Abstract

We present a novel design for a noise-tolerant, ultra-broadband electro-optic switch, based on a Mach-Zehnder lattice (MZL) interferometer. We analyze the switch performance through rigorous optical simulations, for devices implemented in silicon-on-insulator with carrier-injection-based phase shifters. We show that such a MZL switch can be designed to have a step-like switching response, resulting in improved tolerance to drive-voltage noise and temperature variations as compared to a single-stage Mach-Zehnder switch. Furthermore, we show that degradation in switching crosstalk and insertion loss due to free-carrier absorption can be largely overcome by a MZL switch design. Finally, MZL switches can be designed for having an ultra-wide, temperature-insensitive optical bandwidth of more than 250nm. The proposed device shows good potential as a broadband optical switch in reconfigurable optical networks-on-chip.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  2. F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).
  3. F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, "Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology, based on a design with two stigmatic points," Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
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  21. F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65-71 (2007).
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  28. Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, and J. E. Baran, "Digital Optical Switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(16), 1230-1232 (1987).
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  29. H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
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  30. E. Alon, V. Stojanovic, andM. A. Horowitz, "Circuits and techniques for high-resolution measurement of on-chip power supply noise," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(4), 820-828 (2005).
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  32. R. C. Alferness and P. S. Cross, "Filter Characteristics of Co-Directionally Coupled Waveguides with Weighted Coupling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 843-847 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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  39. J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16(21), 16,659-16,669 (2008).
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2009

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, "Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216-1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166-1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16(21), 16,659-16,669 (2008).

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, "Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology, based on a design with two stigmatic points," Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, "High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

2007

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15(11), 6744-6749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

D. Ahn, C.-y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Krtner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15(7), 3916-3921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

J. D. Owens,W. J. Dally, R. Ho, D. N. Jayasimha, S.W. Keckler, and L. S. Peh, "Research challenges for on-chip interconnection networks," IEEE Micro 27(5), 96-108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

2005

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Alon, V. Stojanovic, andM. A. Horowitz, "Circuits and techniques for high-resolution measurement of on-chip power supply noise," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(4), 820-828 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. P. Li and C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 143(5), 263-280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Kuznetsov, "Cascaded Coupler Mach-Zehnder Channel Dropping Filters for Wavelength-Division- Multiplexed Optical-Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 12(2), 226-230 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-Based Wave-Guide-Type Wavelength-Insensitive Couplers (Wincs) with Series-Tapered Coupling Structure," J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1814-1824 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica- Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects in Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, and J. E. Baran, "Digital Optical Switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(16), 1230-1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. C. Alferness and P. S. Cross, "Filter Characteristics of Co-Directionally Coupled Waveguides with Weighted Coupling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 843-847 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Ahn, J.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness and P. S. Cross, "Filter Characteristics of Co-Directionally Coupled Waveguides with Weighted Coupling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 843-847 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Alon, E.

E. Alon, V. Stojanovic, andM. A. Horowitz, "Circuits and techniques for high-resolution measurement of on-chip power supply noise," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(4), 820-828 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asanovic, K.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Baets, R. G.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, "Subnanometer Linewidth Uniformity in Silicon Nanophotonic Waveguide Devices Using CMOS Fabrication Technology," accepted for publication in IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Baran, J. E.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, and J. E. Baran, "Digital Optical Switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(16), 1230-1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Beausoleil, R. G.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects in Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Binkert, N.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, "Subnanometer Linewidth Uniformity in Silicon Nanophotonic Waveguide Devices Using CMOS Fabrication Technology," accepted for publication in IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Byun, H.

Capellini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, "High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

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A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
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A.W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, "Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216-1238 (2009).
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Chen, J.

Cohen, E.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
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Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
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Dally, W. J.

J. D. Owens,W. J. Dally, R. Ho, D. N. Jayasimha, S.W. Keckler, and L. S. Peh, "Research challenges for on-chip interconnection networks," IEEE Micro 27(5), 96-108 (2007).
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Davis, A.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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Di Cioccio, L.

Dong, P.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
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Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, "Subnanometer Linewidth Uniformity in Silicon Nanophotonic Waveguide Devices Using CMOS Fabrication Technology," accepted for publication in IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Fattal, D.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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Fedeli, J. M.

Fiorentino, M.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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Gan, F.

Geis, M.

Giziewicz, W.

Green, W. M. J.

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, "Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology, based on a design with two stigmatic points," Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
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Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
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W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

Grein, M.

