Abstract

We demonstrate the key role played by the spatial characteristics and focusing conditions of a femtosecond multi-cycle laser pulse in optimization of filament output for the purpose of obtaining compressed light pulses in the few-cycle regime. We find that for a given beam profile and focal parameters, driving the filament with energy above a certain limiting value can negatively impact pulse compression. However, for a given energy, a smaller and cleaner input beam mode obtained by using a hard aperture can substantially improve the pulse compression ability. In addition, we show that a larger focal volume can assist in creation of a shorter output pulse.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters 441, 47–189 (2007).
  2. S. A. Trushin, S. Panja, K. Kosma, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Supercontinuum extending from > 1000 to 250 nm, generated by focusing ten-fs laser pulses at 805 nm into Ar,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 399–403 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Theberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, A. Becker, and J. V. Moloney, “Simulation of third-harmonic and supercontinuum generation for femtosecond pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 531–538 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y. B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1944–1946 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3662–3664 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity Spikes in Laser Filamentation: Diagnostics and Application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation - parameter dependence,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7541–7547 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 274–276 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. W. Chen, X. F. Li, J. Liu, P. F. Wei, X. C. Ge, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Generation of 5 fs, 0.7 mJ pulses at 1 kHz through cascade filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2402–2404 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Y. Park, J. H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Laser chirp effect on femtosecond laser filamentation generated for pulse compression,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4465–4470 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175–178 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Circular phase mask for control and stabilization of single optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2326–2328 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Mechain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Mechain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part 11: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. N. Zhavoronkov, “Fine control of self-compression dynamics in a femtosecond filament,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(12), 125201 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Couairon, “Dynamics of femtosecond filamentation from saturation of self-focusing laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 015801 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity Spikes in Laser Filamentation: Diagnostics and Application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Zhavoronkov, “Fine control of self-compression dynamics in a femtosecond filament,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(12), 125201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Y. Park, J. H. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Laser chirp effect on femtosecond laser filamentation generated for pulse compression,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4465–4470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters 441, 47–189 (2007).

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. W. Chen, X. F. Li, J. Liu, P. F. Wei, X. C. Ge, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Generation of 5 fs, 0.7 mJ pulses at 1 kHz through cascade filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2402–2404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (10)

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Mechain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part 11: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Circular phase mask for control and stabilization of single optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2326–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, A. Becker, and J. V. Moloney, “Simulation of third-harmonic and supercontinuum generation for femtosecond pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 531–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Trushin, S. Panja, K. Kosma, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Supercontinuum extending from > 1000 to 250 nm, generated by focusing ten-fs laser pulses at 805 nm into Ar,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 399–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Theberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation - parameter dependence,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Couairon, “Dynamics of femtosecond filamentation from saturation of self-focusing laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 015801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Abel, M. J.

Akozbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

André, Y. B.

Anscombe, M.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beaudin, G.

Becker, A.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, A. Becker, and J. V. Moloney, “Simulation of third-harmonic and supercontinuum generation for femtosecond pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 531–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation - parameter dependence,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, H. S.

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. W.

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Theberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cocke, C. L.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity Spikes in Laser Filamentation: Diagnostics and Application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters 441, 47–189 (2007).

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Mechain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mechain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part 11: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, “Dynamics of femtosecond filamentation from saturation of self-focusing laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 015801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eckle, P.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation - parameter dependence,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Encrenaz, P.

Eyring, S.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

Fuß, W.

S. A. Trushin, S. Panja, K. Kosma, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Supercontinuum extending from > 1000 to 250 nm, generated by focusing ten-fs laser pulses at 805 nm into Ar,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 399–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity Spikes in Laser Filamentation: Diagnostics and Application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chakraborty, M. B. Gaarde, and A. Couairon, “Single attosecond pulses from high harmonics driven by self-compressed filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3662–3664 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, E.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gallmann, L.

Ge, X. C.

Gheudin, M.

Gravel, J. F.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guandalini, A.

Hauri, C. P.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation - parameter dependence,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holler, M.

Hosseini, S. A.

F. Theberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keep, T.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation - parameter dependence,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, A. Becker, and J. V. Moloney, “Simulation of third-harmonic and supercontinuum generation for femtosecond pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 531–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kornelis, W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation - parameter dependence,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosma, K.

S. A. Trushin, S. Panja, K. Kosma, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Supercontinuum extending from > 1000 to 250 nm, generated by focusing ten-fs laser pulses at 805 nm into Ar,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 399–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

Leone, S. R.

Li, R. X.

Li, W.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. F.

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Theberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lohbreier, J.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Theberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lytle, A.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mechain, G.

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Mechain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part 11: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, A. Becker, and J. V. Moloney, “Simulation of third-harmonic and supercontinuum generation for femtosecond pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 531–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munier, J. M.

Murnane, M. M.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters 441, 47–189 (2007).

