Abstract

A digital optical sensor based on two cascaded rings with different free spectral ranges (FSRs) is proposed. Because of their different FSRs, the major peak of the spectral response from the output port shifts digitally when the effective refractive index of ring #1 changes. And the shift of the major peak is equal to multiple FSRs of ring #2. Since it is easy to design a ring with a FSR of nanometers, the present digital optical sensor shows an ultra-high sensitivity (at the order of 105 nm/RIU) which is over two orders higher than that of a regular single-ring sensor. By using the present digital optical sensor, it becomes convenient to use an integrated optical micro-spectrometer (even with a low resolution) to monitor the peak shift of the spectral response. Therefore, it is promising to realize a low-cost and portable highly-sensitive optical sensor system on a single chip.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, “Theoretical model of a planar integrated refractive index sensor based on surface plasmon-polariton excitation with a long period grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(10), 2696 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. F. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1626–1628 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Folded cavity SOI microring sensors for high sensitivity and real time measurement of biomolecular binding,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15137–15148 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2299–2306 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Cho, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Delge, A.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jokerst, N. M.

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamontagne, B.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2299–2306 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Lipson, M.

Liu, B.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lopinski, G.

McKinnon, R.

Mischki, T.

Nemova, G.

Panepucci, R. R.

Post, E.

Rabiei, P.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Shakouri, A.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldron, P.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, Q. F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

S.-Y. Cho and N. M. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delge, B. Lamontagne, J. H. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic configuration of the present digital optical sensor based on cascaded rings; (a) the top view; (b) the 3D view [in order to see the structure clearly, we separate the cladding from the substrate only for the view].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematic spectral responses for the cascaded-rings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The response of at the output port of the cascaded rings in the broad band (the inset shows the enlarged view for the major peak); (b) the response at the output port of the cascaded rings when ∆n eff ranges from 0 to 20 × 10−6.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

As the index-change ∆n eff increases, (a) the amplitude of all the peaks locating at different resonance wavelengths λ1( i ); (b) the wavelength λ max corresponding to the major peak.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n eff0 = n eff ( Δ λ FSR 1 Δ λ FSR 2 ) / λ 1 ( i ) .
S = Δ λ FSR 1 / Δ n eff0 = ( λ 1 ( i ) / n eff ) [ Δ λ FSR 1 / ( Δ λ FSR 1 Δ λ FSR 2 ) ] = S 0 M .
Δ λ FSR = ( M 1 ) Δ λ FSR 1 .

Metrics