Gunn, C.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, "High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Hamann, H. F.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

Y. P. Li and C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 143(5), 263-280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
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J. D. Owens,W. J. Dally, R. Ho, D. N. Jayasimha, S.W. Keckler, and L. S. Peh, "Research challenges for on-chip interconnection networks," IEEE Micro 27(5), 96-108 (2007).
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Holzwarth, C. W.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
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T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
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Hong, C.-y.

Horst, F.

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, "Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology, based on a design with two stigmatic points," Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, J. L.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. G.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jaenen, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

Jayasimha, D. N.

J. D. Owens,W. J. Dally, R. Ho, D. N. Jayasimha, S.W. Keckler, and L. S. Peh, "Research challenges for on-chip interconnection networks," IEEE Micro 27(5), 96-108 (2007).
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Jinguji, K.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-Based Wave-Guide-Type Wavelength-Insensitive Couplers (Wincs) with Series-Tapered Coupling Structure," J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1814-1824 (1992).
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T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica- Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
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Joshi, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jouppi, N. P.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-Based Wave-Guide-Type Wavelength-Insensitive Couplers (Wincs) with Series-Tapered Coupling Structure," J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1814-1824 (1992).
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T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica- Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Keckler, S.W.

J. D. Owens,W. J. Dally, R. Ho, D. N. Jayasimha, S.W. Keckler, and L. S. Peh, "Research challenges for on-chip interconnection networks," IEEE Micro 27(5), 96-108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khilo, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
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Kimerling, L. C.

Kitoh, T.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica- Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
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Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
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Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krtner, F. X.

Kuchta, D. M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
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Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, "Cascaded Coupler Mach-Zehnder Channel Dropping Filters for Wavelength-Division- Multiplexed Optical-Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 12(2), 226-230 (1994).
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Lacey, J. A.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lagahe, C.

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
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Li, G. L.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. Q.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. P.

Y. P. Li and C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 143(5), 263-280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16(21), 16,659-16,669 (2008).

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Luo, X. S.

A.W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, "Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216-1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T.

Masini, G.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, "High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

McLaren, M.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166-1185 (2009).
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Moss, B.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, "Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology, based on a design with two stigmatic points," Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Olubuyide, O. O.

Orcutt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J. S.

Owens, J. D.

J. D. Owens,W. J. Dally, R. Ho, D. N. Jayasimha, S.W. Keckler, and L. S. Peh, "Research challenges for on-chip interconnection networks," IEEE Micro 27(5), 96-108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16(21), 16,659-16,669 (2008).

Peh, L. S.

J. D. Owens,W. J. Dally, R. Ho, D. N. Jayasimha, S.W. Keckler, and L. S. Peh, "Research challenges for on-chip interconnection networks," IEEE Micro 27(5), 96-108 (2007).
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Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, and J. E. Baran, "Digital Optical Switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(16), 1230-1232 (1987).
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Poon, A.W.

A.W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, "Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216-1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16(21), 16,659-16,669 (2008).

Rakich, P. T.

Ram, R. J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

Ritter, M. B.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16(21), 16,659-16,669 (2008).

Rojo-Romeo, P.

Rooks, M.

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

Rooks, M. J.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

Sahni, S.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, "High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Santori, C.M.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, R. S.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

Sekaric, L.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S. K.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, "Subnanometer Linewidth Uniformity in Silicon Nanophotonic Waveguide Devices Using CMOS Fabrication Technology," accepted for publication in IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, and J. E. Baran, "Digital Optical Switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(16), 1230-1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects in Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S.

Spillane, S. M.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stojanovic, V.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, H. I. Smith, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, O. O. Olubuyide, J. L. Hoyt, S. Spector, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, and J. U. Yoon, "Silicon photonics for compact, energy-efficient interconnects [Invited]," J. Opt. Netw. 6(1), 63-73 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Alon, V. Stojanovic, andM. A. Horowitz, "Circuits and techniques for high-resolution measurement of on-chip power supply noise," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(4), 820-828 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

Takagi, A.

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-Based Wave-Guide-Type Wavelength-Insensitive Couplers (Wincs) with Series-Tapered Coupling Structure," J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1814-1824 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takato, N.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica- Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15(11), 6744-6749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. G. Baets, "Subnanometer Linewidth Uniformity in Silicon Nanophotonic Waveguide Devices Using CMOS Fabrication Technology," accepted for publication in IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Vantrease, D.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, "Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology, based on a design with two stigmatic points," Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

Vlasov, Y. A.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

Wakil, J.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Weger, A.

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

Witzens, J.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, "High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Wouters, J.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F. N.

