Abstract

We use laser high-order harmonics and a polarization-ratio-reflectance technique to determine the optical constants of copper and oxidized copper in the wavelength range 10-35 nm. This measurement resolves previously conflicting data sets, where disagreement on optical constants of copper in the extreme ultraviolet most likely arises from inadvertent oxidation of samples before measurement.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. V. M. Dubin, R. Akolkar, C. C. Cheng, R. Chebiam, A. Fajardo, F. Gstrein, "Electrochemical materials and processes in Si integrated circuit technology," Electrochim. Acta 52, 2891-2897 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Shin, H. W. Kim, K. Agapiou, R. A. Jones, G. S. Hwang, and J. G. Ekerdta, "Effects of P on amorphous chemical vapor deposition Ru-P alloy films for Cu interconnect liner applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 974-979 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2009

2008

D. Gimenez-Romero, J. J. Garcia-Jareno, J. Agrisuelas, C. Gabrielli, H. Perrot, and F. Vicente, "Formation of a Copper Oxide Layer as a Key Step in the Metallic Copper Deposition Mechanism," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4275-4280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Shin, H. W. Kim, K. Agapiou, R. A. Jones, G. S. Hwang, and J. G. Ekerdta, "Effects of P on amorphous chemical vapor deposition Ru-P alloy films for Cu interconnect liner applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 974-979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Gabrielli, C. Mace, E. Ostermann, and A. Pailleret, "AFM Characterization of Copper Dendritic Growths in Integrated Electronic Microcircuits," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, D5-D8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, R. M. Hudyma, E. Spiller, E. M. Gullikson, M. A. Schmidt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, C. C. Walton, and J. S. Taylor, "Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3 numerical aperture micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography," Appl. Opt. 46, 3736-3746 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wu and A. Kumar, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1743-1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Dubin, R. Akolkar, C. C. Cheng, R. Chebiam, A. Fajardo, F. Gstrein, "Electrochemical materials and processes in Si integrated circuit technology," Electrochim. Acta 52, 2891-2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Surya Sekhar and S. Ramanathan, "Characterization of copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) in nitric acidhydrazine based slurry for microelectronic fabrication," Thin Solid Films 504, 227-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Attwood, "Extreme Ultraviolet Light Sources for Semiconductor Manufacturing," J. Phys. D 37, 3233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Maex, M. R. Baklanov, D. Shamiryan, F. Iacopi, S. H. Brongersma, and Z. S. Yanovitskaya, "Low dielectric constant materials for microelectronics," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 8793-8841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. A. Lanford, P. J. Ding,W. Wang, S. Hymes, and S. P. Murarka, "Alloying of copper for use in microelectronic metallization," Mater. Chem. Phys. 41, 192-198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. Beaglehole, M. De Crescenzi, M. L. Theye, and G. Vuye, "Dielectric constant of gold, copper, and gold-copper alloys between 18 and 35 eV," Phys. Rev. B 19, 6303 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

1968

1957

D. H. Tomboulian, D. E. Bedo, and W. M. Neupert, "M2,3 absorption spectra of the elemental solids Cr through Ge," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 3, 282 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Agapiou, K.

J. Shin, H. W. Kim, K. Agapiou, R. A. Jones, G. S. Hwang, and J. G. Ekerdta, "Effects of P on amorphous chemical vapor deposition Ru-P alloy films for Cu interconnect liner applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 974-979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agrisuelas, J.

D. Gimenez-Romero, J. J. Garcia-Jareno, J. Agrisuelas, C. Gabrielli, H. Perrot, and F. Vicente, "Formation of a Copper Oxide Layer as a Key Step in the Metallic Copper Deposition Mechanism," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4275-4280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akolkar, R.

V. M. Dubin, R. Akolkar, C. C. Cheng, R. Chebiam, A. Fajardo, F. Gstrein, "Electrochemical materials and processes in Si integrated circuit technology," Electrochim. Acta 52, 2891-2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, "Extreme Ultraviolet Light Sources for Semiconductor Manufacturing," J. Phys. D 37, 3233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. L.

Baklanov, M. R.

K. Maex, M. R. Baklanov, D. Shamiryan, F. Iacopi, S. H. Brongersma, and Z. S. Yanovitskaya, "Low dielectric constant materials for microelectronics," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 8793-8841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beaglehole, D.

