Abstract

We demonstrate for the first time the closure of an electronic phase lock loop for a continuous–wave quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 1.5 THz. The QCL is operated in a closed cycle cryo cooler. We achieved a frequency stability of better than 100 Hz, limited by the resolution bandwidth of the spectrum analyser. The PLL electronics make use of the intermediate frequency (IF) obtained from a hot electron bolometer (HEB) which is downconverted to a PLL IF of 125 MHz. The coarse selection of the longitudinal mode and the fine tuning is achieved via the bias voltage of the QCL. Within a QCL cavity mode, the free-running QCL shows frequency fluctuations of about 5 MHz, which the PLL circuit is able to control via the Stark–shift of the QCL gain material. Temperature dependent tuning is shown to be nonlinear, and of the order of -16 MHz/K. Additionally we have used the QCL as local oscillator (LO) to pump an HEB and perform, again for the first time at 1.5 THz, a heterodyne experiment, and obtain a receiver noise temperature of 1741K.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

M. Philipp, U. U. Graf, A. Wagner-Gentner, D. Rabanus, and F. Lewen, "Compact 1.9 THz BWO local-oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne receiver," Infrared Physics and Technology 51, 54 (2007). Elsevier B.V.
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. Klapwijk, "Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2, Part 1), 252 - 258 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Gu¨sten, L. A°. Nyman, P. Schilke, K. Menten, C. Cesarsky, and R. Booth, "The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) - a new submillimeter facility for southern skies -," Astro. Astrophy. 454, L13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, A. J. L.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

Barends, R.

J. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. Klapwijk, "Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2, Part 1), 252 - 258 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baryshev, A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Baselmans, J.

J. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. Klapwijk, "Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2, Part 1), 252 - 258 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baselmans, J. J. A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1121 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

H.-W. H¨ubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. K¨ohler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

Betz, A. L.

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Optics Letters 30, 1837 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielau, F.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boreiko, R. T.

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Optics Letters 30, 1837 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 137 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5142 (2003). (c) 2003: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caux, E.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Graauw, T.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Emprechtinger, M.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1122 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1121 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Fenner, D. B.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

Fischer, M.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1122 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

G¨usten, R.

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Gao, J.

J. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. Klapwijk, "Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2, Part 1), 252 - 258 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Graf, U. U.

M. Philipp, U. U. Graf, A. Wagner-Gentner, D. Rabanus, and F. Lewen, "Compact 1.9 THz BWO local-oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne receiver," Infrared Physics and Technology 51, 54 (2007). Elsevier B.V.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

Green, R. P.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

Gu¨sten, R.

R. Gu¨sten, L. A°. Nyman, P. Schilke, K. Menten, C. Cesarsky, and R. Booth, "The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) - a new submillimeter facility for southern skies -," Astro. Astrophy. 454, L13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guesten, R.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

H¨ubers, H.-W.

Hajenius, M.

J. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. Klapwijk, "Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2, Part 1), 252 - 258 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Helmich, F.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Henseler, A.

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Hensley, J. M.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

Heyminck, S.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Honingh, C. E.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

Hovenier, J. N.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1122 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 137 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5142 (2003). (c) 2003: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Optics Letters 30, 1837 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iotti, R. C.

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, K.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

K¨ohler, R.

H.-W. H¨ubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. K¨ohler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasalynas, I.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Kasemann, C.

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Khosropanah, P.

J. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. Klapwijk, "Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2, Part 1), 252 - 258 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, T. O.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T.

J. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. Klapwijk, "Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2, Part 1), 252 - 258 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Klein, B.

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Klein, T.

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Korn, A.

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Kumar, S.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 137 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5142 (2003). (c) 2003: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Optics Letters 30, 1837 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewen, F.

M. Philipp, U. U. Graf, A. Wagner-Gentner, D. Rabanus, and F. Lewen, "Compact 1.9 THz BWO local-oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne receiver," Infrared Physics and Technology 51, 54 (2007). Elsevier B.V.
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

H.-W. H¨ubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. K¨ohler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahler, L.

H.-W. H¨ubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. K¨ohler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

Menten, K. M.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michael, E. A.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

Orlova, E. E.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S. G.

Pearson, J.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Philipp, M.

M. Philipp, U. U. Graf, A. Wagner-Gentner, D. Rabanus, and F. Lewen, "Compact 1.9 THz BWO local-oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne receiver," Infrared Physics and Technology 51, 54 (2007). Elsevier B.V.
[CrossRef]

Philipp, S. D.

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Phillips, T. G.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Rabanus, D.

M. Philipp, U. U. Graf, A. Wagner-Gentner, D. Rabanus, and F. Lewen, "Compact 1.9 THz BWO local-oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne receiver," Infrared Physics and Technology 51, 54 (2007). Elsevier B.V.
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Optics Letters 30, 1837 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 137 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5142 (2003). (c) 2003: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Rettenbacher, K.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1121 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

H.-W. H¨ubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. K¨ohler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraceno, P.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Scalari, G.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1122 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1121 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Schieder, R.

G. Sonnabend, D. Wirtz, F. Schmulling, and R. Schieder, "Tuneable Heterodyne Infrared Spectrometer for atmospheric and astronomical studies," Appl. Opt. 41, 2978 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Schieder, R. T.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

Schmulling, F.

Schneider, G.

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

Semenov, A. D.

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnabend, G.

Stanko, S.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

Stutzki, J.

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Terazzi, R.

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1122 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Tielens, X.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Tredicucci, A.

