Abstract

For a variety of laser interferometric experiments, the thermal noise of high-reflectivity multilayer dielectric coatings limits the measurement sensitivity. Recently, monolithic high-reflection waveguide mirrors with nanostructured surfaces have been proposed to reduce the thermal noise in interferometric measurements. Drawbacks of this approach are a highly complicated fabrication process and the high susceptibility of the nanostructured surfaces to damage and pollution. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel quasi-monolithic resonant surface reflector that also avoids the thick dielectric stack of conventional mirrors but has a flat and robust surface. Our reflector is an encapsulated subwavelength grating that is based on silicon. We measured a high reflectivity of 93% for a wavelength of λ=1.55 µm under normal incidence. Perfect reflectivities are possible in theory.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

2008

2007

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev A. 76, 053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cella and A. Giazotto, "Coatingless, tunable finesse interferometer for gravitational wave detection," Phys.Rev D. 74, 042001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, and T. Nakazawa, "High-efficiency transmission gratings buried in a fused-SiO2 glass plate," Appl. Opt. 43,1327-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, "Thermal-Noise Limit in the Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, "Broad-Band Mirror (1.12 - 1.62 μm) Using a Subwavelength Grating," IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 16,1676-1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Levin, "Internal thermal noise in the LIGO test masses: A direct approach," Phys. Rev. D 57,659-663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

P. Lalanne and D. Lemercier-Lalanne, "On the effective medium theory of subwavelength periodic structures," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

1985

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981

Aufmuth, P.

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, "Gravitational wave detectors," New J. Phys. 7,202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Britzger, M.

Bruckner, F.

Bunkowski, A.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burmeister, O.

Cagnoli, G.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Camp, J.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, "Thermal-Noise Limit in the Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cella, G.

G. Cella and A. Giazotto, "Coatingless, tunable finesse interferometer for gravitational wave detection," Phys.Rev D. 74, 042001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, "Broad-Band Mirror (1.12 - 1.62 μm) Using a Subwavelength Grating," IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 16,1676-1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, "Broad-Band Mirror (1.12 - 1.62 μm) Using a Subwavelength Grating," IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 16,1676-1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

H. Muller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clausnitzer, T.

Cohadon, P. F.

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corbitt, T.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coyne, D.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crooks, D. R. M.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cumpston, J.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev A. 76, 053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

F. Bruckner, D. Friedrich, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, M. Britzger, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. Tunnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Demonstration of a cavity coupler based on a resonant waveguide grating," Opt. Express 17,163-169 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Muller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bruckner, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. Tunnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces," Opt. Lett. 33, 264-266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, "Gravitational wave detectors," New J. Phys. 7,202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, D.

Friesem, A. A.

Fuchs, H.-J.

Gaylord, T. K.

Giazotto, A.

G. Cella and A. Giazotto, "Coatingless, tunable finesse interferometer for gravitational wave detection," Phys.Rev D. 74, 042001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Golubenko, G. A.

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goßler, S.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev A. 76, 053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev A. 76, 053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gretarsson, A. M.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harry, G. M.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heidmann, A.

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heinze, R.

Hough, J.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. C. Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, "Broad-Band Mirror (1.12 - 1.62 μm) Using a Subwavelength Grating," IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 16,1676-1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Innerhofer, E.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kampfe, T.

Kemery, A.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, "Thermal-Noise Limit in the Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, R. Lalezari, "Measurement of ultralow losses in an optical interferometer," Opt. Lett. 17, 363-365 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kintaka, K.

Kittelberger, S. E.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

Koettig, T.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and D. Lemercier-Lalanne, "On the effective medium theory of subwavelength periodic structures," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lalezari, R.

Lemercier-Lalanne, D.

P. Lalanne and D. Lemercier-Lalanne, "On the effective medium theory of subwavelength periodic structures," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levin, Y.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Levin, "Internal thermal noise in the LIGO test masses: A direct approach," Phys. Rev. D 57,659-663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, "Broad-Band Mirror (1.12 - 1.62 μm) Using a Subwavelength Grating," IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 16,1676-1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mavalvala, N.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McClelland, D. E.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev A. 76, 053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, K.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev A. 76, 053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Mow-Lowry, C. M.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev A. 76, 053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Ebhardt, H.

H. Muller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, N.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, T.

Nawrodt, R.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Numata, K.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, "Thermal-Noise Limit in the Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ottaway, D.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parriaux, O.

Penn, S. D.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

Pinard, M.

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, H.

H. Muller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rempe, G.

Rosenblatt, D.

Route, R.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rowan, S.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saulson, P. R.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schelle, D.

Schnabel, R.

