Abstract

An experimental study of the spectral and electro-optic response of direct UV-written waveguides in LiNbO3 is reported. The waveguides were written using c.w. laser radiation at 275, 300.3, 302, and 305 nm wavelengths with various writing powers (35-60 mW) and scan speeds (0.1-1.0 mm/sec). Spectral analysis was used to determine the multimode and single mode wavelength regions and, the cut-off point of the fabricated waveguides. Electro-optic characterization of these waveguides reveals that the electro-optic coefficient (r33) decreases for longer writing wavelengths, with a maximum of 31 pm/V for 275 nm and, is reduced to 14 pm/V for waveguides written with 305 nm.

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  1. S. Mailis, C. Riziotis, I. T. Wellington, P. G. R. Smith, C. B. E. Gawith, and R. W. Eason, “Direct ultraviolet writing of channel waveguides in congruent lithium niobate single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1433–1435 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Ganguly, C. L. Sones, Y. J. Ying, H. Steigerwald, K. Buse, E. Soergel, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “Determination of Refractive Indices From the Mode Profiles of UV-Written Channel Waveguides in LiNbO3-Crystals for Optimization of Writing Conditions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3490–3497 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. C. Muir, G. J. Daniell, C. P. Please, I. T. Wellington, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Modelling the formation of optical waveguides produced in LiNbO3 by laser induced thermal diffusion of lithium ions,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(3), 389–396 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. A. H. van Leeuwen and H. T. Nijnuis, “Measurement of higher-order mode attenuation in single-mode fibers: effective cutoff wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 9(6), 252–254 (1984).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Mendez, G. De la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 485–488 (2001).
  9. S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive Barium Titanate and Strontium Barium Niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2116–2121 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. L. Wooten and W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(1), 161–170 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. C. Deshpande, A. P. Malshe, E. A. Stach, V. Radmilovic, D. Alexander, D. Doerr, and D. Hirt, “Investigation of femtosecond laser assisted nano and microscale modifications in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 074316 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Waveguides in lithium niobate fabricated by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7899–7902 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).
  15. I. P. Kaminow and V. Ramaswam, “Lithium-Niobate ridge waveguide-modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Johann, Y. J. J. Ying, T. Jungk, A. Hoffmann, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Depth resolution of piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172904 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. G. Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Waveguides in lithium niobate fabricated by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7899–7902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. C. Muir, G. J. Daniell, C. P. Please, I. T. Wellington, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Modelling the formation of optical waveguides produced in LiNbO3 by laser induced thermal diffusion of lithium ions,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(3), 389–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. C. Deshpande, A. P. Malshe, E. A. Stach, V. Radmilovic, D. Alexander, D. Doerr, and D. Hirt, “Investigation of femtosecond laser assisted nano and microscale modifications in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 074316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Mendez, G. De la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 485–488 (2001).

1998 (1)

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. G. Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. F. McConaghy, K. F. Hunenberg, D. Sweider, M. Lowry, and R. A. Becker, “White-light spectral-analysis of Lithium-Niobate wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(1), 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Lang, L. Thevenaz, Z. B. Ren, and P. Robert, “Cutoff wavelength measurement of TiLiNbO3 channel wave-guides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5(9), 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. L. Wooten and W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(1), 161–170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive Barium Titanate and Strontium Barium Niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2116–2121 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1974 (1)

I. P. Kaminow and V. Ramaswam, “Lithium-Niobate ridge waveguide-modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Agullo-Rueda, F.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D.

D. C. Deshpande, A. P. Malshe, E. A. Stach, V. Radmilovic, D. Alexander, D. Doerr, and D. Hirt, “Investigation of femtosecond laser assisted nano and microscale modifications in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 074316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. A.

C. F. McConaghy, K. F. Hunenberg, D. Sweider, M. Lowry, and R. A. Becker, “White-light spectral-analysis of Lithium-Niobate wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(1), 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Waveguides in lithium niobate fabricated by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7899–7902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

Cabanes, A. G.

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. G. Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

A. Mendez, G. De la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 485–488 (2001).

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. G. Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. S. C.

E. L. Wooten and W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(1), 161–170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Daniell, G. J.

A. C. Muir, G. J. Daniell, C. P. Please, I. T. Wellington, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Modelling the formation of optical waveguides produced in LiNbO3 by laser induced thermal diffusion of lithium ions,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(3), 389–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De la Paliza, G.

