, N.

G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias, "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, "Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 1452-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, U.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, and M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, G.

Lagaris, I. E.

D. G. Papageorgiou, I. N. Demetropoulos, and I. E. Lagaris, "MERLIN-3.0 - A multidimensional optimization environment," Comput. Phys. Commun. 109, 227-249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

Lang, R.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsson, M.

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D. L.

Manoharan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marchesini, R.

R. Marchesini, C. Clemente, E. Pignoli, and M. Brambilla, "Optical properties of in vitro epidermis and their possible relationship with optical properties of in vivo skin," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 127-140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

Meredith, P.

J. Riesz, J. Gilmore, and P. Meredith, "Quantitative scattering of melanin solutions," Biophys. J. 90, 4137-4144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourant, J. R.

Nickell, S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, and M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nillson, A. M. K.

Nilsson, H.

Novak, J.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, "Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Neil, M.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Papageorgiou, D. G.

D. G. Papageorgiou, I. N. Demetropoulos, and I. E. Lagaris, "MERLIN-3.0 - A multidimensional optimization environment," Comput. Phys. Commun. 109, 227-249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, and M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pifferi, A.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pignoli, E.

R. Marchesini, C. Clemente, E. Pignoli, and M. Brambilla, "Optical properties of in vitro epidermis and their possible relationship with optical properties of in vivo skin," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 127-140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, "Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method," Appl. Opt. 32, 559-568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Protsenko, D.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, "In-vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin—melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, R.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riesz, J.

J. Riesz, J. Gilmore, and P. Meredith, "Quantitative scattering of melanin solutions," Biophys. J. 90, 4137-4144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saidi, I. S.

Salomatina, E.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, "Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schneiderheinze, D. H. P.

Seiler, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "In vivo absorption, scattering and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, C. R.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using Monte Carlo inversion technique," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, S. K.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloot, P. M. A.

Soho, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorg, B.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamatas, G. N.

G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias, "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoner, G. D.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strömberg, T.

Sturesson, C.

Taroni, P.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thennadil, S. N.

T. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

Torricelli, A.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "In vivo absorption, scattering and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troy, T.

T. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. H.

S. H. Tseng, A. Grant, and A. J. Durkin, "In vivo determination of skin near-infrared optical properties using diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsolakidis, A.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, "Melanin absorption spectroscopy: a new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Dam, J.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Leun, J. C.

W. A. G. Bruls and J. C. van der Leun, "Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers," Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 231-242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Verkruysse, W.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, R. Jung, L. O. Svaasand LO, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viator, J. A.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, R. Jung, L. O. Svaasand LO, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, "In-vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin—melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, "Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method," Appl. Opt. 32, 559-568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W. J.

Wu, X.

X. Wu, S. Yeh, T. Jeng, and O. S. Khalil, "Noninvasive determination of hemoglobin and hematocrit using a temperature-controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer," Anal. Biochem. 287, 284-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, "Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, S.

X. Wu, S. Yeh, T. Jeng, and O. S. Khalil, "Noninvasive determination of hemoglobin and hematocrit using a temperature-controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer," Anal. Biochem. 287, 284-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, R. Jung, L. O. Svaasand LO, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zijlstra, W. G.

Zijp, J. R.

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, "Melanin absorption spectroscopy: a new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios and A. Dimou, "Melanin optical properties provide evidence for chemical and structural disorder in vivo," Opt. Express 16, 8263-8268 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, and D. Galaris, "Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 269-278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios and A. Dimou, "Modeling diffuse reflectance from semi-infinite turbid media: application to the study of skin optical properties," Opt. Express 14, 8661-8674 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, "Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 1452-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem.

X. Wu, S. Yeh, T. Jeng, and O. S. Khalil, "Noninvasive determination of hemoglobin and hematocrit using a temperature-controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer," Anal. Biochem. 287, 284-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

W. J. Wiscombe, "Improved Mie scattering algorithms," Appl. Opt. 19, 1505-1509 (1980)

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, and M. H. Koelink, "Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations," Appl. Opt. 31, 1370-1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. Demul, J. G. Aarnoudse, and W. G. Zijlstra, "Optical properties of human dermis in vitro and in vivo," Appl. Opt. 32, 435-447 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, "Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding-doubling method," Appl. Opt. 32, 559-568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. K. Nillson, C. Sturesson, D. L. Liu, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Changes in spectral shape of tissue optical properties in conjunction with laser-induced thermotherapy," Appl. Opt. 37, 1256-1267 (1998).
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I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, "Mie and Rayleigh modeling of visible-light scattering in neonatal skin," Appl. Opt. 34, 7410-7418 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 36, 386-396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, and I. J. Bigio, "Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 36, 949-957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Larsson, H. Nilsson, and T. Strömberg, "In vivo determination of local skin optical properties and photon path length by use of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance with applications in laser Doppler flowmetry," Appl. Opt. 42, 124-134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

J. Riesz, J. Gilmore, and P. Meredith, "Quantitative scattering of melanin solutions," Biophys. J. 90, 4137-4144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Phys. Commun.