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Mechain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part 11: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y. B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1944–1946 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

Neumark, D. M.

Olivier, T.

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Mechain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part 11: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panja, S.

S. A. Trushin, S. Panja, K. Kosma, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Supercontinuum extending from > 1000 to 250 nm, generated by focusing ten-fs laser pulses at 805 nm into Ar,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 399–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Panov, N. A.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. Y.

Patalano, G.

Paul, A.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

Prade, B.

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Mechain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part 11: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y. B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1944–1946 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranitovic, P.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, G.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, A. S.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santra, R.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schapper, F.

Schlup, P.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, W. E.

S. A. Trushin, S. Panja, K. Kosma, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Supercontinuum extending from > 1000 to 250 nm, generated by focusing ten-fs laser pulses at 805 nm into Ar,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 399–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schnürer, M.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharifi, M.

F. Theberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, V.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skupin, S.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokollik, T.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spitzenpfeil, R.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theberge, F.

F. Theberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomann, I.

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trushin, S. A.

S. A. Trushin, S. Panja, K. Kosma, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Supercontinuum extending from > 1000 to 250 nm, generated by focusing ten-fs laser pulses at 805 nm into Ar,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 399–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

Walter, D.

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P. F.

Wright, E. M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, A. Becker, and J. V. Moloney, “Simulation of third-harmonic and supercontinuum generation for femtosecond pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 531–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

Zaïr, A.

Zhavoronkov, N.

N. Zhavoronkov, “Fine control of self-compression dynamics in a femtosecond filament,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(12), 125201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

S. A. Trushin, S. Panja, K. Kosma, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Supercontinuum extending from > 1000 to 250 nm, generated by focusing ten-fs laser pulses at 805 nm into Ar,” Appl. Phys. B 80(4-5), 399–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, A. Becker, and J. V. Moloney, “Simulation of third-harmonic and supercontinuum generation for femtosecond pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 531–538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Walter, S. Eyring, J. Lohbreier, R. Spitzenpfeil, and C. Spielmann, “Spatial optimization of filaments,” Appl. Phys. B 88(2), 175–178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Akozbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Theberge, Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. A. Hosseini, M. Sharifi, and S. L. Chin, “Long-range third-harmonic generation in air using ultrashort intense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1-2), 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

N. Zhavoronkov, “Fine control of self-compression dynamics in a femtosecond filament,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(12), 125201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Mechain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures: Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part 11: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

A. Couairon, “Dynamics of femtosecond filamentation from saturation of self-focusing laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 015801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, A. Paul, I. Thomann, A. Lytle, T. Keep, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Generation of sub-optical-cycle, carrier-envelope-phase - insensitive, extreme-uv pulses via nonlinear stabilization in a waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 74(6), 061803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: experiments versus numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(5 Pt 2), 056604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. B. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity Spikes in Laser Filamentation: Diagnostics and Application,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters 441, 47–189 (2007).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, R. Santra, V. Sharma, W. Li, P. Ho, P. Ranitovic, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Observing the creation of electronic feshbach resonances in soft x-ray-induced O2 dissociation,” Science 322(5904), 1081–1085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental set up. (b) The compressed pulse duration as a function of input pulse energy and gas pressure. The pulse energy is varied using an aperture. The minimum pulse duration obtained is 9fs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The output pulse duration (left y-axis) and bandwidth (right y-axis) as a function of the input pulse energy. Pulse energy varied using a half-wave plate/polarizer pair and the spatial profile is kept constant. Two combinations of gas pressure and beam area are shown. The (blue) circles are for the 1000 torr, 89 mm2 case, and the (gray) triangles are the 673 torr, 125 mm2 case. Solid lines are guide to the eye. Plotted along right y-axis is the bandwidth data for 1000 torr, 89mm2 case in (red) squares. Bandwidth is determined from 1/e2 width of spectrum marginal of FROG trace.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse duration (left axis) and bandwidth (right axis) correlation observed by varying the aperture size while maintaining a fixed input energy. Output pulse duration for 0.8 mJ, 1000 torr case is shown by (blue) circles plot, while the the (gray) triangles represent 1 mJ, 700 torr case. Observed output bandwidth on right axis is shown by the (red) squares plot for 0.8mJ, 1000 torr case.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Left axis) Pulse duration data shown by (blue) circles, as a function of the area of the aperture. (Right axis) Normalized M2/M0 2 variation shown by (green) squares, as a function of the area of the aperture. These data sets are obtained under fixed input energy conditions (0.8mJ, 1000 torr). The M2 is computed in the linear regime in air and normalized by M0 2 corresponding to the fully open beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparing the pulse compression vs focal volume for two cases - modification the diameter of the beam (green squares) and modification of the focal length of the lenses used to focus the beam (red diamonds). The different focal lengths obtained using a variable separation + 200m and −150mm lens pair are shown along top x-axis for the (red) diamonds data set.

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