A. Mendez, G. De la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 485–488 (2001).

de Toro, J. A.

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. G. Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deshpande, D. C.

D. C. Deshpande, A. P. Malshe, E. A. Stach, V. Radmilovic, D. Alexander, D. Doerr, and D. Hirt, “Investigation of femtosecond laser assisted nano and microscale modifications in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 074316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, D.

D. C. Deshpande, A. P. Malshe, E. A. Stach, V. Radmilovic, D. Alexander, D. Doerr, and D. Hirt, “Investigation of femtosecond laser assisted nano and microscale modifications in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 074316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive Barium Titanate and Strontium Barium Niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2116–2121 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

Feinberg, J.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive Barium Titanate and Strontium Barium Niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2116–2121 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ganguly, P.

Garcia-Cabanes, A.

A. Mendez, G. De la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 485–488 (2001).

Gawith, C. B. E.

Grebing, C.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Waveguides in lithium niobate fabricated by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7899–7902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirt, D.

D. C. Deshpande, A. P. Malshe, E. A. Stach, V. Radmilovic, D. Alexander, D. Doerr, and D. Hirt, “Investigation of femtosecond laser assisted nano and microscale modifications in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 074316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A.

Hoffmann, A.

F. Johann, Y. J. J. Ying, T. Jungk, A. Hoffmann, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Depth resolution of piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hunenberg, K. F.

C. F. McConaghy, K. F. Hunenberg, D. Sweider, M. Lowry, and R. A. Becker, “White-light spectral-analysis of Lithium-Niobate wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(1), 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johann, F.

F. Johann, Y. J. J. Ying, T. Jungk, A. Hoffmann, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Depth resolution of piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jungk, T.

F. Johann, Y. J. J. Ying, T. Jungk, A. Hoffmann, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Depth resolution of piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow and V. Ramaswam, “Lithium-Niobate ridge waveguide-modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lang, T.

T. Lang, L. Thevenaz, Z. B. Ren, and P. Robert, “Cutoff wavelength measurement of TiLiNbO3 channel wave-guides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5(9), 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lauzurica, S.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lowry, M.

C. F. McConaghy, K. F. Hunenberg, D. Sweider, M. Lowry, and R. A. Becker, “White-light spectral-analysis of Lithium-Niobate wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(1), 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mailis, S.

Malshe, A. P.

D. C. Deshpande, A. P. Malshe, E. A. Stach, V. Radmilovic, D. Alexander, D. Doerr, and D. Hirt, “Investigation of femtosecond laser assisted nano and microscale modifications in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 074316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McConaghy, C. F.

C. F. McConaghy, K. F. Hunenberg, D. Sweider, M. Lowry, and R. A. Becker, “White-light spectral-analysis of Lithium-Niobate wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(1), 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, A.

A. Mendez, G. De la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 485–488 (2001).

Molpeceres, C.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muir, A. C.

A. C. Muir, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, T. Jungk, A. Hoffman, and E. Soergel, “Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2336–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Muir, G. J. Daniell, C. P. Please, I. T. Wellington, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Modelling the formation of optical waveguides produced in LiNbO3 by laser induced thermal diffusion of lithium ions,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(3), 389–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive Barium Titanate and Strontium Barium Niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2116–2121 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nijnuis, H. T.

Nolte, S.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Waveguides in lithium niobate fabricated by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7899–7902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ocana, J. L.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Please, C. P.

A. C. Muir, G. J. Daniell, C. P. Please, I. T. Wellington, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Modelling the formation of optical waveguides produced in LiNbO3 by laser induced thermal diffusion of lithium ions,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(3), 389–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radmilovic, V.

D. C. Deshpande, A. P. Malshe, E. A. Stach, V. Radmilovic, D. Alexander, D. Doerr, and D. Hirt, “Investigation of femtosecond laser assisted nano and microscale modifications in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 074316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswam, V.

I. P. Kaminow and V. Ramaswam, “Lithium-Niobate ridge waveguide-modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z. B.

T. Lang, L. Thevenaz, Z. B. Ren, and P. Robert, “Cutoff wavelength measurement of TiLiNbO3 channel wave-guides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5(9), 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Riziotis, C.

Robert, P.

T. Lang, L. Thevenaz, Z. B. Ren, and P. Robert, “Cutoff wavelength measurement of TiLiNbO3 channel wave-guides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5(9), 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serrano, M. D.

