Abstract

We introduce a new type of scanning protocols, called segmented protocols, which enable extracting multi-range flow velocity information from a single Spectral OCT data set. The protocols are evaluated using a well defined flow in a glass capillary. As an example of in vivo studies, we demonstrate two- and three-dimensional imaging of the retinal vascular system in the eyes of healthy volunteers. The flow velocity detection is performed using a method of Joint Spectral and Time domain OCT. Velocity ranging is demonstrated in imaging of retinal vasculature in the macular region and in the optic disk area characterized by different flow velocity values. Additionally, an enhanced visualization of retinal capillary network is presented in the close proximity to macula.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (8)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, A. Fontanella, H. Hendargo, M. W. Dewhirst, and J. A. Izatt, “Combined hyperspectral and spectral domain optical coherence tomography microscope for noninvasive hemodynamic imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 289–291 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, K. M. Kennedy, and J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-resolved 3D retinal microvessel imaging using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4177–4188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, B. L. Sikorski, I. Gorczynska, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, D. Bukowska, J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Comparison of reflectivity maps and outer retinal topography in retinal disease by 3-D Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4189–4207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (9)

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, “Quantitative retinal-blood flow measurement with three-dimensional vessel geometry determination using ultrahigh-resolution Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 836–838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Z. Wang, Z. Yuan, C. Du, and Y. Pan, “Optical coherence Doppler tomography quantifies laser speckle contrast imaging for blood flow imaging in the rat cerebral cortex,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1156–1158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography--limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, “Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12350–12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Kim, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional visualization of choroidal vessels by using standard and ultra-high resolution scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7538–7550 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wehbe, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, C. A. Puliafito, and W. Zhao, “Automatic retinal blood flow calculation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15193–15206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Aoki, G.

Bachmann, A. H.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Bartlett, L. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatter, C.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecke, K. M.

Bukowska, D.

Cable, A.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R. W. S.

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Y. L.

Chen, Z. P.

Cowey, A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J. F.

Dewhirst, M. W.

Ding, Z. H.

Drexler, W.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, C.

Duker, J. S.

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Fabritius, T.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontanella, A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, B. L. Sikorski, I. Gorczynska, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, D. Bukowska, J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Comparison of reflectivity maps and outer retinal topography in retinal disease by 3-D Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4189–4207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Grulkowski, I.

Hanson, S. R.

He, Y. H.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendargo, H.

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Jain, R. K.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jiao, S.

Kaluzny, J.

Kaluzny, J. J.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, K. M.

Khurana, M.

Kim, S.

Ko, T. H.

Kolbitsch, C.

Kowalczyk, A.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, B. L. Sikorski, I. Gorczynska, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, D. Bukowska, J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Comparison of reflectivity maps and outer retinal topography in retinal disease by 3-D Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4189–4207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography--limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanning, R. M.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, T.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leung, M. K.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

Ma, Z.

Makita, S.

Mariampillai, A.

Mei, M.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaely, R.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Morgan, J. E.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriyama, E. H.

Mujat, M.

Munce, N. R.

Munn, L. L.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Otis, L. L.

Padera, T. P.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

Park, B. H.

Piao, D. Q.

Pierce, M. C.

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proskurin, S. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

H. Wehbe, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, C. A. Puliafito, and W. Zhao, “Automatic retinal blood flow calculation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15193–15206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitsamer, H. A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H. W.

Ruggeri, M.

Sattmann, H.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schmetterer, L.

Schmoll, T.

Schuman, J. S.

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikorski, B.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sikorski, B. L.

Skala, M. C.

Srinivasan, V. J.

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Standish, B. A.

Stingl, A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stylianopoulos, T.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, B. L. Sikorski, I. Gorczynska, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, D. Bukowska, J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Comparison of reflectivity maps and outer retinal topography in retinal disease by 3-D Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4189–4207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography--limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 11 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szlag, D.

Tan, O.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G. J.

Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, A. Stingl, T. Le, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Reitsamer, J. E. Morgan, and A. Cowey, “Imaging ex vivo and in vitro brain morphology in animal models with ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 719–724 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5483–5493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villiger, M. L.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

Vuong, L. N.

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, R. K. K.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wehbe, H.

White, B. R.

Wilson, B. C.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, B. L. Sikorski, I. Gorczynska, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, D. Bukowska, J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Comparison of reflectivity maps and outer retinal topography in retinal disease by 3-D Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4189–4207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
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M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
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A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography--limitations and improvements,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1425–1427 (2008).
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M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 11 (2007).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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Xiang, S. H.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, V. X.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yuan, Z.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhao, W.

Zhao, Y. H.

Zhu, Q.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, L. N. Vuong, R. W. S. Chen, J. J. Liu, E. Reichel, M. Wojtkowski, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Projection OCT fundus imaging for visualising outer retinal pathology in non-exudative age-related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 93(5), 603–609 (2009).
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Opt. Express (19)

