Abstract

The effects of the lattice pitch of GaN and polymer square-lattice photonic crystal (2PhC) on the diffracted transmission were studied by using rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA). Besides the first-order Bragg diffraction, higher-order diffractions from large pitches of PhC are also significant to the light extraction improvement. Three different diffraction mechanisms are illustrated through wave vector analysis. The enhancement factors of integrated transmission are obtained from a wide range of pitches with micro-scale for both GaN and polymer 2PhC. The experimental angular-resolved transmission on a transparent polymer sample of 2 μm pitch 2PhC is comparable to the simulation.

© 2009 OSA

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2009

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Theoretical Investigation of the Radiation Pattern From LEDs Incorporating Shallow Photonic Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(10), 1273–1283 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

2008

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. F. T. Wang, and W. Y. Yeh, “Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7285–7294 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7285 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice Constant Effect of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of Light-Diffracting Photonic-Crystals for High Extraction Efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 91, 013504–1-013504–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Kikuta, S. Hino, A. Maruyama, and A. Mizutani, “Estimation method for the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting elements with a rigorous grating diffraction theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1207–1213 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Yeda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-Extraction-Efficiency Blue Light-Emitting Diode Using Extended-Pitch Photonic Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995

Bao, K.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of Light-Diffracting Photonic-Crystals for High Extraction Efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Theoretical Investigation of the Radiation Pattern From LEDs Incorporating Shallow Photonic Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(10), 1273–1283 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Chang, S. J.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 91, 013504–1-013504–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. H.

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. F. T. Wang, and W. Y. Yeh, “Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7285–7294 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7285 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 94, 123106–1-123106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. S.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 91, 013504–1-013504–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, J. Y.

Choi, J.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice Constant Effect of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, T.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of Light-Diffracting Photonic-Crystals for High Extraction Efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Graford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Hino, S.

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houdre, R.

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Theoretical Investigation of the Radiation Pattern From LEDs Incorporating Shallow Photonic Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(10), 1273–1283 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, H. T.

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. C.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice Constant Effect of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ji, H.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X. N.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kikuta, H.

Kim, J. S.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice Constant Effect of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice Constant Effect of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 91, 013504–1-013504–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. T.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 91, 013504–1-013504–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. F. T. Wang, and W. Y. Yeh, “Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7285–7294 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7285 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 94, 123106–1-123106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. F.

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. F. T. Wang, and W. Y. Yeh, “Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7285–7294 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7285 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 94, 123106–1-123106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 94, 123106–1-123106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. M.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice Constant Effect of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Theoretical Investigation of the Radiation Pattern From LEDs Incorporating Shallow Photonic Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(10), 1273–1283 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Liu, D.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

Maruyama, A.

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, A.

Moharam, M. G.

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orita, K.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Yeda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-Extraction-Efficiency Blue Light-Emitting Diode Using Extended-Pitch Photonic Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. B.

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice Constant Effect of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Qin, Z. X.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U. T.

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Theoretical Investigation of the Radiation Pattern From LEDs Incorporating Shallow Photonic Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(10), 1273–1283 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Sharama, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. F.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 91, 013504–1-013504–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 91, 013504–1-013504–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, R. P.

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Theoretical Investigation of the Radiation Pattern From LEDs Incorporating Shallow Photonic Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(10), 1273–1283 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takigawa, S.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Yeda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-Extraction-Efficiency Blue Light-Emitting Diode Using Extended-Pitch Photonic Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takizawa, T.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Yeda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-Extraction-Efficiency Blue Light-Emitting Diode Using Extended-Pitch Photonic Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, S.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Yeda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-Extraction-Efficiency Blue Light-Emitting Diode Using Extended-Pitch Photonic Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, D.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Yeda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-Extraction-Efficiency Blue Light-Emitting Diode Using Extended-Pitch Photonic Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. F. T.