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. G. Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G. R.

Soergel, E.

Sones, C. L.

Stach, E. A.

D. C. Deshpande, A. P. Malshe, E. A. Stach, V. Radmilovic, D. Alexander, D. Doerr, and D. Hirt, “Investigation of femtosecond laser assisted nano and microscale modifications in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 074316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, H.

Sweider, D.

C. F. McConaghy, K. F. Hunenberg, D. Sweider, M. Lowry, and R. A. Becker, “White-light spectral-analysis of Lithium-Niobate wave-guides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(1), 83–87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

T. Lang, L. Thevenaz, Z. B. Ren, and P. Robert, “Cutoff wavelength measurement of TiLiNbO3 channel wave-guides,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 5(9), 1124–1130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Torchia, G. A.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Waveguides in lithium niobate fabricated by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7899–7902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, K. A. H.

Wellington, I. T.

A. C. Muir, G. J. Daniell, C. P. Please, I. T. Wellington, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Modelling the formation of optical waveguides produced in LiNbO3 by laser induced thermal diffusion of lithium ions,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(3), 389–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Mailis, C. Riziotis, I. T. Wellington, P. G. R. Smith, C. B. E. Gawith, and R. W. Eason, “Direct ultraviolet writing of channel waveguides in congruent lithium niobate single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1433–1435 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten and W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(1), 161–170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ying, Y. J.

Ying, Y. J. J.

F. Johann, Y. J. J. Ying, T. Jungk, A. Hoffmann, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Depth resolution of piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Mendez, G. De la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 485–488 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Johann, Y. J. J. Ying, T. Jungk, A. Hoffmann, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, S. Mailis, and E. Soergel, “Depth resolution of piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow and V. Ramaswam, “Lithium-Niobate ridge waveguide-modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(12), 622–624 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

A. C. Muir, G. J. Daniell, C. P. Please, I. T. Wellington, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Modelling the formation of optical waveguides produced in LiNbO3 by laser induced thermal diffusion of lithium ions,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(3), 389–396 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, C. Molpeceres, S. Lauzurica, J. L. Ocana, G. A. Torchia, and F. Agullo-Rueda, “Ultraviolet nanosecond laser-assisted micro-modifications in lithium niobate monitored by Nd3+ luminescence,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 87–90 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, “Waveguides in lithium niobate fabricated by focused ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7899–7902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive Barium Titanate and Strontium Barium Niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(12), 2116–2121 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Wooten and W. S. C. Chang, “Test structures for characterization of electrooptic waveguide modulators in lithium niobate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(1), 161–170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for spectral characterisation: M 1 , M 2 – mirrors, P – adjustable pinhole, MMF – multimode fiber, OSA – optical spectrum analyser, WUT – waveguide under test.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the measurement of electro-optic coefficient of the waveguide: A1, A2 – optical attenuator; M1, M2, M3 – mirror; BS1, BS2 – beam splitter; WUT – waveguide under test; V - applied voltage; P1, P2, - adjustable pinhole; D – detector; LIA – lock-in amplifier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical spectral responses of the fabricated UV-written waveguides: (a) with writing wavelength: 300.3 nm, power: 40 mW, speed: 1 mm/sec; (b) with writing wavelength: 305 nm, power: 50 mW, speed: 1 mm/sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variations of cut-off wavelengths of the waveguides with: (a) laser writing power, (b) writing speed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Changes in cut-off wavelengths of the waveguides with applied voltages for 275, 300.3, 302, and 305 nm writing wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in contrast of the waveguides written with 275, 300.3, 302, and 305nm wavelengths with applied voltages.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes in mode width (a) and mode depth (b) with applied voltages for the waveguides written with 275, 300.3, 302, and 305nm wavelengths.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured electro-optic coefficients (r33) of the waveguides for different writing wavelengths and powers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of normalised detector output with the applied voltages for 275, 300.3, 302, and 305nm writing wavelengths of the waveguides.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Maximum surface refractive index values of different waveguides in Fig. 6.

Equations (5)

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r 33 = λ d n e 3 L V Π
I W G I R E F = K 00 + K 01
I W G I R E F = K 00 + K 01 e α 01 L 0
I W G I R E F = K 00
I W G I R E F = K 00 e α 00 L 0

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