D. Beaglehole, M. De Crescenzi, M. L. Theye, and G. Vuye, "Dielectric constant of gold, copper, and gold-copper alloys between 18 and 35 eV," Phys. Rev. B 19, 6303 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bedo, D. E.

D. H. Tomboulian, D. E. Bedo, and W. M. Neupert, "M2,3 absorption spectra of the elemental solids Cr through Ge," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 3, 282 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Bienacel, J.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brimhall, N.

Brongersma, S. H.

K. Maex, M. R. Baklanov, D. Shamiryan, F. Iacopi, S. H. Brongersma, and Z. S. Yanovitskaya, "Low dielectric constant materials for microelectronics," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 8793-8841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chebiam, R.

V. M. Dubin, R. Akolkar, C. C. Cheng, R. Chebiam, A. Fajardo, F. Gstrein, "Electrochemical materials and processes in Si integrated circuit technology," Electrochim. Acta 52, 2891-2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

V. M. Dubin, R. Akolkar, C. C. Cheng, R. Chebiam, A. Fajardo, F. Gstrein, "Electrochemical materials and processes in Si integrated circuit technology," Electrochim. Acta 52, 2891-2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chevolleau, T.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Crescenzi, M.

D. Beaglehole, M. De Crescenzi, M. L. Theye, and G. Vuye, "Dielectric constant of gold, copper, and gold-copper alloys between 18 and 35 eV," Phys. Rev. B 19, 6303 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ding, P. J.

W. A. Lanford, P. J. Ding,W. Wang, S. Hymes, and S. P. Murarka, "Alloying of copper for use in microelectronic metallization," Mater. Chem. Phys. 41, 192-198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dubin, V. M.

V. M. Dubin, R. Akolkar, C. C. Cheng, R. Chebiam, A. Fajardo, F. Gstrein, "Electrochemical materials and processes in Si integrated circuit technology," Electrochim. Acta 52, 2891-2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ekerdta, J. G.

J. Shin, H. W. Kim, K. Agapiou, R. A. Jones, G. S. Hwang, and J. G. Ekerdta, "Effects of P on amorphous chemical vapor deposition Ru-P alloy films for Cu interconnect liner applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 974-979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fajardo, A.

V. M. Dubin, R. Akolkar, C. C. Cheng, R. Chebiam, A. Fajardo, F. Gstrein, "Electrochemical materials and processes in Si integrated circuit technology," Electrochim. Acta 52, 2891-2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gabrielli, C.

D. Gimenez-Romero, J. J. Garcia-Jareno, J. Agrisuelas, C. Gabrielli, H. Perrot, and F. Vicente, "Formation of a Copper Oxide Layer as a Key Step in the Metallic Copper Deposition Mechanism," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4275-4280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Gabrielli, C. Mace, E. Ostermann, and A. Pailleret, "AFM Characterization of Copper Dendritic Growths in Integrated Electronic Microcircuits," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, D5-D8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Jareno, J. J.

D. Gimenez-Romero, J. J. Garcia-Jareno, J. Agrisuelas, C. Gabrielli, H. Perrot, and F. Vicente, "Formation of a Copper Oxide Layer as a Key Step in the Metallic Copper Deposition Mechanism," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4275-4280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gimenez-Romero, D.

D. Gimenez-Romero, J. J. Garcia-Jareno, J. Agrisuelas, C. Gabrielli, H. Perrot, and F. Vicente, "Formation of a Copper Oxide Layer as a Key Step in the Metallic Copper Deposition Mechanism," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4275-4280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Girault, V.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gosset, L.G.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gras, R.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gstrein, F.

V. M. Dubin, R. Akolkar, C. C. Cheng, R. Chebiam, A. Fajardo, F. Gstrein, "Electrochemical materials and processes in Si integrated circuit technology," Electrochim. Acta 52, 2891-2897 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gudat, W.

Guillan, J.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

Haensel, R.

Hagemann, H. J.

Hautala, J.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heilmann, N.

Hopstaken, M.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hudyma, R. M.

Hwang, G. S.

J. Shin, H. W. Kim, K. Agapiou, R. A. Jones, G. S. Hwang, and J. G. Ekerdta, "Effects of P on amorphous chemical vapor deposition Ru-P alloy films for Cu interconnect liner applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 974-979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hymes, S.

