Abstract

Conventional liquid microlens arrays are facing bottlenecks in controlling droplet size and shape, and limited aperture ratio. We report a new liquid/solvent approach to overcome these obstacles for making uniform droplet array and achieving ~90% aperture ratio. The droplets are very stable due to the pinning effect of the polymer walls and substrate surfaces. Using the fabricated droplet array, we demonstrate a tunable-focus microlens array based on dielectrophoretic effect. The microlens array exhibits a large dynamic range and fast response time (tens of milliseconds). Besides liquid microlens arrays, this fabrication method also opens a new door for making other tunable photonic devices.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focus lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Grilli, L. Miccio, V. Vespini, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, “Liquid micro-lens array activated by selective electrowetting on lithium niobate substrates,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8084–8093 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, “Tunable liquid microlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 316–318 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kuiper and H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, “Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens,” Opt. Express 14(9), 4101–4106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14954–14960 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid microlens array using dielectrophoretic effect,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2646–2652 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Xu, Y. J. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric liquid microlens with well-shaped electrode,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10499–10505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Lopez and A. H. Hirsa, “Fast focusing using a pinned-contact oscillating liquid lens,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 610–613 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S. T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17590–17595 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Patel and K. Rastani, “Electrically controlled polarization-independent liquid-crystal Fresnel lens arrays,” Opt. Lett. 16(7), 532–534 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11292–11298 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11847–11857 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2370–2378 (2003).
  17. D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, P. Waibel, and U. Wallrabe, “Optical characterization of adaptive fluidic silicone-membrane lenses,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11813–11821 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Penfield, and H. A. Haus, Electrodynamics of Moving Media (MIT, Cambridge, 1967).
  21. H. Ren, S. T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (6)

2006 (4)

C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, “Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens,” Opt. Express 14(9), 4101–4106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11292–11298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Kuiper and H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, “Tunable liquid microlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 316–318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2370–2378 (2003).

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focus lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Agarwal, A. K.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baer, E.

Beadie, G.

Beebe, D. J.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berdichevsky, Y.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focus lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. A.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

Choi, J.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chronis, N.

De Nicola, S.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Draheim, J.

Fang, J.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

Giridhar, M. S.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, S.

Haddock, J. N.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, H. W.

S. Kuiper and H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hiltner, A.

Hirsa, A. H.

C. A. Lopez and A. H. Hirsa, “Fast focusing using a pinned-contact oscillating liquid lens,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 610–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K. H.

Jiang, H.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kamberger, R.

Kazmierczak, T.

Kippelen, B.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krupenkin, T.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, “Tunable liquid microlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 316–318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Lepkowicz, R. S.

Li, G.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lien, V.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. J.

Liu, G. L.

Lo, Y. H.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C. A.

C. A. Lopez and A. H. Hirsa, “Fast focusing using a pinned-contact oscillating liquid lens,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 610–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mach, P.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, “Tunable liquid microlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 316–318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D. L.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L.

Moharam, M. G. J.

Patel, J. S.

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focus lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ponting, M.

Rastani, K.

Ren, H.

Sandrock, M. L.

Schneider, F.

Shirk, J. S.

Tabiryan, N.

Valley, P.

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Varahramyan, K.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vespini, V.

Waibel, P.

Wallrabe, U.

Wang, W.

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiggins, M. J.

Wu, S. T.

Xianyu, H.

Xu, S.

Yang, S.

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, “Tunable liquid microlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 316–318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yeh, J. A.

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. Krupenkin, S. Yang, and P. Mach, “Tunable liquid microlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 316–318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, V. Lien, Y. Berdichevsky, J. Choi, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive lens with high focal length tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3171–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focus lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. Chen, W. Wang, J. Fang, and K. Varahramyan, “Variable-focusing microlens with microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(5), 675–680 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. A. Lopez and A. H. Hirsa, “Fast focusing using a pinned-contact oscillating liquid lens,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 610–613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (10)

S. Grilli, L. Miccio, V. Vespini, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, “Liquid micro-lens array activated by selective electrowetting on lithium niobate substrates,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8084–8093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, H. Ren, Y. J. Lin, M. G. J. Moharam, S. T. Wu, and N. Tabiryan, “Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17590–17595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, “Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens,” Opt. Express 14(9), 4101–4106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, H. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14954–14960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid microlens array using dielectrophoretic effect,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2646–2652 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, Y. J. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Dielectric liquid microlens with well-shaped electrode,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10499–10505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11292–11298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Schneider, J. Draheim, R. Kamberger, P. Waibel, and U. Wallrabe, “Optical characterization of adaptive fluidic silicone-membrane lenses,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11813–11821 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11847–11857 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Chronis, G. L. Liu, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, “Tunable liquid-filled microlens array integrated with microfluidic network,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2370–2378 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “In situ observation of fringing-field-induced phase separation in a liquid-crystal-monomer mixture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. Penfield, and H. A. Haus, Electrodynamics of Moving Media (MIT, Cambridge, 1967).

Supplementary Material (1)

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