Abstract

Three dimensional (3-D) auto-cloned photonics crystal (APhC) of Ta2O5/SiO2 multi-layers was fabricated on the backside of the sapphire wafer that had InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well LED on the front side. 94% light extraction enhancement in comparison to the LED without APhC was obtained. Electrical properties of the LED did not altered by the APhC and its fabrication process. Experimental evidences showed that light extraction enhancement mechanism is two-folded: for rays that are emitted from the source and incident at lower angle of incidence to the APhC, the APhC acts as a high reflector; for rays incident at higher angle of incidence to the APhC, first order diffracted light from the APhC appears, the diffracted light is concentrated around the surface normal and is therefore capable of escaping.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, "Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 457-459 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, "Omnidirectional reflective contacts for light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 24, 683-685 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, "GaInN light-emitting diodes with RuO2/SiO2/Ag omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508-4510 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ishikawa, B. Zhang, K. Asano, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, "Characterization of GaInN light-emitting diodes with distributed Bragg reflector grown on Si," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 322-326 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. S. Zhao, D. L. Hibbard, H. P. Lee, K. Ma, W. So, and H. Liu, "Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a back-surface distributed bragg reflector," J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1523-1526 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Seo and J. H. Jang, "Nitride semiconductor light emitting diode and fabrication method thereof," US patent 20050133796A1 (2005).
  11. S. Kawakami, "Fabrication of submicrometer 3D periodic structures composed of Si/SiO2," Electron. Lett. 33, 1260-1261 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Kawashima, and S. Kawakami, "Drilled alternating-layer three-dimensional photonic crystals having a full photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4256-4258 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, "Surface profile control of the autocloned photonic crystal by ion-beamsputter deposition with radio-frequency-bias etching," Appl. Opt. 84, 69-73 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, "Surface profile control of the autocloned photonic crystal by ion-beamsputter deposition with radio-frequency-bias etching," Appl. Opt. 84, 69-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, "Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 457-459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, "GaInN light-emitting diodes with RuO2/SiO2/Ag omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508-4510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, B. Zhang, K. Asano, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, "Characterization of GaInN light-emitting diodes with distributed Bragg reflector grown on Si," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 322-326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. S. Zhao, D. L. Hibbard, H. P. Lee, K. Ma, W. So, and H. Liu, "Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a back-surface distributed bragg reflector," J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1523-1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, "Omnidirectional reflective contacts for light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 24, 683-685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Kawashima, and S. Kawakami, "Drilled alternating-layer three-dimensional photonic crystals having a full photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4256-4258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Kawakami, "Fabrication of submicrometer 3D periodic structures composed of Si/SiO2," Electron. Lett. 33, 1260-1261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asano, K.

H. Ishikawa, B. Zhang, K. Asano, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, "Characterization of GaInN light-emitting diodes with distributed Bragg reflector grown on Si," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 322-326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, "Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 457-459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chao, S.

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, "Surface profile control of the autocloned photonic crystal by ion-beamsputter deposition with radio-frequency-bias etching," Appl. Opt. 84, 69-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chocho, K.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Egawa, T.

H. Ishikawa, B. Zhang, K. Asano, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, "Characterization of GaInN light-emitting diodes with distributed Bragg reflector grown on Si," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 322-326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z. H.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, T.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, "GaInN light-emitting diodes with RuO2/SiO2/Ag omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508-4510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, "Omnidirectional reflective contacts for light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 24, 683-685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Graff, J. W.

T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, "Omnidirectional reflective contacts for light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 24, 683-685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hibbard, D. L.

Y. S. Zhao, D. L. Hibbard, H. P. Lee, K. Ma, W. So, and H. Liu, "Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a back-surface distributed bragg reflector," J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1523-1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. Y.

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, "Surface profile control of the autocloned photonic crystal by ion-beamsputter deposition with radio-frequency-bias etching," Appl. Opt. 84, 69-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, H.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, "Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 457-459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

H. Ishikawa, B. Zhang, K. Asano, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, "Characterization of GaInN light-emitting diodes with distributed Bragg reflector grown on Si," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 322-326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jimbo, T.

H. Ishikawa, B. Zhang, K. Asano, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, "Characterization of GaInN light-emitting diodes with distributed Bragg reflector grown on Si," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 322-326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, "Omnidirectional reflective contacts for light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 24, 683-685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Kawashima, and S. Kawakami, "Drilled alternating-layer three-dimensional photonic crystals having a full photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4256-4258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawakami, "Fabrication of submicrometer 3D periodic structures composed of Si/SiO2," Electron. Lett. 33, 1260-1261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Kawashima, and S. Kawakami, "Drilled alternating-layer three-dimensional photonic crystals having a full photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4256-4258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, "GaInN light-emitting diodes with RuO2/SiO2/Ag omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508-4510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozaki, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ku, H. M.

