Abstract

The nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of an oligothiophene (6THIOP) covalently functionalized graphene hybrid material (Graphene-6THIOP) were investigated by using Z-scan technique with a 5ns Q-switched pulsed laser at 532 nm. Results show that the hybrid material of Graphene-6THIOP exhibits enhanced nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties in comparison to individual 6THIOP, graphene moiety and C60. The enhanced nonlinear optical properties of Graphene-6THIOP should be attributed to the combination of the observed nonlinear scattering with the possible photoinduced electron or energy transfer mechanism between 6THIOP moiety and graphene.

© 2009 OSA

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Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A graphene hybrid material covalently functionalized with porphyrin: synthesis and optical limiting property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47(13), 3113–3121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Li, Y. Yamamoto, T. Fukushima, A. Saeki, S. Seki, S. Tagawa, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, M. Takata, and T. Aida, “Amphiphilic molecular design as a rational strategy for tailoring bicontinuous electron donor and acceptor arrays: photoconductive liquid crystalline oligothiophene--C60 dyads,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(28), 8886–8887 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yamada, H. Kumazawa, T. Noutoshi, S. Tanaka, and H. Tada, “Electrical conductance of oligothiophene molecular wires,” Nano Lett. 8(4), 1237–1240 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li and R. B. Kaner, “Materials science. Graphene-based materials,” Science 320(5880), 1170–1171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Bunch, A. M. van der Zande, S. S. Verbridge, I. W. Frank, D. M. Tanenbaum, J. M. Parpia, H. G. Craighead, and P. L. McEuen, “Electromechanical resonators from graphene sheets,” Science 315(5811), 490–493 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Liu, Y. L. Liu, B. Zhang, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, and C. P. Zhang, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of carbon disulfide in a short-wavelength region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1101–1104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Schulze, C. Uhrich, R. Schüppel, K. Leo, M. Pfeiffer, E. Brier, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, “Efficient vacuum-deposited organic solar cells based on a new low-bandgap oligothiophene and fullerene C60,” Adv. Mater. 18(21), 2872–2875 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

W. Wu, S. Zhang, Y. Li, J. X. Li, L. Q. Liu, Y. J. Qin, Z. X. Guo, L. M. Dai, C. Ye, and D. B. Zhu, “PVK-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes with effective photoinduced electron transfer,” Macromolecules 36(17), 6286–6288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Q. Liu, S. Zhang, T. J. Hu, Z. X. Guo, C. Ye, L. M. Dai, and D. B. Zhu, “Solubilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes with broadband optical limiting effect,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 359(3-4), 191–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, P. Lancon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40(10), 1789–1797 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

Z. X. Jin, X. Sun, G. Q. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(6), 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Riggs, D. B. Walker, D. L. Carroll, and Y. P. Sun, “Optical limiting properties of suspended and solubilized carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7071–7076 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Liu, G. Z. Zhao, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, P. Cui, and L. Li, “Optical limiting property of molybdenum complex of fullerene C70,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 309–313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aida, T.

W. S. Li, Y. Yamamoto, T. Fukushima, A. Saeki, S. Seki, S. Tagawa, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, M. Takata, and T. Aida, “Amphiphilic molecular design as a rational strategy for tailoring bicontinuous electron donor and acceptor arrays: photoconductive liquid crystalline oligothiophene--C60 dyads,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(28), 8886–8887 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akundi, M. A.

Anglaret, E.

L. Vivien, P. Lancon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40(10), 1789–1797 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z. N.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bäuerle, P.

K. Schulze, C. Uhrich, R. Schüppel, K. Leo, M. Pfeiffer, E. Brier, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, “Efficient vacuum-deposited organic solar cells based on a new low-bandgap oligothiophene and fullerene C60,” Adv. Mater. 18(21), 2872–2875 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Becerril, H. A.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brier, E.

K. Schulze, C. Uhrich, R. Schüppel, K. Leo, M. Pfeiffer, E. Brier, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, “Efficient vacuum-deposited organic solar cells based on a new low-bandgap oligothiophene and fullerene C60,” Adv. Mater. 18(21), 2872–2875 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bunch, J. S.

J. S. Bunch, A. M. van der Zande, S. S. Verbridge, I. W. Frank, D. M. Tanenbaum, J. M. Parpia, H. G. Craighead, and P. L. McEuen, “Electromechanical resonators from graphene sheets,” Science 315(5811), 490–493 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, D. L.

J. E. Riggs, D. B. Walker, D. L. Carroll, and Y. P. Sun, “Optical limiting properties of suspended and solubilized carbon nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(30), 7071–7076 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. S.

Y. S. Liu, J. Y. Zhou, X. L. Zhang, Z. B. Liu, X. J. Wan, J. G. Tian, T. Wang, and Y. S. Chen, “Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material,” Carbon 47(13), 3113–3121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A graphene hybrid material covalently functionalized with porphyrin: synthesis and optical limiting property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Y. Wang, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Xu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in nanosecond and picosecond regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. F. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. N. Bao, and Y. S. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craighead, H. G.

J. S. Bunch, A. M. van der Zande, S. S. Verbridge, I. W. Frank, D. M. Tanenbaum, J. M. Parpia, H. G. Craighead, and P. L. McEuen, “Electromechanical resonators from graphene sheets,” Science 315(5811), 490–493 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, P.

