Abstract

This letter presents a simple phase modulation scheme for interrogation of low-coherence interferometry based fiber-tip pressure sensors to enable real-time monitoring and miniaturization of the entire sensor system. The key idea is to introduce a sinusoidal modulation signal and retrieve the sensing cavity length change using a simple algorithm, without resorting to any time information. In experiments, phase modulation has been achieved by using a silicon-micromachined tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer, which is integrated with a light source and a photodiode onto a single chip. Compared with the conventional interrogation methods, this scheme possesses the merits of being less susceptible to disturbance, easy control and easy miniaturization, making it particularly suitable for sensing in constrained spaces and harsh environments.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

2008 (3)

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Adachi, "Phase-shift algorithm for white-light interferometry insensitive to linear errors in phase shift," Opt. Rev. 15(3), 148-155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, J. He, J-Y Duan, F. Li, and Y-L Liu, "Implementation of phase generated carrier technique for FBG laser sensor multiplexed system based on Compact RIO," J. Electron. Sci. Technol. China 6(4), 385-388 (2008).

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

Y. Wang, M. Han, and A. Wang, "High-speed fiber-optic spectrometer for signal demodulation of interferometric fiber-optic sensors," Opt. Lett. 31(16), 2408-2410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, "Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(3), 227-237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2003 (1)

M. Yu and B. Balachandran, "Acoustic measurements using a fiber optic sensor system", J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14(7), 409-414 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. J Connelly, "Digital synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demodulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(6), S400-S405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. Jones, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensors for turbomachinery applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(3), 1868-1874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. N. MacPherson, S. R. Kidd, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase demodulation in optical fibre Fabry-Perot sensors with inexact phase steps," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144(3), 130-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Legtenberg, A. W. Groeneveld and M. Elwenspoek, "Comb-drive actuators for large displacements," J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(3), 320-329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(1), 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1984 (1)

J. I. Peterson and G. G. Vurek, "Fiber-optic sensors for biomedical applications," Science 224(4645), 123-127 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. H. Cole, B. A. Danver, and J. A. Bucaro, "Synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demoludation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 694-697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and G. Giallorenzi, "Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensor using phase generated carrier," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30(10), 1635-1641 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, M.

M. Adachi, "Phase-shift algorithm for white-light interferometry insensitive to linear errors in phase shift," Opt. Rev. 15(3), 148-155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, B.

M. Yu and B. Balachandran, "Acoustic measurements using a fiber optic sensor system", J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14(7), 409-414 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

J. M. Kilpatrick, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase-demodulation error of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor with complex reflection coefficients," Appl. Opt. 39(9), 1382-1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. Jones, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensors for turbomachinery applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(3), 1868-1874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, S. R. Kidd, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase demodulation in optical fibre Fabry-Perot sensors with inexact phase steps," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144(3), 130-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(1), 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

J. H. Cole, B. A. Danver, and J. A. Bucaro, "Synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demoludation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 694-697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cibula, E.

Claus, R. O.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(1), 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. H.

J. H. Cole, B. A. Danver, and J. A. Bucaro, "Synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demoludation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 694-697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Connelly, M. J

M. J Connelly, "Digital synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demodulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(6), S400-S405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. L.

Dandridge, A.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and G. Giallorenzi, "Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensor using phase generated carrier," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30(10), 1635-1641 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Danver, B. A.

J. H. Cole, B. A. Danver, and J. A. Bucaro, "Synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demoludation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 694-697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ðonlagic, D.

Duan, J-Y

L. Feng, J. He, J-Y Duan, F. Li, and Y-L Liu, "Implementation of phase generated carrier technique for FBG laser sensor multiplexed system based on Compact RIO," J. Electron. Sci. Technol. China 6(4), 385-388 (2008).

Dubois, A.

Elwenspoek, M.

R. Legtenberg, A. W. Groeneveld and M. Elwenspoek, "Comb-drive actuators for large displacements," J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(3), 320-329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eom, T. B.

Esashi, M.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, "Ultra-miniature fiber-optic pressure sensor using white light interferometry," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(1), 71-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, J. He, J-Y Duan, F. Li, and Y-L Liu, "Implementation of phase generated carrier technique for FBG laser sensor multiplexed system based on Compact RIO," J. Electron. Sci. Technol. China 6(4), 385-388 (2008).

Fürstenau, N.

Giallorenzi, G.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and G. Giallorenzi, "Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensor using phase generated carrier," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30(10), 1635-1641 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Grace, J. L.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(1), 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. A.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(1), 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Groeneveld, A. W.

R. Legtenberg, A. W. Groeneveld and M. Elwenspoek, "Comb-drive actuators for large displacements," J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(3), 320-329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haga, Y.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, "Ultra-miniature fiber-optic pressure sensor using white light interferometry," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(1), 71-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

He, J.

L. Feng, J. He, J-Y Duan, F. Li, and Y-L Liu, "Implementation of phase generated carrier technique for FBG laser sensor multiplexed system based on Compact RIO," J. Electron. Sci. Technol. China 6(4), 385-388 (2008).

Hsieh, A. H.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S-C

Huang, Z.

Jackson, D. A.

Jang, R.

Jones, J. D.

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. Jones, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensors for turbomachinery applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(3), 1868-1874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

J. M. Kilpatrick, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase-demodulation error of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor with complex reflection coefficients," Appl. Opt. 39(9), 1382-1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, S. R. Kidd, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase demodulation in optical fibre Fabry-Perot sensors with inexact phase steps," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144(3), 130-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. E.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(1), 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kang, C-S

Kidd, S. R.

