Abstract

A novel structure is proposed to electrically detect the plasmonic waves from a subwavelength plasmonic waveguide. By locating two L-shaped metallic nanorods in close proximity of each other at the end of the plasmonic waveguide, a metal-semiconductor-metal plasmonic detector is constructed. The L-shaped nanorods also form a dipole nanoantenna and a nanocavity to focus the photonic power into the active volume of the detector. The dimensions and locations of the L-shaped nanorods are studied to maximize the transmission efficiency of the photonic power from the plasmonic waveguide to the detector. Impedance matching with a sub is investigated to further improve the power transmission. Possible leads of the detector are discussed and their effects are investigated. Proposed detector has an ultra-compact and easy-to-fabricate planar structure, and a potentially THz speed, high responsivity as well as low power dissipation.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (8)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Neutens, P. V. Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

A. Aiu and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: Engineering optical nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 270–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, “Waveguiding: The best of both worlds,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 460–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. De Vlaminck, P. Van Dorpe, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Local electrical detection of single nanoparticle plasmon resonance,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 703–706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, E. P. Li, and R. Vahldieck, “Analysis of sub-wavelength light propagation through long double-chain nanowires with funnel feeding,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4216–4223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (7)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1671–1677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Subwavelength confinement in an integrated metal slot waveguide on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2133–2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. Jacoboni, F. Nava, C. Canali, and G. Ottaviani, “Electron drift velocity and diffusivity in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 1014–1026 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aiu, A.

A. Aiu and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bai, P.

M. X. Gu, P. Bai, and E. P. Li, “Enhancing the reception of propagating surface plasmons using a nanoantenna,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boreman, G. D.

Borghs, G.

P. Neutens, P. V. Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. De Vlaminck, P. Van Dorpe, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Local electrical detection of single nanoparticle plasmon resonance,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 703–706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: Engineering optical nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 270–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Canali, C.

C. Jacoboni, F. Nava, C. Canali, and G. Ottaviani, “Electron drift velocity and diffusivity in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 1014–1026 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, L.

Cherukulappurath, S.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, H. S.

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H.-S.

Codreanu, I.

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damlencourt, J. F.

De Vlaminck, I.

I. De Vlaminck, P. Van Dorpe, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Local electrical detection of single nanoparticle plasmon resonance,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 703–706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorpe, P. V.

P. Neutens, P. V. Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbsen, T. W.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Aiu and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ewe, W. B.

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, E. P. Li, and R. Vahldieck, “Analysis of sub-wavelength light propagation through long double-chain nanowires with funnel feeding,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4216–4223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J. M.

Fromm, D. P.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galler, N.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ghenuche, P.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M. X.

M. X. Gu, P. Bai, and E. P. Li, “Enhancing the reception of propagating surface plasmons using a nanoantenna,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Han, Z.

He, S.

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacoboni, C.

C. Jacoboni, F. Nava, C. Canali, and G. Ottaviani, “Electron drift velocity and diffusivity in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 1014–1026 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, S. E.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koh, W. S.

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koller, D. M.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kort, E. A.

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lagae, L.

P. Neutens, P. V. Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. De Vlaminck, P. Van Dorpe, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Local electrical detection of single nanoparticle plasmon resonance,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 703–706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latif, S.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Leitner, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, E. P.

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, E. P. Li, and R. Vahldieck, “Analysis of sub-wavelength light propagation through long double-chain nanowires with funnel feeding,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4216–4223 (2007).
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M. X. Gu, P. Bai, and E. P. Li, “Enhancing the reception of propagating surface plasmons using a nanoantenna,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Lipson, M.

List, E. J. W.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Ly-Gagnon, D.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, “Waveguiding: The best of both worlds,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 460–461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1671–1677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myroshnychenko, V.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nava, F.

C. Jacoboni, F. Nava, C. Canali, and G. Ottaviani, “Electron drift velocity and diffusivity in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 1014–1026 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Neutens, P.

P. Neutens, P. V. Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okyay, A. K.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

Ottaviani, G.

C. Jacoboni, F. Nava, C. Canali, and G. Ottaviani, “Electron drift velocity and diffusivity in germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 24(2), 1014–1026 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reil, F.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Righini, M.

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S. G.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sámson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, L.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vahldieck, R.

Van Dorpe, P.

I. De Vlaminck, P. Van Dorpe, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Local electrical detection of single nanoparticle plasmon resonance,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 703–706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

Vlaminck, I. D.

P. Neutens, P. V. Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, E. A. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1671–1677 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. X. Gu, P. Bai, and E. P. Li, “Enhancing the reception of propagating surface plasmons using a nanoantenna,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (6)

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbsen, “Nanofocusing with channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1278–1282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. De Vlaminck, P. Van Dorpe, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Local electrical detection of single nanoparticle plasmon resonance,” Nano Lett. 7(3), 703–706 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Righini, P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, V. Myroshnychenko, F. J. García de Abajo, and R. Quidant, “Nano-optical trapping of Rayleigh particles and Escherichia coli bacteria with resonant optical antennas,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3387–3391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (8)

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Neutens, P. V. Dorpe, I. D. Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal–insulator–metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Aiu and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: Engineering optical nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 270–272 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of a plasmonic detector coupled with a plasmonic waveguide. The plasmonic waves, propagating along the waveguide, are focused in a nanocavity and converted into photocurrent via the plasmonic detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power absorption in the nanocavity as a function of the length of the nanoantenna, for various widths of gaps (g) between two L-shaped nanorods.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized averaged electric-field intensity in the nanocavity as a function of the length of the nanorod waveguide. The maximum value appears when the length is 190nm. (b) The distribution of the electric and magnetic fields in the xy-plane crossing the center of the nanorods when the nanorod waveguide is 50nm (straight nanorods) and 190nm (L-shaped nanorods), respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photocurrents of the plasmonic detector as a function of the applied bias voltage. Inset is photogeneration distribution inside the nanocavity in the xy-plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized averaged electric fields in the nanocavity as a function of the length of the leads (ZnO wires) connected to the L-shaped nanorods at three different locations shown in the inset. The effect of the ZnO leads on the electric fields in the nanocavity is less than 3%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric fields propagating along the center of the plasmonic waveguide in the x-direction to the nanocavity in four different cases: with no nanorod, with the straight nanorods, with the L-shaped nanorods, and with the L-shaped nanorods plus the leads. The electric fields are enhanced the most in the nanocavity with the L-shaped nanorods. The origin of the coordinates is located in the central end of the MIM waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The real part of Poynting vectors along the central line of the MIM waveguide in the x-direction for impedance matched/unmatched MIM waveguide with the L-shaped nanorods plus the leads. Upper inset shows the transmission-line model for the MIM waveguide and the stub for the impedance matching. Bottom inset shows the electric fields of the matched and unmatched MIM waveguides along the central line.

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