Abstract

We characterize the acceptance angles of small circular apertures for light collection by simulations and experimental measurements. By examining the full width half maximum acceptance angle as a function of the aperture size, we show that the acceptance angle of a circular aperture reaches a minimum of 67 deg before rebounding around the transition between single mode and multimode transmission (approximately 400 nm). This behavior can be explained by the change of mode-coupling efficiency during the transition from single mode to multimode propagation regime. This work in understanding of the behavior of light transmission through subwavelength apertures will guide the design of better aperture based imaging devices where apertures are used as light collection units.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer, and N. Bonod, “Light transmission through a subwavelength hole,” Opt. Commun. 255(4-6), 338–348 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Garcia de Abajo, “Light transmission through a single cylindrical hole in a metallic film,” Opt. Express 10(25), 1475–1484 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  3. E. X. Jin and X. F. Xu, “Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. L. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1320–1322 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, “Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 24(4), 256–258 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

X. Q. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

X. Heng, X. Q. Cui, D. W. Knapp, J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, E. J. McDowell, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Characterization of light collection through a subwavelength aperture from a point source,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10410–10425 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer, and N. Bonod, “Light transmission through a subwavelength hole,” Opt. Commun. 255(4-6), 338–348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. F. Xu, “Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

X. L. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1320–1322 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Garcia de Abajo, “Light transmission through a single cylindrical hole in a metallic film,” Opt. Express 10(25), 1475–1484 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Baugh, L. R.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer, and N. Bonod, “Light transmission through a subwavelength hole,” Opt. Commun. 255(4-6), 338–348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, P.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer, and N. Bonod, “Light transmission through a subwavelength hole,” Opt. Commun. 255(4-6), 338–348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conley, N. R.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craighead, H. G.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, X. Q.

X. Q. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, X. Q. Cui, D. W. Knapp, J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, E. J. McDowell, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Characterization of light collection through a subwavelength aperture from a point source,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10410–10425 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, “Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 24(4), 256–258 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foquet, M.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia de Abajo, F.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

Heng, X.

X. Q. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, X. Q. Cui, D. W. Knapp, J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, E. J. McDowell, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Characterization of light collection through a subwavelength aperture from a point source,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10410–10425 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesselink, L.

Hu, Q.

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E. X.

E. X. Jin and X. F. Xu, “Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. J.

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knapp, D. W.

Korlach, J.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, L. M.

X. Q. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levene, M. J.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, “Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 24(4), 256–258 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDowell, E. J.

Moerner, W. E.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neviere, M.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer, and N. Bonod, “Light transmission through a subwavelength hole,” Opt. Commun. 255(4-6), 338–348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, R. W.

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer, and N. Bonod, “Light transmission through a subwavelength hole,” Opt. Commun. 255(4-6), 338–348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

X. Q. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, X. Q. Cui, D. W. Knapp, J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, E. J. McDowell, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Characterization of light collection through a subwavelength aperture from a point source,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10410–10425 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, X. L.

Sternberg, P. W.

X. Q. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, “Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3629–3651 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kim, T. Thio, T. W. Ebbesen, D. E. Grupp, and H. J. Lezec, “Control of optical transmission through metals perforated with subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 24(4), 256–258 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, R. L.

Turner, S. W.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, K.

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. G.

Xu, X. F.

E. X. Jin and X. F. Xu, “Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

X. Q. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, X. Q. Cui, D. W. Knapp, J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, E. J. McDowell, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Characterization of light collection through a subwavelength aperture from a point source,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10410–10425 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

X. Heng, X. Q. Cui, D. W. Knapp, J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, E. J. McDowell, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Characterization of light collection through a subwavelength aperture from a point source,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10410–10425 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhong, W. W.

X. Q. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y. Y.

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. X. Jin and X. F. Xu, “Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Gao, D. Li, R. W. Peng, Q. Hu, K. Wei, Q. J. Wang, Y. Y. Zhu, and M. Wang, “Tunable interference of light behind subwavelength apertures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

X. Heng, D. Erickson, L. R. Baugh, Z. Yaqoob, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Optofluidic microscopy--a method for implementing a high resolution optical microscope on a chip,” Lab Chip 6(10), 1274–1276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Popov, M. Neviere, P. Boyer, and N. Bonod, “Light transmission through a subwavelength hole,” Opt. Commun. 255(4-6), 338–348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of Diffraction by Small Holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

X. Q. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. H. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Levene, J. Korlach, S. W. Turner, M. Foquet, H. G. Craighead, and W. W. Webb, “Zero-mode waveguides for single-molecule analysis at high concentrations,” Science 299(5607), 682–686 (2003).
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Other (1)

J. A. Kong, Electromagnetic wave theory (EMW Pub., Cambridge, MA, 2000), Chap. 4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical geometry assumed for characterizing the FWHM angle of the small circular apertures

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of effect of depth of field on imaged spot size and thus resolution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of circular aperture (d = 100 nm) milled with FIB. (b) Illustration of the experimental scheme. A spatially filtered, expanded and collimated laser beam (λ = 532 nm) is incident on the aperture in a titanium film evaporated on a glass cover slip. The titanium coated glass cover slip and the light collecting optics are assembled on a rotation stage. M – mirror, SF – spatial filter, L – plano-convex lens. (c) Detailed illustration of setup on rotation stage, with collimated beam at normal incidence. (d) The incident angle of the collimated beam on the aperture is varied as the stage is rotated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Representative experimental data for apertures of diameters (a) 100 nm, (b) 400 nm, (c) 600 nm and (d) 900 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illustration of geometry for simulation with CST.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of simulation results showing power flow due to plane wave incident at oblique (−45 deg) and normal incidence (0 deg) at three representative aperture sizes (d = 100 nm, 400 nm and 900 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plots of the total detected power versus incident angle of the plane wave obtained from simulation results with aperture diameters (a) 100 nm, (b) 400 nm, (c) 600 nm and (d) 900 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of FWHM angle versus aperture diameter obtained by simulation (with limited NA small detector and large detector) and experiment. The theoretical maximum FWHM angle for an aperture is shown. The ranges of aperture diameters where zero mode, single mode and multimode propagations are possible are also indicated by the respective shaded regions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Coordinates of a PEC waveguide. (b) Electric field lines of the TE11 mode [16].

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N A = n sin θ
E ρ = [ i ω μ ( ω 2 μ ε k z 2 ) ρ J 1 ( k ρ ρ ) cos ϕ ] e i k z z
E ϕ = [ i ω μ ( ω 2 μ ε k z 2 ) J 1 ( k ρ ρ ) sin ϕ ] e i k z z
T = 8 27 π 2 ( k d ) 4 cos θ

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