Abstract

Using Mie theory we derive a number of general results concerning the resonances of spherical and cylindrical dielectric antennas. Specifically, we prove that the peak scattering cross-section of radiation-limited antennas depends only on the resonance frequency and thus is independent of refractive index and size, a result which is valid even when the resonator is atomic-scale. Furthermore, we derive scaling limits for the bandwidth of dielectric antennas and describe a cylindrical mode which is unique in its ability to support extremely large bandwidths even when the particle size is deeply subwavelength. Finally, we show that higher Q antennas may couple more efficiently to an external load, but the optimal absorption cross-section depends only on the resonance frequency.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Jäckel, A. A. Kinkhabwala, and W. E. Moerner, “Gold bowtie nanoantennas for surface enhanced Raman scattering under controlled electrochemical potential,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 446(4-6), 339–343 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  5. R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (6)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Vynck, D. Felbacq, E. Centeno, A. I. Căbuz, D. Cassagne, and B. Guizal, “All-dielectric rod-type metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 686–688 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical Antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4(1), 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

J. A. Schuller, R. Zia, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric metamaterials based on electric and magnetic resonances of silicon carbide particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(10), 107401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, and B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, A. Slandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 25403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Jäckel, A. A. Kinkhabwala, and W. E. Moerner, “Gold bowtie nanoantennas for surface enhanced Raman scattering under controlled electrochemical potential,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 446(4-6), 339–343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 206806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. S. McLean, “A re-examination of the fundamental limits on the radiation Q of electrically small antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 44(5), 672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. K. Mongia and P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas-A review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Millimeter-Wave Comput.-Aided Eng. 4(3), 230–247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

1948 (1)

L. J. Chu, “Physical limitations of omni-directional antennas,” J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 1163 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aljunid, S. A.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ayazi, A.

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, and B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

Bharadwaj, P.

Bhartia, P.

R. K. Mongia and P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas-A review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Millimeter-Wave Comput.-Aided Eng. 4(3), 230–247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 686–688 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, R. Zia, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric metamaterials based on electric and magnetic resonances of silicon carbide particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(10), 107401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabuz, A. I.

K. Vynck, D. Felbacq, E. Centeno, A. I. Căbuz, D. Cassagne, and B. Guizal, “All-dielectric rod-type metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassagne, D.

K. Vynck, D. Felbacq, E. Centeno, A. I. Căbuz, D. Cassagne, and B. Guizal, “All-dielectric rod-type metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Centeno, E.

K. Vynck, D. Felbacq, E. Centeno, A. I. Căbuz, D. Cassagne, and B. Guizal, “All-dielectric rod-type metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandran, A.

Chen, G.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chng, B.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, L. J.

L. J. Chu, “Physical limitations of omni-directional antennas,” J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 1163 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, B. M.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, B.

Eklund, P. C.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

J. Li, A. Slandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 25403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Felbacq, D.

K. Vynck, D. Felbacq, E. Centeno, A. I. Căbuz, D. Cassagne, and B. Guizal, “All-dielectric rod-type metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Etxarri, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerhardt, I.

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4(1), 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guizal, B.

K. Vynck, D. Felbacq, E. Centeno, A. I. Căbuz, D. Cassagne, and B. Guizal, “All-dielectric rod-type metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutierrez, H. R.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Håkanson, U.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houshmand, B.

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, and B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, R. C. J.

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, and B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huber, F.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4(1), 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jäckel, F.

F. Jäckel, A. A. Kinkhabwala, and W. E. Moerner, “Gold bowtie nanoantennas for surface enhanced Raman scattering under controlled electrochemical potential,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 446(4-6), 339–343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, and B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karim, S.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerker, M.

Kinkhabwala, A. A.

F. Jäckel, A. A. Kinkhabwala, and W. E. Moerner, “Gold bowtie nanoantennas for surface enhanced Raman scattering under controlled electrochemical potential,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 446(4-6), 339–343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühn, S.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtsiefer, C.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, A. Slandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 25403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslennikov, G.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matijevic, E.

McLean, J. S.