W. A. Lanford, P. J. Ding,W. Wang, S. Hymes, and S. P. Murarka, "Alloying of copper for use in microelectronic metallization," Mater. Chem. Phys. 41, 192-198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iacopi, F.

K. Maex, M. R. Baklanov, D. Shamiryan, F. Iacopi, S. H. Brongersma, and Z. S. Yanovitskaya, "Low dielectric constant materials for microelectronics," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 8793-8841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imbert, G.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. A.

J. Shin, H. W. Kim, K. Agapiou, R. A. Jones, G. S. Hwang, and J. G. Ekerdta, "Effects of P on amorphous chemical vapor deposition Ru-P alloy films for Cu interconnect liner applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 974-979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jullian, S.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. W.

J. Shin, H. W. Kim, K. Agapiou, R. A. Jones, G. S. Hwang, and J. G. Ekerdta, "Effects of P on amorphous chemical vapor deposition Ru-P alloy films for Cu interconnect liner applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 974-979 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

B. Wu and A. Kumar, "Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1743-1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, C.

Lanford, W. A.

W. A. Lanford, P. J. Ding,W. Wang, S. Hymes, and S. P. Murarka, "Alloying of copper for use in microelectronic metallization," Mater. Chem. Phys. 41, 192-198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Le Friec, Y.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mace, C.

C. Gabrielli, C. Mace, E. Ostermann, and A. Pailleret, "AFM Characterization of Copper Dendritic Growths in Integrated Electronic Microcircuits," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, D5-D8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maex, K.

K. Maex, M. R. Baklanov, D. Shamiryan, F. Iacopi, S. H. Brongersma, and Z. S. Yanovitskaya, "Low dielectric constant materials for microelectronics," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 8793-8841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murarka, S. P.

W. A. Lanford, P. J. Ding,W. Wang, S. Hymes, and S. P. Murarka, "Alloying of copper for use in microelectronic metallization," Mater. Chem. Phys. 41, 192-198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neupert, W. M.

D. H. Tomboulian, D. E. Bedo, and W. M. Neupert, "M2,3 absorption spectra of the elemental solids Cr through Ge," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 3, 282 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Ostermann, E.

C. Gabrielli, C. Mace, E. Ostermann, and A. Pailleret, "AFM Characterization of Copper Dendritic Growths in Integrated Electronic Microcircuits," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, D5-D8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pailleret, A.

C. Gabrielli, C. Mace, E. Ostermann, and A. Pailleret, "AFM Characterization of Copper Dendritic Growths in Integrated Electronic Microcircuits," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11, D5-D8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peatross, J.

Perrot, H.

D. Gimenez-Romero, J. J. Garcia-Jareno, J. Agrisuelas, C. Gabrielli, H. Perrot, and F. Vicente, "Formation of a Copper Oxide Layer as a Key Step in the Metallic Copper Deposition Mechanism," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 4275-4280 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petitprez, E.

R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, S.

M. Surya Sekhar and S. Ramanathan, "Characterization of copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) in nitric acidhydrazine based slurry for microelectronic fabrication," Thin Solid Films 504, 227-230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. C.

Sasaki, T.

Schmidt, M. A.

Shamiryan, D.

K. Maex, M. R. Baklanov, D. Shamiryan, F. Iacopi, S. H. Brongersma, and Z. S. Yanovitskaya, "Low dielectric constant materials for microelectronics," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 8793-8841 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, S.

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R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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R. Gras, L.G. Gosset, E. Petitprez, V. Girault, M. Hopstaken, S. Jullian, G. Imbert, Y. Le Friec, J. Bienacel, J. Guillan, T. Chevolleau, S. Sherman, M. Tabat, J. Hautala and J. Torres, "Integration and characterization of gas cluster processing for copper interconnects electromigration improvement," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 2675-2680 (2007).
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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The optical constants of Cu and CuO determined using the ratio reflectance technique. Statistical error bars are also shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Our measured n and κ for Cu and CuO compared with other reported values for copper. Our values for Cu match those of Beaglehole (measured in situ) and Tomboulian (not measured in situ) within our error bars. Our values for oxidized copper match those of Haensel (not measured in situ) and Hagemann (measured with a carbon capping layer).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured optical constants for Cu and CuO.

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