Abstract

We study both experimentally and theoretically the generation of photon pairs by spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in standard birefringent optical fibers. The ability to produce a range of two-photon spectral states, from highly correlated (entangled) to completely factorable, by means of cross-polarized birefringent phase matching, is explored. A simple model is developed to predict the spectral state of the photon pair which shows how this can be adjusted by choosing the appropriate pump bandwidth, fiber length and birefringence. Spontaneous Raman scattering is modeled to determine the tradeoff between SFWM and background Raman noise, and the predicted results are shown to agree with experimental data.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (9)

J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, "Manipulation of multiphoton entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits," Nat. Photonics 3, 346-350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, "Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits," Opt. Express 17, 12,546-12,554 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Smith, D. M. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, "Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits," Opt. Express 17, 13,639-13,645 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, "Shor’s Quantum Factoring Algorithm on a Photonic Chip," Science 325, 1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Dyer, B. Baek, and S. W. Nam, "High-brightness, low-noise, all-fiber photon pair source," Opt. Express 17, 10,290-10,297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hall, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, "Drop-in compatible entanglement for optical-fiber networks," Opt. Express 17, 14,558-14,566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Halder, J. Fulconis, B. Cemlyn, A. Clark, C. Xiong, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical 2-photon interference with separate intrinsically narrow band fibre sources," Opt. Express 17, 4670-4676 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. McMillan, J. Fulconis, M. Halder, C. Xiong, J. G. Rarity, andW. J.Wadsworth, "Narrowband high-fidelity all-fibre source of heralded single photons at 1570 nm," Opt. Express 17, 6156-6165 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

X. Li, L. Yang, L. Cui, Z. Y. Ou, and D. Yu, "Fiber-based source of photon pairs at telecom band with high temporal coherence and brightness for quantum information processing," Opt. Lett. 33, 593-595 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Dyer, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, and S.W. Nam, "High-efficiency, ultra low-noise all-fiber photon-pair source," Opt. Express 16, 9966-9977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, "Conditional preparation of single photons using parametric downconversion: a recipe for purity," New J. Phys. 10, 093011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320, 646-649 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Goldschmidt, M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, "Spectrally bright and broad fiberbased heralded single-photon source," Phys. Rev. A 78, 013844 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, and I. A.Walmsley, "Heralded Generation of Ultrafast Single Photons in Pure Quantum States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Nasr, S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, M. C. Teich, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, D. S. Hum, and M. M. Fejer, "Ultrabroadband Biphotons Generated via Chirped Quasi-Phase-Matched Optical Parametric Down-Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

A. Valencia, A. Cere, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "Shaping theWaveform of Entangled Photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Garay-Palmett, H. J. McGuinness, O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, R. Rangel-Rojo, A. B. U’Ren, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and I. A. Walmsley, "Photon pair-state preparation with tailored spectral properties by spontaneous four-wave mixing in photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 14,870-14,886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, "Chirp and Compress: Toward Single-Cycle Biphotons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 063602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, A. B. U’Ren, R. Erdmann, K. A. O’Donnell, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, "Generation of highly entangled photon pairs for continuous variable Bell inequality violation," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, M. D. Eisaman, and A. Migdall, "Bright phase-stable broadband fiber-based source of polarizationentangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043836 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, "Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. A. O’Donnell and A. B. U’Ren, "Observation of ultrabroadband, beamlike parametric downconversion," Opt. Lett. 32, 817-819 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

2005 (10)

J. G. Rarity, J. Fulconis, J. Duligall, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fiber source of correlated photon pairs," Opt. Express 13, 534-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Measurement of the spectral properties of the two-photon state generated via type II spontaneous parametric downconversion," Opt. Lett. 30, 908-910 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fan and A. Migdall, "Generation of cross-polarized photon pairs in a microstructure fiber with frequencyconjugate laser pump pulses," Opt. Express 13, 5777 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and J. G. Rarity, "High brightness single mode source of correlated photon pairs using a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7572-7582 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "1.5-m band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7832-7839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, R. Erdmann, W. P. Grice, and M. G. Raymer, "Generation of Pure-State Single-Photon Wavepackets by Conditional Preparation Based on Spontaneous Parametric Downconversion," Laser Physics 15, 146-161 (2005).

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-Fiber Source of Polarization-Entangled Photons in the 1550 nm Telecom Band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, X. Li, and P. Kumar, "Two-photon-state generation via four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, A. Migdall, and L. J. Wang, "Efficient generation of correlated photon pairs in a microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 24, 3368-3370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and F. X. Kartner, "Two-Photon Coincident-Frequency Entanglement via Extended Phase Matching," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek and I. A. Walmsley, "Conditional preparation of single photons for scalable quantum-optical networking," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Thorn, M. S. Neel, V. W. Donato, G. S. Bergreen, R. E. Davies, and M. Beck, "Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory," Am. J. Phys. 72, 1210-1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, J. Chen, X. Li, and P. Kumar, "Quantum-correlated twin photons from microstructure fiber," Opt. Express 12, 3086-3094 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, "Demonstration of Dispersion-Canceled Quantum-Optical Coherence Tomography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083601 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