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, "Surface profile control of the autocloned photonic crystal by ion-beamsputter deposition with radio-frequency-bias etching," Appl. Opt. 84, 69-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. M.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. P.

Y. S. Zhao, D. L. Hibbard, H. P. Lee, K. Ma, W. So, and H. Liu, "Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a back-surface distributed bragg reflector," J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1523-1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Y. S. Zhao, D. L. Hibbard, H. P. Lee, K. Ma, W. So, and H. Liu, "Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a back-surface distributed bragg reflector," J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1523-1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. D.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, "GaInN light-emitting diodes with RuO2/SiO2/Ag omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508-4510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K.

Y. S. Zhao, D. L. Hibbard, H. P. Lee, K. Ma, W. So, and H. Liu, "Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a back-surface distributed bragg reflector," J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1523-1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Kawashima, and S. Kawakami, "Drilled alternating-layer three-dimensional photonic crystals having a full photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4256-4258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pasquale, A. J.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Y. D.

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, "GaInN light-emitting diodes with RuO2/SiO2/Ag omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508-4510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, "Omnidirectional reflective contacts for light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 24, 683-685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

So, W.

Y. S. Zhao, D. L. Hibbard, H. P. Lee, K. Ma, W. So, and H. Liu, "Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a back-surface distributed bragg reflector," J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1523-1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, "Omnidirectional reflective contacts for light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 24, 683-685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Kawashima, and S. Kawakami, "Drilled alternating-layer three-dimensional photonic crystals having a full photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4256-4258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Umemoto, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

H. Ishikawa, B. Zhang, K. Asano, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, "Characterization of GaInN light-emitting diodes with distributed Bragg reflector grown on Si," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 322-326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. S.

Y. S. Zhao, D. L. Hibbard, H. P. Lee, K. Ma, W. So, and H. Liu, "Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a back-surface distributed bragg reflector," J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1523-1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opts.

C. Y. Huang, H. M. Ku, and S. Chao, "Surface profile control of the autocloned photonic crystal by ion-beamsputter deposition with radio-frequency-bias etching," Appl. Opt. 84, 69-73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, "InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes with modulationdoped strained-layer superlattices grown on an epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett 72(2), 211-213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, "Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 457-459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3885-3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, H. Luo, and E. F. Schubert, "GaInN light-emitting diodes with RuO2/SiO2/Ag omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4508-4510 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Kawashima, and S. Kawakami, "Drilled alternating-layer three-dimensional photonic crystals having a full photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4256-4258 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. Kawakami, "Fabrication of submicrometer 3D periodic structures composed of Si/SiO2," Electron. Lett. 33, 1260-1261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett.

T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, K. Streubel, and C. Karnutsch, "Omnidirectional reflective contacts for light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 24, 683-685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

Z. H. Feng, Y. D. Qi, Z. D. Lu, and K. M. Lau, "GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes grown and fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 327-332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, B. Zhang, K. Asano, T. Egawa, and T. Jimbo, "Characterization of GaInN light-emitting diodes with distributed Bragg reflector grown on Si," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 322-326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. of Electronic Materials

Y. S. Zhao, D. L. Hibbard, H. P. Lee, K. Ma, W. So, and H. Liu, "Efficiency enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a back-surface distributed bragg reflector," J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1523-1526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. H. Seo and J. H. Jang, "Nitride semiconductor light emitting diode and fabrication method thereof," US patent 20050133796A1 (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(color online) (a) standard LED, (b) LED with Bragg reflector, (c) LED with APhC (d)LED with APhC/Al.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM pictures of (a) 3-D APhC overview and its schematics, (b)cross section of the APhC, (c) The patterned sapphire.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(color online) AFM scan of the top surface of the APhC (a) overview (b) 45° counterclockwise rotation view and the surface profile along the dashed line (c) 45° clockwise rotation view and the surface profile along the dashed line. Averaged periodicity=298nm for scan along the dashd line in (b) and 305nm for that in (c). Averaged peak to peak height=29nm for scan along the dashed line in (b) and 48nm for that in (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(color online) I-V curves of the LEDs. Inset is the I-V curves in the reversed bias.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(color online) Optical output power vs. forward current of the LEDs. Inset is the spectra of the optical output at 20mA.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(color online) 3-D far field intensity distribution for (a) std. LED (b) BR LED (c) APhC LED (d) APhC/Al LED.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(color online) 3-D intensity distribution of the diffracted light (a) measurement set-up and the schematic of the top view for the APhC (b) for the p-polarization incident light (c) for the s-polarization incident light.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

2-D intensity distribution of the diffracted light Idr and Idt , transmitted light It , reflected light Ir (a) measurement set-up, (b) for the p-polarization incident light, (c) for the s-polarization incident light.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(color online) Schematic illustration for the mechanism of light extraction enhancement.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Electrical and optical properties of the LEDs.

Metrics