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

Xu, F.

A.W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, "Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216-1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yasu, M.

T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica- Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J. U.

Zheng, X. Z.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Technol.

G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, "High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).

Appl. Phys. A

J. Ahn,M. Fiorentino, R. G. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C.M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, "Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration," Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 989-997 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Silberberg, P. Perlmutter, and J. E. Baran, "Digital Optical Switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(16), 1230-1232 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, "Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Type Optical Wave-Guide Coupler with Wavelength-Flattened Coupling Ratio," Electron. Lett. 26(17), 1326-1327 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49(4-5), 755-775 (2005).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical Effects in Silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123-129 (1987).
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R. C. Alferness and P. S. Cross, "Filter Characteristics of Co-Directionally Coupled Waveguides with Weighted Coupling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(11), 843-847 (1978).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, and R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1394-1401 (2006).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

H. F. Hamann, A. Weger, J. A. Lacey, Z. G. Hu, E. Cohen, and J. Wakil, "Hotspot-limited microprocessors: Direct temperature and power distribution measurements," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42(1), 56-65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Alon, V. Stojanovic, andM. A. Horowitz, "Circuits and techniques for high-resolution measurement of on-chip power supply noise," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(4), 820-828 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro

J. D. Owens,W. J. Dally, R. Ho, D. N. Jayasimha, S.W. Keckler, and L. S. Peh, "Research challenges for on-chip interconnection networks," IEEE Micro 27(5), 96-108 (2007).
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C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Q. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, "Building Many-Core Processor-to-DRAM Networks with Monolithic CMOS Silicon Photonics," IEEE Micro 29(4), 8-21 (2009).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9-12), 767-769 (2008).
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T. Kitoh, N. Takato, K. Jinguji, M. Yasu, and M. Kawachi, "Novel Broad-Band Optical Switch Using Silica- Based Planar Lightwave Circuit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 735-737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246-1260 (2008).
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J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Kuznetsov, "Cascaded Coupler Mach-Zehnder Channel Dropping Filters for Wavelength-Division- Multiplexed Optical-Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 12(2), 226-230 (1994).
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A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, and M. Kawachi, "Silica-Based Wave-Guide-Type Wavelength-Insensitive Couplers (Wincs) with Series-Tapered Coupling Structure," J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1814-1824 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw.

Nat. Photon.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon. 2(4), 242-246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17,106-17,113 (2007).

F. N. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15(19), 11,934-11,941 (2007).

D. Ahn, C.-y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Krtner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15(7), 3916-3921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, "Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit," Opt. Express 15(11), 6744-6749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16(21), 16,659-16,669 (2008).

Optoelectron.

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Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, "Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166-1185 (2009).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Z. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. L. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, "Computer Systems Based on Silicon Photonic Interconnects," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337-1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A.W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, "Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection," Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216-1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, B. J. Offrein, and Y. Vlasov, "Echelle grating WDM (de-)multiplexers in SOI technology, based on a design with two stigmatic points," Proc. SPIE 6996, 69960R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Watts, D. Trotter, R. Young, and A. Lentine, "Maximally confined silicon microphotonic modulators and switches," in Proceedings of the 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 457-458 (2008).
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S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, "CMOS-Integrated 40GHz Germanium Waveguide Photodetector for On-Chip Optical Interconnects," in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC OMR4 (2009).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Example of a digital switching response [28], featuring a step-like transition from the ‘off’ to the ‘on’ state as a function of applied voltage. This step-like response provides tolerance against voltage noise ΔV, both for the ‘off’ as well as for the ‘on’ state. (b) The transmission coefficients Tij are defined as the power transmittance from inport ai to output port bj .