W. N. MacPherson, S. R. Kidd, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase demodulation in optical fibre Fabry-Perot sensors with inexact phase steps," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144(3), 130-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kilpatrick, J. M.

J. M. Kilpatrick, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase-demodulation error of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor with complex reflection coefficients," Appl. Opt. 39(9), 1382-1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. Jones, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensors for turbomachinery applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(3), 1868-1874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, J-A

Legtenberg, R.

R. Legtenberg, A. W. Groeneveld and M. Elwenspoek, "Comb-drive actuators for large displacements," J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(3), 320-329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

L. Feng, J. He, J-Y Duan, F. Li, and Y-L Liu, "Implementation of phase generated carrier technique for FBG laser sensor multiplexed system based on Compact RIO," J. Electron. Sci. Technol. China 6(4), 385-388 (2008).

Lin, H.

Liu, Y-L

L. Feng, J. He, J-Y Duan, F. Li, and Y-L Liu, "Implementation of phase generated carrier technique for FBG laser sensor multiplexed system based on Compact RIO," J. Electron. Sci. Technol. China 6(4), 385-388 (2008).

MacPherson, W. N.

J. M. Kilpatrick, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase-demodulation error of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor with complex reflection coefficients," Appl. Opt. 39(9), 1382-1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, J. M. Kilpatrick, J. S. Barton, and J. D. Jones, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensors for turbomachinery applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(3), 1868-1874 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson, S. R. Kidd, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase demodulation in optical fibre Fabry-Perot sensors with inexact phase steps," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144(3), 130-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, M.

Melz, T.

Murphy, K. A.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(1), 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nesson, S.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. Y.

Peterson, J. I.

J. I. Peterson and G. G. Vurek, "Fiber-optic sensors for biomedical applications," Science 224(4645), 123-127 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, "Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(3), 227-237 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, "Prototype fiber-optic-based Fizeau medical pressure sensor that uses coherence reading," Opt. Lett. 18(24), 2153-2155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M.

Shen, F.

Totsu, K.

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, "Ultra-miniature fiber-optic pressure sensor using white light interferometry," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(1), 71-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tran, T. A.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(1), 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tveten, A. B.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and G. Giallorenzi, "Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensor using phase generated carrier," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30(10), 1635-1641 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vurek, G. G.

J. I. Peterson and G. G. Vurek, "Fiber-optic sensors for biomedical applications," Science 224(4645), 123-127 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Werther, B.

Xu, J.

Yu, M.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Yu and B. Balachandran, "Acoustic measurements using a fiber optic sensor system", J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14(7), 409-414 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

W. N. MacPherson, S. R. Kidd, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, "Phase demodulation in optical fibre Fabry-Perot sensors with inexact phase steps," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 144(3), 130-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Cole, B. A. Danver, and J. A. Bucaro, "Synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demoludation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 694-697 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhu and A. Wang," Miniature Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 447-449 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, and G. Giallorenzi, "Homodyne demodulation scheme for fiber optic sensor using phase generated carrier," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30(10), 1635-1641 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Nesson, M. Yu, X. M. Zhang, and A. H. Hsieh, "Miniature fiber optic pressure sensor with composite polymer-metal diaphragm for intradiscal pressure measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044040 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Sci. Technol. China (1)

L. Feng, J. He, J-Y Duan, F. Li, and Y-L Liu, "Implementation of phase generated carrier technique for FBG laser sensor multiplexed system based on Compact RIO," J. Electron. Sci. Technol. China 6(4), 385-388 (2008).

J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. (1)

M. Yu and B. Balachandran, "Acoustic measurements using a fiber optic sensor system", J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 14(7), 409-414 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (2)

R. Legtenberg, A. W. Groeneveld and M. Elwenspoek, "Comb-drive actuators for large displacements," J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(3), 320-329 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Totsu, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, "Ultra-miniature fiber-optic pressure sensor using white light interferometry," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(1), 71-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. J Connelly, "Digital synthetic-heterodyne interferometric demodulation," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4(6), S400-S405 (2002).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic setup of sinusoidal phase modulation scheme for low-coherence interrogation of the fiber-tip pressure sensors. CP0 and CP1 represents 1×2 optical couplers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Featured points on the modulated output waveform.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Single-chip integrated optical interrogation subsystem for implementation of the sinusoidal phase modulation scheme. (a) Photograph of the chip; and (b) micrograph of the micromachined resonant mirror, with a close-up of the mirror shown in the inset.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured waveforms of the modulation voltage signal applied to the micromachined resonant mirror and the interferometric outputs in response to different external pressures.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the pressure sensor responses as measured by the sinusoidal modulation scheme and the reflection spectrum method.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of the measured pressure in response to the change of modulation depth.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Variation of the retrieved phase in response to the temperature change.

Equations (9)

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P ( τ ) = 1 + T 0 cos ( A sin τ + ϕ 0 ) .
A = 4 π ε 0 N h λ 0 ζ K 0 g V b V s 0 ,
ϕ 0 = 4 π λ 0 Δ L + 4 π λ 0 [ L 0 x 0 + ε 0 N h g ( V b 2 + 1 2 V s 0 2 ) ] ,
cos ( A + ϕ 0 ) = 2 P π 2 P max P min P max P min ,
cos ( A + ϕ 0 ) = 2 P + π 2 P max P min P max P min .
b 1 = arccos 2 P π / 2 P max P min P max P min ,
b 2 = arccos 2 P + π / 2 P max P min P max P min .
A = ( m n ) π + 1 2 ( a 2 a 1 ) ,
ϕ 0 = ( m + n ) π + 1 2 ( a 2 + a 1 ) .

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