Abstract

We designed and developed a fabrication method for a polymeric waveguide connecting multiple optical interconnect layers in three-dimensional integrated electro-optical systems, using a series of silicone elastomer stamps. The scalable process is a deterministic printing method, generating optical S-shaped polymeric lightwave coupling for interconnects among separate layers. General characteristics of S-shaped coupling among layers with various separation distances were investigated too. The soft-lithography fabrication process of this coupling interconnection design allows for significant advantages over traditional designs and fabrication methods in terms of insertion loss as well as 3D integration capability, when used in high-bandwidth printed circuit boards.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Savage, "Linking with Light," IEEE Spectrum 39, 32-36 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl, and M. L. Schmatz, "High-density optical interconnects within large-scale systems," Proc. SPIE 4942,222-235 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, "Polymer-waveguide-based fully embedded board-level optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4788, 68-72 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. V. Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. V. Put, J. V. Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. V. Daele, "MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2083-2090 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-22-9-2083.
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Neyer, S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. Kang, and S. Tombrink, "Electrical-optical circuit board using polysiloxane optical waveguide layer," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology, 246- 251 (2005).
  7. C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, and R. T. Chen, "Flexible Optical Waveguide Film Fabrications and Optoelectronic Devices Integration for Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2168- (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-22-9-2168.
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. O ggioni, Mauro Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, "120 Gb/s Optical Card-to-Card Interconnect Link Demonstrator with Embedded Waveguides," in Proceedings of Electronic Components and Technology Conference (2007), pp. 1288-1293,
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    [CrossRef]
  10. Q1. J.-M Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. Hee Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, "Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler," ETRI J. 25, 81-88 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

Q1. J.-M Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. Hee Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, "Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler," ETRI J. 25, 81-88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl, and M. L. Schmatz, "High-density optical interconnects within large-scale systems," Proc. SPIE 4942,222-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, G. Paloczi, J. Scheuer, and A. Yariv, "Soft lithography replication of polymeric microring optical resonators," Opt. Express 11, 2452-2458 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-20-2452.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Savage, "Linking with Light," IEEE Spectrum 39, 32-36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, "Polymer-waveguide-based fully embedded board-level optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4788, 68-72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. M. Garner, S.-s. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, P. Abraham, and J. E. Bowers, "Vertical coupler with separated inputs and outputs fabricated using double-sided process," Electron. Lett. 35, 1552-1554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Q2. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "SOFT LITHOGRAPHY," J. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, P.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, P. Abraham, and J. E. Bowers, "Vertical coupler with separated inputs and outputs fabricated using double-sided process," Electron. Lett. 35, 1552-1554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. T.

Q1. J.-M Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. Hee Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, "Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler," ETRI J. 25, 81-88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J.

Berger, C.

C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl, and M. L. Schmatz, "High-density optical interconnects within large-scale systems," Proc. SPIE 4942,222-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, P. Abraham, and J. E. Bowers, "Vertical coupler with separated inputs and outputs fabricated using double-sided process," Electron. Lett. 35, 1552-1554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

S. M. Garner, S.-s. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, "Polymer-waveguide-based fully embedded board-level optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4788, 68-72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

Choi, C.

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, "Polymer-waveguide-based fully embedded board-level optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4788, 68-72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chuyanov, V.

S. M. Garner, S.-s. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daele, P. V.

Dalton, L. R.

S. M. Garner, S.-s. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S. M.

S. M. Garner, S.-s. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geerinck, P.

Hee Cho, D.

Q1. J.-M Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. Hee Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, "Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler," ETRI J. 25, 81-88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Huang, Y. Y.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

Q1. J.-M Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. Hee Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, "Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler," ETRI J. 25, 81-88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kapur, P.

Kim, K. H.

Q1. J.-M Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. Hee Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, "Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler," ETRI J. 25, 81-88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koetsem, J. V.

Kossel, M. A.

C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl, and M. L. Schmatz, "High-density optical interconnects within large-scale systems," Proc. SPIE 4942,222-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-M

Q1. J.-M Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. Hee Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, "Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler," ETRI J. 25, 81-88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. J.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

Q1. J.-M Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. Hee Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, "Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler," ETRI J. 25, 81-88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-s.