D. G. Papageorgiou, I. N. Demetropoulos, and I. E. Lagaris, "MERLIN-3.0 - A multidimensional optimization environment," Comput. Phys. Commun. 109, 227-249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

E. K. Chan, B. Sorg, D. Protsenko, M. O’Neil, M. Motamedi, and A. J. Welch, "Effects of compression on soft tissue optical properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 943-950 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, I. Bassukas, D. Galaris, A. Tsolakidis, and E. Kaxiras, "Melanin absorption spectroscopy: a new method for noninvasive skin investigation and melanoma detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014017 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, "In vivo absorption, scattering and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Tseng, A. Grant, and A. J. Durkin, "In vivo determination of skin near-infrared optical properties using diffuse optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 014016 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Salomatina, B. Jiang, J. Novak, and A. N. Yaroslavsky, "Optical properties of normal and cancerous human skin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Troy and S. N. Thennadil, "Optical properties of human skin in the near infrared wavelength range of 1000 to 2200 nm," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 167-176 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, W. Verkruysse, B. Choi, J. A. Viator, R. Jung, L. O. Svaasand LO, G. Aguilar, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of human skin optical properties from spectrophotometric measurements based on optimization by genetic algorithms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024030 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Stamatas and N. Kollias, "Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 315-322 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A'Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, "Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, and R. H. Webb, "In-vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin—melanin provides strong contrast," J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, J. Bykowski, and N. Kollias, "Skin melanin, hemoglobin, and light scattering properties can be quantitatively assessed in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," J. Invest. Dermatol. 117, 1452-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

R. Marchesini, C. Clemente, E. Pignoli, and M. Brambilla, "Optical properties of in vitro epidermis and their possible relationship with optical properties of in vivo skin," J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 127-140 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, "Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2543-2555 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photochem. Photobiol.

W. A. G. Bruls and J. C. van der Leun, "Forward scattering properties of human epidermal layers," Photochem. Photobiol. 40, 231-242 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

G. Zonios, A. Dimou, and D. Galaris, "Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 269-278 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, and M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, and M. Cope, "Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using Monte Carlo inversion technique," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465-2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967-981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, E. Giambattistelli, and R. Cubeddu, "In vivo optical characterization of human tissues from 610 to 1010 nm by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2227-2237 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, "Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the Born approximation: A new model for precancer detection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, J. G. Chambers, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, "Interpreting hemoglobin and water concentration, oxygen saturation, and scattering measured by near-infrared tomography of normal breast in vivo," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 12349-12354 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W. J. Wiscombe, "Mie Scattering Calculations: Advances in Technique and Fast Vector Speed Computer Codes," NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-140+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (1979).

S. Prahl, "Light transport in tissue," PhD thesis, University of Texas at Austin (1988).

O. W. van Assendelft, "Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives," CC Thomas: Springfield, IL. (1970).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dependence of the reduced scattering power-law exponent γ on the average scatterer diameter d. Data points are calculated using Mie theory and the solid line represents the empirical fit of Eq. (4).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Power-law dependence of the reduced scattering coefficient on the wavelength (solid lines, Eq. (3)) and linear approximation (dashed lines, Eq. (5)) for two typical values of the exponent γ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical diffuse reflectance spectra from normal skin and from two different melanocytic nevi (black lines) together with model fits (colored lines).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Histograms showing the distribution of the γ scattering parameter values for (a) normal skin, and (b) melanocytic nevi.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scatter plots showing correlation between μ′ s s ) and γ for (a) normal skin, and (b) melanocytic nevi.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Scattering properties of human skin in vitro and in vivo

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ( λ ) = 1 k 1 1 μ′ s ( λ ) + k 2 μ a ( λ ) μ′ s ( λ )
μ a ( λ ) = c H b 1 ε Hb 1 ( λ ) + c H b 2 ε Hb 2 ( λ ) + c m e k m ( λ λ 0 λ 0 )
μ′ s ( λ ) = μ′ s ( λ s ) ( λ / λ s ) γ
γ = a 2 π { tan 1 ( d a 3 a 4 ) + π 2 } + a 1
μ′ s ( λ ) = ( 1 c 1 λ λ 1 λ 2 λ 1 ) μ′ s ( λ 1 )

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