J. S. McLean, “A re-examination of the fundamental limits on the radiation Q of electrically small antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 44(5), 672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

F. Jäckel, A. A. Kinkhabwala, and W. E. Moerner, “Gold bowtie nanoantennas for surface enhanced Raman scattering under controlled electrochemical potential,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 446(4-6), 339–343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mongia, R. K.

R. K. Mongia and P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas-A review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Millimeter-Wave Comput.-Aided Eng. 4(3), 230–247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nabet, B.

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neubrech, F.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellen, M. E.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petko, J. S.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pucci, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogobete, L.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4(1), 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, R. Zia, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric metamaterials based on electric and magnetic resonances of silicon carbide particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(10), 107401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 206806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slandrino, A.

J. Li, A. Slandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 25403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spanier, J. E.

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefani, F. D.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taubner, T.

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, R. Zia, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric metamaterials based on electric and magnetic resonances of silicon carbide particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(10), 107401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tey, M. K.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Vynck, K.

K. Vynck, D. Felbacq, E. Centeno, A. I. Căbuz, D. Cassagne, and B. Guizal, “All-dielectric rod-type metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 206806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, D. H.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 686–688 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrigge, G.

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4(1), 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Q.

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

Zia, R.

J. A. Schuller, R. Zia, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric metamaterials based on electric and magnetic resonances of silicon carbide particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(10), 107401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumofen, G.

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4(1), 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Jäckel, A. A. Kinkhabwala, and W. E. Moerner, “Gold bowtie nanoantennas for surface enhanced Raman scattering under controlled electrochemical potential,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 446(4-6), 339–343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. McLean, “A re-examination of the fundamental limits on the radiation Q of electrically small antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 44(5), 672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Microwave Millimeter-Wave Comput.-Aided Eng. (1)

R. K. Mongia and P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas-A review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Millimeter-Wave Comput.-Aided Eng. 4(3), 230–247 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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L. J. Chu, “Physical limitations of omni-directional antennas,” J. Appl. Phys. 19(12), 1163 (1948).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

G. Chen, J. Wu, Q. Lu, H. R. Gutierrez, Q. Xiong, M. E. Pellen, J. S. Petko, D. H. Werner, and P. C. Eklund, “Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1341–1346 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 658–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, and B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (2)

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4(1), 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without the need for a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4(12), 924–927 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Li, A. Slandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 25403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Enhanced Raman scattering from individual semiconductor nanocones and nanowires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(15), 157402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, R. Zia, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric metamaterials based on electric and magnetic resonances of silicon carbide particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(10), 107401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Vynck, D. Felbacq, E. Centeno, A. I. Căbuz, D. Cassagne, and B. Guizal, “All-dielectric rod-type metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 206806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. F. Bohren, and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley Inter-Science, New York, 1998).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley and Sons, New York, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Real part of the Mie coefficients for the three lowest order cylindrical modes. Coefficients are plotted for particles with refractive indexes (n) of 4 (red curves) and 8 (blue curves). Both fundamental and second order resonances in the Mie coefficient are visible for the larger refractive index antennas (blue).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of Chu limit (blue lines), modified Chu limit (red lines), and Q values calculated from Mie coefficients (blue circles) for the three lowest order cylindrical modes. Zeroth order modes are plotted on a log-linear scale while the first order mode is plotted on a log-log scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of antenna coupling to a thin coating of absorbing material for high Q (blue) and low Q (red). a) Mie coefficients for TE0 (red) and TE1 (blue) modes of particles with refractive indices chosen such that the two normalized resonance frequencies are identical. (b) Electric field intensity enhancements for the two modes. The higher Q mode exhibits significantly larger external field enhancement. c) Absorption coefficients for the two modes. The larger field enhancements of the higher Q mode result in much larger absorption for thin coatings. d) Mie coefficients for the fundamental (red) and second order (blue) TE1 modes of particles with refractive indices chosen such that the two resonance frequencies are identical. e) Although the higher Q mode has more internal energy than the low Q mode, the external field intensities are identical. f) The identical external fields result in identical coupling to the thin absorbing coating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real part of the TM1 Mie coefficient for a cylinder with Re{n} = 10 and varying levels of material losses (Im{n}).

