Abstract

We analyze the effect of polarization-dependent loss (PDL) on the performance of the polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) signals in direct-detection systems. We present the theoretical analysis of the sensitivity penalty caused by PDL-induced coherent crosstalk and compare the results with experimental data obtained by using a simple variable PDL emulator based on a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator. Also presented is the performance degradation caused by the polarization misalignment between the received signals and the polarization beam splitter at the receiver in the presence of PDL.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, and P. D. Magill, "8×114 Gb/s, 25-GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper PDP1.
  2. G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J. -Y. Dupuy, and S. Bigo, "Transmission of 16.4 Tbits/s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and coherent receiver," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper PDP3.
  3. A. Sano, H. Masuda, Y. Kisaka, S. Aisawa, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Koga, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, "14-Tb/s (140 × 111-Gb/s PDM/WDM) CSRZ-DQPSK transmission over 160 km using 7-THz bandwidth extended L-band EDFAs," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2006), Paper Th4.1.1.
  4. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, and K. Higuma, "12.3-Tb/s C-band DQPSK transmission at 3.2 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2006), Paper Th4.1.2.
  5. J. -X. Cai, O. V. Sinkin, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, and N. Bergano, "40 Gb/s Transmission using polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RZ-DBPSK with automatic polarization tacking," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper PDP4.
  6. R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, and F. Wüst, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1469-1475, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  13, 738-740, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, "Impact of polarization dependent loss and cross-phase modulation on polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper OThU6.
  9. S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, "Experimental investigation of system impairments in polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper OThU7.
  10. H. -C. Ji, J. H. Lee, K. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, "Effect of polarization dependent loss on polarization-multiplexed transmission systems," " in Proceedings of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (2003), Paper P4-3.
  11. I. Tsalamanis, E. Rochat, M. C. Parker, and S. D. Walker, "Polarization dependent loss and temperature fluctuations effect on degree of orthogonality in polarization multiplexed arrayed waveguide grating based distribution networks," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 41, 945-950, (2005).
  12. M. Shtaif, "Performance degradation in coherent polarization multiplexed systems as a result of polarization dependent loss," Opt. Express 16, 13918-13932 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, and M. O’Sullivan, "WDM performance and PMD tolerance of a coherent 40-Gbits/s dual-polarization QPSK transceiver," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 26, 168-175, (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002), pp. 169-171, Chap. 4.
  15. ITU-T Recommendation G.680, (pre-published), 2007, http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.680-200707-I/en.

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

I. Tsalamanis, E. Rochat, M. C. Parker, and S. D. Walker, "Polarization dependent loss and temperature fluctuations effect on degree of orthogonality in polarization multiplexed arrayed waveguide grating based distribution networks," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 41, 945-950, (2005).

2001 (2)

R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, and F. Wüst, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1469-1475, (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  13, 738-740, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, S.

Kogelnik, H.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  13, 738-740, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laperle, C.

McGhan, D.

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  13, 738-740, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, T. N.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  13, 738-740, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Noé, R.

O’Sullivan, M.

Parker, M. C.

I. Tsalamanis, E. Rochat, M. C. Parker, and S. D. Walker, "Polarization dependent loss and temperature fluctuations effect on degree of orthogonality in polarization multiplexed arrayed waveguide grating based distribution networks," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 41, 945-950, (2005).

Rochat, E.

I. Tsalamanis, E. Rochat, M. C. Parker, and S. D. Walker, "Polarization dependent loss and temperature fluctuations effect on degree of orthogonality in polarization multiplexed arrayed waveguide grating based distribution networks," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 41, 945-950, (2005).

Sandel, D.

Shtaif, M.

Sun, H.

Tsalamanis, I.

I. Tsalamanis, E. Rochat, M. C. Parker, and S. D. Walker, "Polarization dependent loss and temperature fluctuations effect on degree of orthogonality in polarization multiplexed arrayed waveguide grating based distribution networks," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 41, 945-950, (2005).

Villeneuve, B.

Walker, S. D.

I. Tsalamanis, E. Rochat, M. C. Parker, and S. D. Walker, "Polarization dependent loss and temperature fluctuations effect on degree of orthogonality in polarization multiplexed arrayed waveguide grating based distribution networks," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 41, 945-950, (2005).

Wüst, F.

Zhang, Z.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  13, 738-740, (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

I. Tsalamanis, E. Rochat, M. C. Parker, and S. D. Walker, "Polarization dependent loss and temperature fluctuations effect on degree of orthogonality in polarization multiplexed arrayed waveguide grating based distribution networks," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 41, 945-950, (2005).

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, and M. O’Sullivan, "WDM performance and PMD tolerance of a coherent 40-Gbits/s dual-polarization QPSK transceiver," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 26, 168-175, (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, and F. Wüst, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," IEEE/OSAJ. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1469-1475, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (10)

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002), pp. 169-171, Chap. 4.

ITU-T Recommendation G.680, (pre-published), 2007, http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.680-200707-I/en.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, X. Wang, J. Rasmussen, H. Miyata, and T. Naito, "Impact of polarization dependent loss and cross-phase modulation on polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper OThU6.

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, "Experimental investigation of system impairments in polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper OThU7.

H. -C. Ji, J. H. Lee, K. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, "Effect of polarization dependent loss on polarization-multiplexed transmission systems," " in Proceedings of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (2003), Paper P4-3.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, and P. D. Magill, "8×114 Gb/s, 25-GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper PDP1.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, O. Bertran Pardo, F. Verluise, M. Achouche, A. Boutin, F. Blache, J. -Y. Dupuy, and S. Bigo, "Transmission of 16.4 Tbits/s capacity over 2,550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and coherent receiver," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper PDP3.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, Y. Kisaka, S. Aisawa, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Koga, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, "14-Tb/s (140 × 111-Gb/s PDM/WDM) CSRZ-DQPSK transmission over 160 km using 7-THz bandwidth extended L-band EDFAs," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2006), Paper Th4.1.1.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, and K. Higuma, "12.3-Tb/s C-band DQPSK transmission at 3.2 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optics and Communications, (2006), Paper Th4.1.2.

J. -X. Cai, O. V. Sinkin, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, and N. Bergano, "40 Gb/s Transmission using polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RZ-DBPSK with automatic polarization tacking," in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication and Conference, (2008), Paper PDP4.

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