Abstract

We present an ultra-broadband Mach-Zehnder based optical switch in silicon, electrically driven through carrier injection. Crosstalk levels lower than -17dB are obtained for both the ‘on’ and ‘off’ switching states over an optical bandwidth of 110nm, owing to the implementation of broadband 50% couplers. Full 2×2 switching functionality is demonstrated, with low power consumption (~3mW) and a fast switching time (<4ns). The utilization of standard CMOS metallization results in a low drive voltage (~1V) and a record-low VπL (~0.06V·mm). The wide optical bandwidth is maintained for temperature variations up to 30K.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).
  11. J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, utra-broadband optical switch for reconfigurable optical networks-on-chip," Opt. Express (to be published).
  12. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects in Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123-129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. L. Tsao, H. C. Guo, and Y. J. Chen, "Design of a 2 x 2 MMI MZI SOI electro-optic switch covering C band and L band," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33(4), 262-265 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica-Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Lavoie, F. M. d’Heurle, C. Detavernier, and C. Cabral, "Towards implementation of a nickel silicide process for CMOS technologies," Microelectron. Eng. 70(2-4), 144-157 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Assefa, C. Jahnes, and Y. Vlasov, "CMOS compatible integrated dielectric optical waveguide coupler and fabrication," US patent application, 12/164580 (2008).
  18. P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, "Thermal characterization of electrically injected thin-film InGaAsP microdisk lasers on Si," J. Lightwave Technol. 25(6), 1543-1548 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

2009 (3)

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, "Thermal characterization of electrically injected thin-film InGaAsP microdisk lasers on Si," J. Lightwave Technol. 25(6), 1543-1548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Lavoie, F. M. d’Heurle, C. Detavernier, and C. Cabral, "Towards implementation of a nickel silicide process for CMOS technologies," Microelectron. Eng. 70(2-4), 144-157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. L. Tsao, H. C. Guo, and Y. J. Chen, "Design of a 2 x 2 MMI MZI SOI electro-optic switch covering C band and L band," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33(4), 262-265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica-Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects in Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asanovic, K.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, "Thermal characterization of electrically injected thin-film InGaAsP microdisk lasers on Si," J. Lightwave Technol. 25(6), 1543-1548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects in Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Binkert, N.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Byun, H.

Cabral, C.

C. Lavoie, F. M. d’Heurle, C. Detavernier, and C. Cabral, "Towards implementation of a nickel silicide process for CMOS technologies," Microelectron. Eng. 70(2-4), 144-157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

S. L. Tsao, H. C. Guo, and Y. J. Chen, "Design of a 2 x 2 MMI MZI SOI electro-optic switch covering C band and L band," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33(4), 262-265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, E.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

d’Heurle, F. M.

C. Lavoie, F. M. d’Heurle, C. Detavernier, and C. Cabral, "Towards implementation of a nickel silicide process for CMOS technologies," Microelectron. Eng. 70(2-4), 144-157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, A.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Detavernier, C.

C. Lavoie, F. M. d’Heurle, C. Detavernier, and C. Cabral, "Towards implementation of a nickel silicide process for CMOS technologies," Microelectron. Eng. 70(2-4), 144-157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Dong, P.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fiorentino, M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F.

Geis, M.

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, utra-broadband optical switch for reconfigurable optical networks-on-chip," Opt. Express (to be published).

Grein, M.

Guo, H. C.

S. L. Tsao, H. C. Guo, and Y. J. Chen, "Design of a 2 x 2 MMI MZI SOI electro-optic switch covering C band and L band," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33(4), 262-265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C. W.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, J. L.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. G.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jaenen, P.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jinguji, K.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica-Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jouppi, N. P.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica-Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khilo, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kitoh, T.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica-Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J. A.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lavoie, C.

C. Lavoie, F. M. d’Heurle, C. Detavernier, and C. Cabral, "Towards implementation of a nickel silicide process for CMOS technologies," Microelectron. Eng. 70(2-4), 144-157 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. L.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. Q.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. K.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T.

McLaren, M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moss, B.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, L. R.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olubuyide, O. O.

Orcutt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J. S.

Popovic, M. A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Priem, G.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

Ram, R. J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

Ritter, M. B.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Rooks, M.

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

Rooks, M. J.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

Santori, C. M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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Schreiber, R. S.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Sekaric, L.

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
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Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
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Spector, S.

Spillane, S. M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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Stojanovic, V.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica-Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
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Tsao, S. L.

S. L. Tsao, H. C. Guo, and Y. J. Chen, "Design of a 2 x 2 MMI MZI SOI electro-optic switch covering C band and L band," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33(4), 262-265 (2002).
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Tsuchiya, M.

P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, "Thermal characterization of electrically injected thin-film InGaAsP microdisk lasers on Si," J. Lightwave Technol. 25(6), 1543-1548 (2007).
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J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, utra-broadband optical switch for reconfigurable optical networks-on-chip," Opt. Express (to be published).

Van Thourhout, D.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, "Thermal characterization of electrically injected thin-film InGaAsP microdisk lasers on Si," J. Lightwave Technol. 25(6), 1543-1548 (2007).
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P. Dumon, G. Priem, L. R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T. K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, and R. Baets, "Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8B), 6589-6602 (2006).
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Vantrease, D.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
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F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

Vlasov, Y. A.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, utra-broadband optical switch for reconfigurable optical networks-on-chip," Opt. Express (to be published).

Wakil, J.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
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Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
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F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

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J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the reference MZ switch. (b) Schematic of the wavelength-insensitive MZ switch, showing the broadband 50% couplers consisting of two directional couplers with an intermediate phase delay. (c) Simulated transmittance spectra for the reference MZ switch, illustrating the limited optical bandwidth of 35nm. (d) Transmittance spectra of the wavelength-insensitive MZ switch, showing 110-nm optical bandwidth.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Microscope image of the fabricated WIMZ switch. The scale bar is 50-µm long. (b) Scanning-electron-microscope image of the cross section of the employed p-i-n diode phase shifter. The scale bar is 500-nm long.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Steady-state transmittance spectra of the wavelength-insensitive MZ switch. The switching performance for using input port a 1 is shown in (a), and switching performance for using input port a 2 in (b). Crosstalk levels of lower than -17dB are obtained for both input ports and for both the switch ‘off’ and switch ‘on’ state.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Switching response measured as a function of peak drive voltage VD of 100-ns-long drive pulses, at a wavelength of 1518nm. The ‘on’ state is reached at V on=1.02V (±0.02V), with -20-dB ‘on’-state crosstalk. The horizontal line shows the noise floor. (b) Time-resolved switching response for a 5-ns-long drive pulse with 0.45-ns-long rise/fall times (shown above). The obtained switching times are shorter than 4ns.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Steady-state transmittance spectra of the WIMZ switch, measured at 30°C (a) and 50°C (b). Only a minor crosstalk degradation (-17dB) is observed at 50°C, indicating a tolerance against temperature variations of up to 30K peak to peak.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Switching response measured for 100-ns-long ‘on’-state duration with a fixed ‘on’-state drive voltage (V on=1V) and variable duty cycles: (a) 10%, (b) 50% and (c) 83%. A minor degradation in crosstalk levels of up to -16dB can be observed for high duty cycles. The input wavelength was 1518nm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Overview of the simulated optical bandwidth (BW) with maximum crosstalk XTmax and FCA-induced insertion loss (ILFCA), for both the ‘off’ and ‘on’ state of the MZ and WIMZ switch.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Overview of the measured switching performance of the WIMZ switch.

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