F. Bruckner, D. Friedrich, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, M. Britzger, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. Tunnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Demonstration of a cavity coupler based on a resonant waveguide grating," Opt. Express 17,163-169 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Muller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bruckner, T. Clausnitzer, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, E.-B. Kley, K. Danzmann, A. Tunnermann, and R. Schnabel, "Monolithic dielectric surfaces as new low-loss light-matter interfaces," Opt. Lett. 33, 264-266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, P.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharon, A.

Sigg, D.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sneddon, P.

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Startin, W. J.

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, "Broad-Band Mirror (1.12 - 1.62 μm) Using a Subwavelength Grating," IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 16,1676-1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svakhin, A. S.

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sychugov, V. A.

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T¨unnermann, A.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. J.

Thorne, K. S.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tishchenko, A. V.

Tunnermann, A.

Vodel, W.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vyatchanin, S. P.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whitcomb, S.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wipf, C.

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmer, A.

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, "New principle for optical filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61,1022-1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav.

A. Bunkowski, O. Burmeister, D. Friedrich, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, "High reflectivity grating waveguide coatings for 1064 nm," Class. Quantum Grav. 23,7297-7303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Harry, A. M. Gretarsson, P. R. Saulson, S. E. Kittelberger, S. D. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, "Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,897-917 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. M. Crooks, P. Sneddon, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, R. Route, N. Nakagawa, D. Coyne, G. M. Harry and A. M. Gretarsson, "Excess mechanical loss associated with dielectric mirror coatings on test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors," Class. Quantum Grav. 19,883-896 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, "Broad-Band Mirror (1.12 - 1.62 μm) Using a Subwavelength Grating," IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 16,1676-1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

P. Lalanne and D. Lemercier-Lalanne, "On the effective medium theory of subwavelength periodic structures," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

New J. Phys.

P. Aufmuth and K. Danzmann, "Gravitational wave detectors," New J. Phys. 7,202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Nawrodt, A. Zimmer, T. Koettig, T. Clausnitzer, A. Bunkowski, E.-B. Kley, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, W. Vodel, A. T¨unnermann, and P. Seidel, "Mechanical Q-factor measurements on a test mass with a structured surface," New J. Phys. 9,225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev A.

S. Goßler, J. Cumpston, K. McKenzie, C. M. Mow-Lowry, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, "Coating-free mirrors for high precision interferometric experiments," Phys. Rev A. 76, 053810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D

G. Cella and A. Giazotto, "Coatingless, tunable finesse interferometer for gravitational wave detection," Phys.Rev D. 74, 042001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Levin, "Internal thermal noise in the LIGO test masses: A direct approach," Phys. Rev. D 57,659-663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Numata, A. Kemery, and J. Camp, "Thermal-Noise Limit in the Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,250602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Cohadon, A. Heidmann, and M. Pinard, "Cooling of a Mirror by Radiation Pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,3174-3177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Corbitt, Y. Chen, E. Innerhofer, H. Muller-Ebhardt, D. Ottaway, H. Rehbein, D. Sigg, S. Whitcomb, C. Wipf, and N. Mavalvala, "An All-Optical Trap for a Gram-Scale Mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,150802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Muller-Ebhardt, H. Rehbein, R. Schnabel, K. Danzmann, and Y. Chen, "Entanglement of Macroscopic Test Masses and the Standard Quantum Limit in Laser Interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,013601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev D.

H. J. Kimble, Y. Levin, A. B. Matsko, K. S. Thorne, and S. P. Vyatchanin, "Conversion of conventional gravitational-wave interferometers into quantum nondemolition interferometers by modifying their input and output optics," Phys.Rev D. 65,022002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15,886-887 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Initial waveguide grating configuration and its fundamental principle in a simplified ray picture (see main text for explanation), (b) reduction of the low-index substrate to a low-index layer, (c) movement of the grating region beneath the waveguide layer to supply a flat surface, (d) replacement of the homogeneous by an effective media low-index layer to provide a purely monolithic mirror architecture. The light rays in (c) illustrate how the waveguide modes are excited in reflection when the grating is beneath the waveguide layer (light rays have been omitted in (b) and (d) for clarity).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Calculated reflectivity versus thickness of the top waveguide layer s for fixed values of d=800 nm, f=0.4, and g=2 µm, assuming TE-polarization and normal incidence of light at λ=1550 nm. (b) Calculated spectral reflectivity for the grating design parameters given in Eqs. (2). (c) Calculated reflectivity over fill factor f and groove depth g for s=337 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) SEM (scanning electron microscope) cross-sectional view of the fabricated 800 nm period encapsulated grating in silicon that forms a quasi-monolithic surface mirror, efficiently reflecting normally incident light with a wavelength of 1.55µm. (b) Measured spectral reflectance (black curve) of the fabricated grating for normal incidence (0±1)° (red curve represents simulation from Fig. 2(b)).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ / n H < d < λ / n L ,
n H = 3.48 λ = 1550 nm ϕ = d = 800 nm f = 0.4 g = 1300 nm s = 337 nm .

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