H.-W. H¨ubers, S. G. Pavlov, A. D. Semenov, R. K¨ohler, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and E. H. Linfield, "Terahertz quantum cascade laser as local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver," Opt. Express 13, 5890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volgenau, N. H.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vowinkel, B.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

Wafelbakker, C. K.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Wagner-Gentner, A.

M. Philipp, U. U. Graf, A. Wagner-Gentner, D. Rabanus, and F. Lewen, "Compact 1.9 THz BWO local-oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne receiver," Infrared Physics and Technology 51, 54 (2007). Elsevier B.V.
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1121 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1122 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Whyborn, N. D.

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

Wieching, G.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiedner, M. C.

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Optics Letters 30, 1837 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 137 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5142 (2003). (c) 2003: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Wirtz, D.

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

Yang, Z.

J. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. Klapwijk, "Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2, Part 1), 252 - 258 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. Q.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astro. Astrophy. (1)

R. Gu¨sten, L. A°. Nyman, P. Schilke, K. Menten, C. Cesarsky, and R. Booth, "The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) - a new submillimeter facility for southern skies -," Astro. Astrophy. 454, L13 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

M. C. Wiedner, G. Wieching, F. Bielau, K. Rettenbacher, N. H. Volgenau, M. Emprechtinger, U. U. Graf, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, B. Vowinkel, K. M. Menten, L.-A°. Nyman, R. Gu¨sten, S. Philipp, D. Rabanus, J. Stutzki, and F. Wyrowski, "First observations with CONDOR, a 1.5 THz heterodyne receiver," Astron. Astrophys. 454, L33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1)

J. Gao, M. Hajenius, Z. Yang, J. Baselmans, P. Khosropanah, R. Barends, and T. Klapwijk, "Terahertz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Heterodyne Receivers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2, Part 1), 252 - 258 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Physics and Technology (1)

M. Philipp, U. U. Graf, A. Wagner-Gentner, D. Rabanus, and F. Lewen, "Compact 1.9 THz BWO local-oscillator for the GREAT heterodyne receiver," Infrared Physics and Technology 51, 54 (2007). Elsevier B.V.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (15)

R. K¨ohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002). (c) 2002: Nature.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Becklin, A. G. G. M. Tielens, R. D. Gehrz, and H. H. S. Callis, "Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)," Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing and Instrumentation XV. Edited by Strojnik-Scholl 6678, 8 (2007).

T. de Graauw, E. Caux, R. Guesten, F. Helmich, J. Pearson, T. G. Phillips, R. Schieder, X. Tielens, P. Saraceno, J. Stutzki, C. K. Wafelbakker, and N. D. Whyborn, "The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)," vol. 37, pp. 1219-+ (2005).

H.-W. H¨ubers, A. Semenov, H. Richter, M. Schwarz, B. G¨unther, K. Smirnov, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, "Heterodyne receiver for 3-5 THz with hot-electron bolometer mixer," Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy II. Edited by Jonas Zmuidzinas 5498, 579 (2004).

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser," Optics Letters 30, 1837 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1122 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, "Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 1121 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser operating up to 137 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5142 (2003). (c) 2003: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

R. Schieder, J. M. Horn, O. Siebertz, C. Moeckel, F. Schloeder, C. Macke, and F. Schmuelling, "Design of large-bandwidth acousto-optical spectrometers," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3357 3357, 359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 1105 (2006). (c) 2006: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, "Quantum Electronics, 4th edition," Chapter 6 p. 478 (1991).

J. Xu, J. M. Hensley, D. B. Fenner, R. P. Green, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, M. G. Allen, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers with an external cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 1104 (2007). (c) 2007: American Institute of Physics.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselmans, A. Baryshev, M. Hajenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 4104 (2005). (c) 2005: American Institute of Physics.
[CrossRef]

U. U. Graf, S. Heyminck, E. A. Michael, S. Stanko, C. E. Honingh, K. Jacobs, R. T. Schieder, J. Stutzki, and B. Vowinkel, "SMART: The KOSMA Sub-Millimeter Array Receiver for Two frequencies," vol. 4855, pp. 322- 329 (2003).

C. Kasemann, R. G¨usten, S. Heyminck, B. Klein, T. Klein, S. D. Philipp, A. Korn, G. Schneider, A. Henseler, A. Baryshev, and T. M. Klapwijk, "CHAMP+: a powerful array receiver for APEX," vol. 6275 (2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. For thermal reasons, the QCL and HEB are located in separate cryostats. For more details see the text.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup of the locking scheme. The QCL and VDI–LO are mixed on the HEB, it’s IF is downconverted to about 200 MHz to drive a PLL cicuit which, in return, controls the bias voltage of the QCL.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a): Screenshot of the spectrum analyzer measurement of the IF signal. The free running QCL shows a FWHM line width of about 15 MHz. (b): AOS spectral dump of 10ms integration time shows a FWHM of around 2 MHz. Both, (a) and (b), span a range of 200 MHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Histograms of 800 AOS dumps of (a): the fitted center frequency; (b):the fitted– amplitude scatter; (c): the fitted line width scatter; (d): Pump levels of the HEB, shown via i–v–curves, for various polarizer angles. The solid line (0 deg) shows full ohmic behavior.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Tuning within a Fabry–Perot mode via the QCL bias voltage.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temperature tuning of the QCL within the 1.5THz mode.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

PLL monitor signals. (a): at 192 MHz. The signal–to–noise ratio is 22dB (b): the same signal, but now at a reference frequency of 126 MHz. Here the S/N ration is 28dB; (c): Highest resolution bandwidth of the spectrum analyzer: 100 Hz.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. List of longitudinal modes with tuninging coefficients, as used to plot the curves in panel (b) of Fig. 5

Tables Icon

Table 2. Receiver temperature calculation

Metrics