Wang, X.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of Light-Diffracting Photonic-Crystals for High Extraction Efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, Ch.

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Theoretical Investigation of the Radiation Pattern From LEDs Incorporating Shallow Photonic Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(10), 1273–1283 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. J.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeda, T.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Yeda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-Extraction-Efficiency Blue Light-Emitting Diode Using Extended-Pitch Photonic Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W. Y.

C. F. Lai, J. Y. Chi, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. F. T. Wang, and W. Y. Yeh, “Anisotropy of light extraction from GaN two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7285–7294 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-10-7285 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 94, 123106–1-123106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H. H.

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 94, 123106–1-123106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D. P.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. J.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuri, M.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Yeda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-Extraction-Efficiency Blue Light-Emitting Diode Using Extended-Pitch Photonic Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. S.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharama, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 061124–1-061124–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, and D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 88, 171103–1-171103–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, and J. K. Sheu, “Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 91, 013504–1-013504–3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lai, C. H. Chao, H. C. Kuo, H. H. Yen, C. E. Lee, and W. Y. Yeh, “Directional light extraction enhancement from GaN-based film-transferred photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett . 94, 123106–1-123106–3 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Graford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

T. Dai, B. Zhang, Z. S. Zhang, D. Liu, X. Wang, K. Bao, X. N. Kang, J. Xu, D. P. Yu, and X. Zhu, “Surface Light Extraction Mapping from Two-Dimensional Array of 12-Fold Photonic Quasicrystal on Current Injected GaN-Based LEDs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 24, 979–982 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, C. C. Yang, and D. S. Wuu, “Efficiency improvement of GaN-based LEDs with ITO texturing window layers using natural lithography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1196–1201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Theoretical Investigation of the Radiation Pattern From LEDs Incorporating Shallow Photonic Crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 45(10), 1273–1283 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of Light Extraction From Patterned Polymer Encapsulated GaN-based Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes by Imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, J. Choi, J. B. Park, S. C. Jeon, J. S. Kim, and H. M. Lee, “Lattice Constant Effect of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1455–1457 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Tech.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of Light-Diffracting Photonic-Crystals for High Extraction Efficiency LEDs,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Yeda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, and D. Ueda, “High-Extraction-Efficiency Blue Light-Emitting Diode Using Extended-Pitch Photonic Crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 8B), 5809–5813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev.

Ch. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs-designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1, 1–25 (2008).

Nat. Photonics

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

K. Bergenek, Ch. Wiesmann, H. Zull, C. Rumbolz, R. Wirth, N. Linder, K. Streubel, and T. F. Krauss, “Beam-shaping properties of InGaN thin-film micro-cavity light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” Proc. of SPIE. 7231, 72310C–1-72310C–11 (2009).

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, H. Tong, and A. Arif, “Enhancement of light extraction of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Proc. of SPIE 7231, 72310U–1-72310U–7 (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The transmission of total and each order diffraction as function of k // for the GaN 2PhCs with different pitches for the fill factor of 0.5 (a) a 1 = 100 nm; (b) a 2 = 230 nm; (c) a 3 = 460 nm; (d) a 4 = 920 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of different mechanisms for light extraction from LED by photonic crystals for original mode k //>ko becomes (a) | k / / + G | < k o ; and original k //<ko becomes (b) | k / / + G | > k o and (c) | k / / + G | < k o .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated enhancement factors of the TE polarization integrated transmission at various lattice pitches of 2PhC GaN (square) and polymer (circle), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular resolved transmission measurements on PDMS hemi-cylinders by incidence of 532 nm laser beam. (a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup; (b) the transmitted diffraction spots pattern from 2PhC/PDMS; the incident angle is at 50° (>θ crit) for (c) planar PDMS and (d) 2PhC/PDMS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The experimental (hollow) and simulation (solid) total transmission efficiency curves for planar PDMS and 2 μm pitch pillar 2PhC/PDMS.

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