Equations (27)

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E s { T E T M } = m = E 0 ( i ) m k 0 { i a m M m b m N m }
E s = m = 1 m = i m E 0 2 m + 1 ( i a m N m b m M m )
1 2 N m × ( × N m ) * d a = 1 2 M m × ( × M m ) * d a     =     constant .
C s c a { T E T M } = 4 k 0 m = { | a m | 2 | b m | 2 } c y l i n d e r C e x t { T E T M } = 4 k 0 Re [ m = { a m b m } ] c y l i n d e r C s c a = 2 π k 0 2 m = 1 ( 2 m + 1 ) ( | a m | 2 + | b m | 2 ) s p h e r e C e x t = 2 π k 0 2 m = 1 ( 2 m + 1 ) Re [ a m + b m ] s p h e r e .
Re { b m } | b m | 2 Re { b m } Re { b m } 2 + Im { b m } 2 Re { b m } Re { b m } 2 .
Re { b m } 1.
C e x t , m , C s c a t , m 4 k 0 c y l i n d e r .
C e x t , m , C s c a t , m 2 π k 0 2 ( 2 m + 1 ) s p h e r e .
E i { T E T M } = m = E 0 ( i ) m k { i M m N m } c y l i n d e r E i = m = 1 E 0 i m 2 m + 1 ( M m i N m ) s p h e r e .
b m = 1 n J m ' ( n x ) Y m ( x ) = J m ( n x ) Y m ' ( x ) n J m 1 ( n x ) Y m ( x ) = J m ( n x ) Y m 1 ( x ) .
b m = 0 n J m ' ( n x ) J m ( x ) = J m ( n x ) J m ' ( x ) n J m 1 ( n x ) J m ( x ) = J m ( n x ) J m 1 ( x ) .
x Re { b m } = 0 4 ( n 2 1 ) [ J m ( n x ) 2 ] [ n J m 1 ( n x ) J m ( x ) J m ( n x ) J m 1 ( x ) ] [ n J m 1 ( n x ) Y m ( x ) J m ( n x ) Y m 1 ( x ) ] = 0 .
Q 1 x 3 + 1 x .
Q = ω W s t o r e d P r a d i a t e d .
W t o t a l = 0 2 π a 1 2 ( ε E E * + μ H H * ) r d r d φ .
E r a d = lim r E H r a d = lim r H W s t o r e d = W t o t a l W p r o p a g a t i n g = 0 2 π a 1 2 ( ε E E * + μ H H * ε E r a d E r a d * μ H r a d H r a d * ) r d r d φ P r a d = 0 2 π Re ( E × H * ) r d φ = 0 2 π Re ( E r a d × H r a d * ) r d φ .
Q ( 1 + γ ln ( 2 ) + ln ( x ) ) π .
W s t o r e d , int = 0 2 π 0 a 1 2 ( ε E E * + μ H H * ) r d r d φ Q = ω W s t o r e d , int + W s t o r e d , e x t P r a d .
W s t o r e d , e x t x = k a x = ( 1 x ) 2 x d x ln ( k a ) .
W s t o r e d , e x t x = k a x = ( 1 x 2 ) 2 x d x 1 x 2
C a b s , m = C e x t , m C s c a t , m = 4 k 0 ( Re { a m } | a m | 2 ) .
C a b s , m = 4 k 0 ( Re { a m } Re { a m } 2 Im { a m } 2 ) C a b s , m 4 k 0 ( Re { a m } Re { a m } 2 ) .
Re { a m } [ 4 k 0 ( Re { a m } Re { a m } 2 ) ] = 0 1 2 Re { a m } = 0 Re { a m } = 1 2
C a b s , m 1 k 0 .
I . E . C e x t , p e a k Q = Re { b 1 } p e a k Q .
Q = ω W s t o r e d P r a d + P a b s = ω W s t o r e d P e x t
Q | b 1 | p e a k 2 Re { b 1 } p e a k I . E . Re { b 1 } p e a k 2 | b 1 | p e a k 2 .

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