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of the MZ switch, consisting of two 50-% couplers, with a 500-µm-long phase shifter based on a p-i-n diode. (b) Switching response of the MZ switch shown in (a) as a function of the density N of free carriers in the phase shifter. The ‘on’ state is reached for N=5×1017cm-3, with a crosstalk of -22dB and an insertion loss of 0.7dB. The ‘on’-state noise tolerance ΔN pp, -20dB for maintaining -20-dB crosstalk is only 10% (c) Cross section of the directional couplers (DC) used in the simulations. The silicon waveguides have 450×200-nm2 cross-sectional dimensions including a 50-nm-thick bottom slab. The DC gap width is 300nm. (d) Spectral switching response of the MZ switch using the DCs illustrated in (c), both for the ‘off’ state as well as for the ‘on’ state. The -20-dB optical bandwidth is only 30nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic of theMZL switch, consisting of S interferometric stages, each having a coupling coefficient κi (i=1…S+1) and a p-i-n diode providing a phase shift δϕ(N). The total length of the individual diodes adds up to 500µm. (b) Switching response of an MZL switch with S=8 and uniform coupling coefficients κi=3%. The ‘on’ state is reached for N=8.2×1017cm-3, with a crosstalk of -24dB and an insertion loss of 0.34dB. The noise tolerance ΔN pp, -20dB is 18%. (c) Switching response of an MZL switch with S=3 and normally distributed coupling coefficients (σ=0.5). The ‘on’ state is reached for N=1.79×1018cm-3, with a crosstalk of -34dB and an insertion loss of 0.37dB. The noise tolerance ΔN pp, -20dB is 90%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) T 12 switching response of three MZL switches with S=8 and normally distributed coupling coefficients. The switching sidelobes can be suppressed to -10dB, -36dB and lower than -50dB, for distribution variances σ=1000, σ=0.35 and σ=0.25 respectively, as illustrated in (b). The inset in (a) shows the T 11 switching response of the same devices. The ‘on’-state insertion loss can be suppressed to lower than 0.2dB.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic of the seven-stage WIMZL switch, which includes four passive, wavelength-insensitive coupling stages and three active phase-tuning stages. (b) Spectral switching response of the WIMZL switch with (κ 0, κ 1, Δϕ 0)=(4.4%, 10.6%, 3.89) and (κ 2, κ 3, Δϕ 1)=(58.2%, 23.2%, -4.06), for N=0 (solid lines) and N=1.3, 1.6 and 1.9×1018 cm-3 (dashed, dotted and dashed-dotted lines respectively). The -20-dB bandwidth is more than 250nm. (c) Switching response versus carrier density N of the same WIMZL switch, for three different wavelengths (λ=1.45µm, 1.55µm and 1.65µm, in dashed, solid and dotted lines respectively). The noise tolerance ΔN pp, -20dB is 75%, for all three wavelengths.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Switching response versus applied voltage for the MZ switch. The ‘on’-state voltage V on is 0.9V. The noise tolerance ΔV pp, -20dB is 5mV. (b) Switching response of a MZL switch with S=3 and σ=0.5. V on is approximately 0.96V and ΔV pp, -20dB is as high as 50mV.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated (markers) and fitted (solid lines) model parameters ne (λ) (a) and LC (λ,g) (b) versus wavelength, for various values of waveguide width w and coupling-gap width g.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Overview of the switching performance of various MZL switch designs

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Table 2. Fitting parameters for a 450-nm-wide waveguide, with λ 0=1.55µm.

Equations (18)

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κ i = κ 0 exp [ 1 2 ( i 1 S / 2 σ S / 2 ) 2 ] ,
N V T = N i ( T ) exp ( q V 2 k B T ) T 3 / 2 exp ( E g q V 2 k B T ) ,
Δ N N 0 = 1 300 ( 4.8 × Δ T + 0.6 × 10 4 Δ V ) ,
C i ( λ ) = [ t i ( λ ) jr i ( λ ) jr i ( λ ) t i ( λ ) ] ,
r i ( λ ) = κ i ( λ )
t i ( λ ) = 1 κ i ( λ ) ,
κ i ( λ ) = sin 2 ( π 2 L i κ L C λ g )
L i κ = 2 L C λ 0 g π arcsin ( κ i ) .
P i A ( λ ) = [ 1 0 0 exp [ j Δ β λ N ] L S ] ,
Δ β ( λ , N ) = Γ 2 π λ [ Δ n ( N ) + j 2 α ( N ) ] .
Δ n ( N ) = 8.8 × 10 22 N 8.5 × 10 18 N 0.8
α ( N ) = ( 8.5 × 10 18 + 6 × 10 18 ) N ,
P i ( λ ) = [ 1 0 0 exp [ j β ( λ ) Δ L i ] ] .
Δ L i = λ 0 2 π n e 0 Δ ϕ i .
β ( λ ) = 2 π λ n e ( λ ) = 2 π λ [ n e 0 λ λ 0 λ 0 ( n g n e 0 ) ] ,
M ( λ ) = C S + 1 ( λ ) i = 1 S P i ( A ) ( λ ) C i ( λ ) .
L C ( λ , g ) = 1 2 λ n e S ( λ ) n e A ( λ ) .
L C λ g = [ a ( λ λ 0 ) + b ] exp [ g c ( λ λ 0 ) + d ] ,

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