C. L. Liu, G. Z. Zhao, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, P. Cui, and L. Li, “Optical limiting property of molybdenum complex of fullerene C70,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 309–313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L. M.

W. Wu, S. Zhang, Y. Li, J. X. Li, L. Q. Liu, Y. J. Qin, Z. X. Guo, L. M. Dai, C. Ye, and D. B. Zhu, “PVK-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes with effective photoinduced electron transfer,” Macromolecules 36(17), 6286–6288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Q. Liu, S. Zhang, T. J. Hu, Z. X. Guo, C. Ye, L. M. Dai, and D. B. Zhu, “Solubilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes with broadband optical limiting effect,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 359(3-4), 191–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dikin, D. A.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dommett, G. H. B.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, F.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Evmenenko, G.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature 448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, I. W.

J. S. Bunch, A. M. van der Zande, S. S. Verbridge, I. W. Frank, D. M. Tanenbaum, J. M. Parpia, H. G. Craighead, and P. L. McEuen, “Electromechanical resonators from graphene sheets,” Science 315(5811), 490–493 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukushima, T.

W. S. Li, Y. Yamamoto, T. Fukushima, A. Saeki, S. Seki, S. Tagawa, H. Masunaga, S. Sasaki, M. Takata, and T. Aida, “Amphiphilic molecular design as a rational strategy for tailoring bicontinuous electron donor and acceptor arrays: photoconductive liquid crystalline oligothiophene--C60 dyads,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(28), 8886–8887 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goh, S. H.

Z. X. Jin, X. Sun, G. Q. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(6), 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

C. L. Liu, G. Z. Zhao, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, P. Cui, and L. Li, “Optical limiting property of molybdenum complex of fullerene C70,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 309–313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Y. Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z. X.

W. Wu, S. Zhang, Y. Li, J. X. Li, L. Q. Liu, Y. J. Qin, Z. X. Guo, L. M. Dai, C. Ye, and D. B. Zhu, “PVK-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes with effective photoinduced electron transfer,” Macromolecules 36(17), 6286–6288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Q. Liu, S. Zhang, T. J. Hu, Z. X. Guo, C. Ye, L. M. Dai, and D. B. Zhu, “Solubilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes with broadband optical limiting effect,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 359(3-4), 191–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

L. Vivien, P. Lancon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40(10), 1789–1797 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hor, T. S. A.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T. J.

L. Q. Liu, S. Zhang, T. J. Hu, Z. X. Guo, C. Ye, L. M. Dai, and D. B. Zhu, “Solubilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes with broadband optical limiting effect,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 359(3-4), 191–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. F. Xu, Z. B. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. G. Tian, Y. Huang, Y. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhang, and Y. S. Chen, “A graphene hybrid material covalently functionalized with porphyrin: synthesis and optical limiting property,” Adv. Mater. 21(12), 1275–1279 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

Z. X. Jin, X. Sun, G. Q. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(6), 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, X. L.

C. L. Liu, G. Z. Zhao, Q. H. Gong, K. L. Tang, X. L. Jin, P. Cui, and L. Li, “Optical limiting property of molybdenum complex of fullerene C70,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 309–313 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z. X.

Z. X. Jin, X. Sun, G. Q. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(6), 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaner, R. B.

D. Li and R. B. Kaner, “Materials science. Graphene-based materials,” Science 320(5880), 1170–1171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kost, A.

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kumazawa, H.

R. Yamada, H. Kumazawa, T. Noutoshi, S. Tanaka, and H. Tada, “Electrical conductance of oligothiophene molecular wires,” Nano Lett. 8(4), 1237–1240 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancon, P.

L. Vivien, P. Lancon, D. Riehl, F. Hache, and E. Anglaret, “Carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Carbon 40(10), 1789–1797 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

K. Schulze, C. Uhrich, R. Schüppel, K. Leo, M. Pfeiffer, E. Brier, E. Reinold, and P. Bäuerle, “Efficient vacuum-deposited organic solar cells based on a new low-bandgap oligothiophene and fullerene C60,” Adv. Mater. 18(21), 2872–2875 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li and R. B. Kaner, “Materials science. Graphene-based materials,” Science 320(5880), 1170–1171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of 6THIOP and Graphene-6THIOP

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption spectra of Graphene-6THIOP (in ODCB), 6THIOP (in ODCB), GO (in DMF), the blend sample of 6THIOP and GO (in mixed solvent of ODCB and DMF). (b) Fluorescence spectra of Graphene-6THIOP and 6THIOP in ODCB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Open-aperture Z-scan curves of Graphene-6THIOP, 6THIOP, GO, the blend sample and C60.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scattering of Graphene-6THIOP, 6THIOP, GO, the blend sample and C60 with fluence (Z position) at an angle of 7 degrees. (b) Scattering of Graphene-6THIOP at three different forward angles with fluence (Z-position).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Open-aperture Z-scan curves of Graphene-6THIOP for different input fluence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Open-aperture Z-scan curves and (b) the optical limiting of Graphene-6THIOP, GO, and C60.

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