Abstract

Modern metamaterials face functional constraints as they are commonly embedded in or deposited on dielectric materials. We provide a new solution by microfabricating a completely free-standing all-metal self-supported metamaterial. Using upright S-string architecture with the distinctive feature of metallic transverse interconnects, we form a locally stiff, globally flexible space-grid. Infrared Fourier transform interferometry reveals the typical double-peak structure of a magnetically excited left-handed and an electrically excited right-handed pass-band that is maintained under strong bending and heating, and is sensitive to dielectrics. Exploiting UV/X-ray lithography and ultimately plastic moulding, meta-foils can be mass manufactured cost-effectively to serve as optical elements.

© 2009 OSA

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2009

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

2008

2007

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8247–8256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Th. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5 Pt 2), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Argyros, A.

Au Kong, J.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5 Pt 2), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahou, M.

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

bin Mahmood, S.

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Casse, B. D. F.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, A.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5 Pt 2), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. S.

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

H. O. Moser, J. A. Kong, L. K. Jian, H. S. Chen, G. Liu, M. Bahou, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, X. X. Cheng, B. I. Wu, P. D. Gu, A. Chen, S. P. Heussler, S. bin Mahmood, and L. Wen, “Free-standing THz electromagnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13773–13780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5 Pt 2), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X. X.

Chettiar, U. K.

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

Th. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estacio, E.

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L. W.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5 Pt 2), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, P. D.

Guo, H. C.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heussler, S. P.

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

H. O. Moser, J. A. Kong, L. K. Jian, H. S. Chen, G. Liu, M. Bahou, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, X. X. Cheng, B. I. Wu, P. D. Gu, A. Chen, S. P. Heussler, S. bin Mahmood, and L. Wen, “Free-standing THz electromagnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13773–13780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huangfu, J.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5 Pt 2), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacob, Z.

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jian, L. K.

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

H. O. Moser, J. A. Kong, L. K. Jian, H. S. Chen, G. Liu, M. Bahou, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, X. X. Cheng, B. I. Wu, P. D. Gu, A. Chen, S. P. Heussler, S. bin Mahmood, and L. Wen, “Free-standing THz electromagnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13773–13780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalaiselvi, S. M. P.

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

H. O. Moser, J. A. Kong, L. K. Jian, H. S. Chen, G. Liu, M. Bahou, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, X. X. Cheng, B. I. Wu, P. D. Gu, A. Chen, S. P. Heussler, S. bin Mahmood, and L. Wen, “Free-standing THz electromagnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13773–13780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kong, J. A.

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

H. O. Moser, J. A. Kong, L. K. Jian, H. S. Chen, G. Liu, M. Bahou, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, X. X. Cheng, B. I. Wu, P. D. Gu, A. Chen, S. P. Heussler, S. bin Mahmood, and L. Wen, “Free-standing THz electromagnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13773–13780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

Th. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Large, M. C. J.

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

H. O. Moser, J. A. Kong, L. K. Jian, H. S. Chen, G. Liu, M. Bahou, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, X. X. Cheng, B. I. Wu, P. D. Gu, A. Chen, S. P. Heussler, S. bin Mahmood, and L. Wen, “Free-standing THz electromagnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13773–13780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maniam, S. M.

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

H. O. Moser, J. A. Kong, L. K. Jian, H. S. Chen, G. Liu, M. Bahou, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, X. X. Cheng, B. I. Wu, P. D. Gu, A. Chen, S. P. Heussler, S. bin Mahmood, and L. Wen, “Free-standing THz electromagnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13773–13780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markoš, P.

Th. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moser, H. O.

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

H. O. Moser, J. A. Kong, L. K. Jian, H. S. Chen, G. Liu, M. Bahou, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, X. X. Cheng, B. I. Wu, P. D. Gu, A. Chen, S. P. Heussler, S. bin Mahmood, and L. Wen, “Free-standing THz electromagnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13773–13780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E.

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pobre, R.

Ponseca, C. S.

Ran, L.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5 Pt 2), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarukura, N.

Sarychev, A. K.

Saw, B. T.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Vier, D. C.

Th. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, L.

Wilhelmi, O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B. I.

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

H. O. Moser, J. A. Kong, L. K. Jian, H. S. Chen, G. Liu, M. Bahou, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, X. X. Cheng, B. I. Wu, P. D. Gu, A. Chen, S. P. Heussler, S. bin Mahmood, and L. Wen, “Free-standing THz electromagnetic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13773–13780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zhang, S.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5 Pt 2), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5(9), 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

PCT

H. O. Moser, L. K. Jian, G. Liu, S. M. P. Kalaiselvi, S. M. Maniam, S. P. Heussler, J. A. Kong, H. S. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “A metamaterial and methods for producing the same,” PCT SG2009(000098), 19 (2009).

Phys. Rev. B

Th. Koschny, P. Markoš, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 71(24), 245105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5 Pt 2), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312(5781), 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323(5912), 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 3D schematic of a 1SE meta-foil showing lithography layers, coordinate frame, definition of geometric parameters, and their measured values (unit μm). (b) Photo of flat and rolled Au meta-foils 8×7×0.015 mm3 (L×W×H) in size. (c) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a 2SP Au meta-foil, scale bar 100 μm. (d) SEM image of a warped 1SP Au meta-foil, scale bar 50 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured and (b) simulated transmission spectra of a 1SE sample with the incidence angle α as a parameter varying from 0°(9°)81°, the electric field pointing along the z axis. Spectra are vertically shifted with respect to each other for clarity. (c) and (d) Retrieval calculation of the relative complex permittivity ε, permeability μ, and refractive index n of the 1SE sample. In the shaded frequency ranges <3 THz and >7.4 THz Re(n) reaches the edge of the Brillouin zone.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission peak areas versus incidence angle with a cosα-fit to the 3.2 THz left-handed magnetic resonance and a cos2α–fit to the 6.8 THz right-handed electric resonance (1SE sample).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectral response under bending from flat to 1 cm radius around z axis (2SE) under normal incidence. (b) Peak shift and damping upon filling with PMMA (1SP) under normal incidence. Spectra are vertically shifted with respect to each other for clarity.

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