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3116–3121 (2003).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
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R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
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Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Kim, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Three-dimensional visualization of choroidal vessels by using standard and ultra-high resolution scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7538–7550 (2007).
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H. Wehbe, M. Ruggeri, S. Jiao, G. Gregori, C. A. Puliafito, and W. Zhao, “Automatic retinal blood flow calculation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15193–15206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
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B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
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T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
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M. Wojtkowski, B. L. Sikorski, I. Gorczynska, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, D. Bukowska, J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Comparison of reflectivity maps and outer retinal topography in retinal disease by 3-D Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4189–4207 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10584–10598 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Drawing of the experimental set-up. SLD – superluminescent diode, OI – optical isolator, FC – fiber coupler, PC – polarization controller, L1, L3, L6 – collimating lenses, L2 – reference arm lens, L4 – scan lens, L5 – ocular lens, L5′ – focusing lens, L7 – spectrometer lens NDF – neutral density filter, DC – dispersion compensation, M – mirror, SC – XY galvanometer scanners, GC – glass capillary, HPLC – HPLC syringe pump, HVDG – holographic volume diffraction grating, COMP – computer. The inset presents modification of object arm for flow phantom studies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Voltage signals delivered to the fast (red) and slow (green) scanner for: (a) standard raster scan, (b) raster with repetitive B-scans, (c) raster with segmented B-scans (segmented B-scan is indicated by dashed rectangle), (d) zoom of the voltage signal applied to the fast scanner for the segmented B-scan. Vf – voltage applied to the fast scanner, Vs – voltage applied to the slow scanner, t – time, V1, V2, …, VN – voltage offsets corresponding to locations of the segments along the fast axis direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of STdOCT data analysis in: (a) unidirectional and (b) bidirectional scanning. Dots represent A-scans. Detection of at least two velocity ranges is possible. Fast flow detection is performed by analysis of subsequent A-scans (green frame). Slow flow detection is now offered through analysis of A-scans from appropriate B-scans or segments. In the case of unidirectional scanning A-scans are selected from consecutive B-scans / segments (red frame). Bidirectional scanning requires selection of A-scans from odd (red open circles) or even (blue open circles) B-scans / segments. t – time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Doppler maps showing the axial velocity components of the flow of Intralipid solution in a glass capillary. The data were acquired using the following protocols: (a) standard high-definition B-scan, (b) segmented B-scan (unidirectional acquisition), (c) raster with repetitive B-scans (bidirectional acquisition). The A-scans indicated by green lines are presented as velocity profiles below each map. Imaging parameters in each case are given in Table 1. Vertical white stripes indicate regions of lower reflectivity caused either by specular reflections or by impurities at the air-glass interface of the capillary.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Velocity ranging in a glass capillary with the flow of Intralipid set to axial velocities: v0z I = 1.4 mm/s (upper row) and v0z II = 28 mm/s (lower row). For each axial velocity the data set was processed in two ways: for fast flow detection with the velocity range v max fast = ± 44.0 mm/s (left column) and for slow flow detection with the velocity range v max slow = ± 2.2 mm/s (right column). The cross-sections indicated by green lines are presented as velocity profiles below each map. The threshold of noise removal in panel (a) was lower than in other cases in order to distinguish capillary lumen. Imaging parameters are given in Table 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Smart OCT Doppler analysis of retinal vasculature in the vicinity of optic disc: (a) and (b) structural images, (c) velocity map and(e) velocity profiles obtained by the fast flow detection method (velocity range v max fast = ± 44.0 mm/s); (d) velocity map and(f) velocity profiles obtained by the slow flow detection method (velocity range v max slow = ± 1.1 mm/s). Panels (i)-(iv) show zoomed regions including retinal vessels. Green arrows indicate small vessels not visible in the fast flow detection method. The velocity profiles along the regions indicated by green lines are displayed in panels (e) and (f). Imaging parameters are given in Table 4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In vivo OCT imaging of retinal flow using raster scan composed of segmented B-scans: (a) structural en face image, (b) reconstructed velocity map obtained with fast flow detection method (velocity range range v max fast = ± 44.0 mm/s), (c) reconstructed velocity map obtained with slow flow detection method (velocity range v max slow = ± 2.2 mm/s). Imaging parameters are given in Table 4. Variation of color along the vessel is caused by local differences in the vessel orientation with regard to the direction of the scanning beam.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OCT fundus image. Red rectangle indicates location where the STdOCT imaging was performed for visualization of retinal capillaries (results are shown in Fig. 9 and 10). The image size is 6.5mm x 5.5 mm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

En face visualization of inner retinal vessels. (a) Vessels between the boundary lines I-IV indicated in Fig. 9(a). (b) Vasculature between the lines II-IV. (c) Capillaries between the lines III-IV. Scale bars in all images indicate lengths 200 μm by 200 μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

STdOCT imaging of retinal capillaries. (a), (b), (c) - projection OCT fundus images generated for depth ranges between boundaries I-II, II-III and III-IV, correspondingly, shown as yellow dashed lines in panel (g). (d), (e), (f) – flow maps at depth ranges visualized in projection OCT fundus images. (g) Cross-sectional OCT image; dashed yellow lines indicate boundaries of depth ranges used for projection OCT fundus imaging. (h) Example cross-sectional flow image extracted from the 3-D data at location indicated by the dashed line in panel (f). (i) Enlarged image of capillaries indicated by the dashed rectangle in panel (h); the green arrow points at a capillary with colors encoding the velocity value and direction ranging from blue to red. Scale bars in images (a)-(h) indicate lengths 200 μm by 200 μm, and in image (i) 50 μm by 50 μm.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Scanning protocols used for slow-flow detection in the glass capillary.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the peak axial velocities obtained in STdOCT imaging with the actual peak axial velocity value.

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Table 3 2-D segmented scan protocol used for velocity ranging in the glass capillary.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Scan protocols used for in vivo imaging in human retina

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v max = ± λ 0 4 Δ t , v min = ± λ 0 4 Δ t Δ Φ err π ,
| v max f a s t | = λ 0 4 t r e p .
| v max s l o w U | = λ 0 4 M t r e p .
| v max s l o w B | = λ 0 8 M t r e p .
v 0 = 2 Δ V Δ t 1 π R 0 2 .

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