S. M. Garner, S.-s. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, "Polymer-waveguide-based fully embedded board-level optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4788, 68-72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, P. Abraham, and J. E. Bowers, "Vertical coupler with separated inputs and outputs fabricated using double-sided process," Electron. Lett. 35, 1552-1554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, "Polymer-waveguide-based fully embedded board-level optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4788, 68-72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meitl, M. A.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Menolfi, C.

C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl, and M. L. Schmatz, "High-density optical interconnects within large-scale systems," Proc. SPIE 4942,222-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morf, T.

C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl, and M. L. Schmatz, "High-density optical interconnects within large-scale systems," Proc. SPIE 4942,222-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morlion, D.

Ni, W.

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ottevaere, H.

Paloczi, G.

Put, S. V.

Rogers, J. A.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

Savage, N.

N. Savage, "Linking with Light," IEEE Spectrum 39, 32-36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, J.

Schmatz, M. L.

C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl, and M. L. Schmatz, "High-density optical interconnects within large-scale systems," Proc. SPIE 4942,222-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shakouri, A.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, P. Abraham, and J. E. Bowers, "Vertical coupler with separated inputs and outputs fabricated using double-sided process," Electron. Lett. 35, 1552-1554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steenberge, G. V.

Steier, W. H.

S. M. Garner, S.-s. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Toifl, T.

C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl, and M. L. Schmatz, "High-density optical interconnects within large-scale systems," Proc. SPIE 4942,222-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

Q2. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "SOFT LITHOGRAPHY," J. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

Xia, Y.

Q2. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "SOFT LITHOGRAPHY," J. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yacoubian, A.

S. M. Garner, S.-s. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Zhu, Z.-T.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, P. Abraham, and J. E. Bowers, "Vertical coupler with separated inputs and outputs fabricated using double-sided process," Electron. Lett. 35, 1552-1554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

ETRI J.

Q1. J.-M Lee, J. T. Ahn, D. Hee Cho, J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, and K. H. Kim, "Vertical coupling of polymeric double-layered waveguides using a stepped MMI coupler," ETRI J. 25, 81-88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. M. Garner, S.-s. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1146-1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum

N. Savage, "Linking with Light," IEEE Spectrum 39, 32-36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

Q2. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "SOFT LITHOGRAPHY," J. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Mater.

M. A. Meitl, Z.-T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo and J. A. Rogers, "Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp," Nat. Mater. 5, 33-38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, "Polymer-waveguide-based fully embedded board-level optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. SPIE 4788, 68-72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, M. A. Kossel, C. Menolfi, T. Morf, T. Toifl, and M. L. Schmatz, "High-density optical interconnects within large-scale systems," Proc. SPIE 4942,222-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Neyer, S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. Kang, and S. Tombrink, "Electrical-optical circuit board using polysiloxane optical waveguide layer," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Electronic Components and Technology, 246- 251 (2005).

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, and R. T. Chen, "Flexible Optical Waveguide Film Fabrications and Optoelectronic Devices Integration for Fully Embedded Board-Level Optical Interconnects," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2168- (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-22-9-2168.
[CrossRef]

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmür, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. O ggioni, Mauro Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, "120 Gb/s Optical Card-to-Card Interconnect Link Demonstrator with Embedded Waveguides," in Proceedings of Electronic Components and Technology Conference (2007), pp. 1288-1293,

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Coupling of interconnects on two separated layers by an S-shaped waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the vertical coupling optical interconnection circuit on PCB

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(left) Propagation loss vs. L for a given H; (right)A portion of BPM simulation for propagation between adjacent layers: leaking waves in S-shaped waveguide with a 50×50μm2 cross-section and L= (a)1.5mm, (b)2.1mm, (c) 3mm

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

BPM simulation result of S-shaped waveguide striding over multiple layers, here the maximum is 6 layers.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fabrication procedures for 3D vertical coupling optical interconnect circuits. For clarity, the thicknesses were not drawn to scale and only waveguide cores are shown. A) Leads of waveguides on bottom layers were molded using a soft stamp with alignment marks, B) A slope is formed by the second stamp, using as a substrate for 3D coupling waveguide; C) Finally layer-to-layer coupling waveguide is printed on the slope by a soft mold; D) prototypes for each procedure..

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

working condition of one S-shaped waveguide

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Part of comparison between experimentally measured (circle) and simulation (line) results

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specifications of optical components used in BPM simulations

Metrics