V. Giovannetti, L. Maccone, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, "Generating Entangled Two-Photon States with Coincident Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-Fiber Photon-Pair Source for Quantum Communications," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 983-985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

W. P. Grice, A. B. U’Ren, and I. A.Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, "Quantum-enhanced positioning and clock synchonization," Nature 412, 417-419 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tanzilli, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 73, 26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, and P. Kumar, "Observation of twin-beam-type quantum correlation in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 367-369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Banaszek, A. B. U’Ren and I. A. Walmsley, "Generation of correlated photons in controlled spatial modes by downconversion in nonlinear waveguides," Opt. Lett. 26, 1367-1369 (2001)
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. K. Law, I. A. Walmsley, and J. H. Eberly, "Continuous Frequency Entanglement: Effective Finite Hilbert Space and Entropy Control," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5304-5307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Erdmann, D. Branning,W. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Restoring dispersion cancellation for entangled photons produced by ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. A 62, 053810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. P. Grice, R. Erdmann, I. A. Walmsley, and D. Branning, "Spectral distinguishability in ultrafast parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 57, R2289-R2292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, "High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time," Phys. Rev. A 47, R2472-R2475 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and M. H. Rubin, "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state for space-time variables in a two-photon interference experiment," Phys. Rev. A 47, 1288-1293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Franson, "Nonlocal cancellation of dispersion," Phys. Rev. A 45, 3126-3132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, "Dispersion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon propagation velocity in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2421-2424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. D. Franson, "Bell Inequality for Position and Time," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205-2208 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, "Experimental Evidence for a Photon Anticorrelation Effect on a Beam Splitter: A New Light on Single-Photon Interferences," Europhys. Lett. 1, 173-179 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric Amplification and Frequency Conversion in Optical Fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1062-1072 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, "Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, "Photon-pair generation by four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 1286-1288 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albota, M. A.

O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and F. X. Kartner, "Two-Photon Coincident-Frequency Entanglement via Extended Phase Matching," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alibart, O.

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and J. G. Rarity, "High brightness single mode source of correlated photon pairs using a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7572-7582 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altepeter, J. B.

M. A. Hall, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, "Drop-in compatible entanglement for optical-fiber networks," Opt. Express 17, 14,558-14,566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, "Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits," Opt. Express 17, 12,546-12,554 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, "Experimental Evidence for a Photon Anticorrelation Effect on a Beam Splitter: A New Light on Single-Photon Interferences," Europhys. Lett. 1, 173-179 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baek, B.

S. D. Dyer, B. Baek, and S. W. Nam, "High-brightness, low-noise, all-fiber photon pair source," Opt. Express 17, 10,290-10,297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Dyer, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, and S.W. Nam, "High-efficiency, ultra low-noise all-fiber photon-pair source," Opt. Express 16, 9966-9977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 73, 26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Banaszek, K.

Beck, M.

J. J. Thorn, M. S. Neel, V. W. Donato, G. S. Bergreen, R. E. Davies, and M. Beck, "Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory," Am. J. Phys. 72, 1210-1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergreen, G. S.

J. J. Thorn, M. S. Neel, V. W. Donato, G. S. Bergreen, R. E. Davies, and M. Beck, "Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory," Am. J. Phys. 72, 1210-1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric Amplification and Frequency Conversion in Optical Fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1062-1072 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bosch, M. A.

Brainis, E.

Branning, D.

R. Erdmann, D. Branning,W. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Restoring dispersion cancellation for entangled photons produced by ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. A 62, 053810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice, R. Erdmann, I. A. Walmsley, and D. Branning, "Spectral distinguishability in ultrafast parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 57, R2289-R2292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, S.

M. B. Nasr, S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, M. C. Teich, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, D. S. Hum, and M. M. Fejer, "Ultrabroadband Biphotons Generated via Chirped Quasi-Phase-Matched Optical Parametric Down-Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cemlyn, B.

Chen, J.

Chiao, R. Y.

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, "High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time," Phys. Rev. A 47, R2472-R2475 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, "Dispersion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon propagation velocity in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2421-2424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, A.

Cohen, O.

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Garay-Palmett, H. J. McGuinness, O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, R. Rangel-Rojo, A. B. U’Ren, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and I. A. Walmsley, "Photon pair-state preparation with tailored spectral properties by spontaneous four-wave mixing in photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 14,870-14,886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coker, A.

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320, 646-649 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, L.

Davies, R. E.

J. J. Thorn, M. S. Neel, V. W. Donato, G. S. Bergreen, R. E. Davies, and M. Beck, "Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory," Am. J. Phys. 72, 1210-1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, P.

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, "Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits," Opt. Express 17, 12,546-12,554 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Donato, V. W.

J. J. Thorn, M. S. Neel, V. W. Donato, G. S. Bergreen, R. E. Davies, and M. Beck, "Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory," Am. J. Phys. 72, 1210-1219 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duligall, J.

Dyer, S. D.

S. D. Dyer, B. Baek, and S. W. Nam, "High-brightness, low-noise, all-fiber photon pair source," Opt. Express 17, 10,290-10,297 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Dyer, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, and S.W. Nam, "High-efficiency, ultra low-noise all-fiber photon-pair source," Opt. Express 16, 9966-9977 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

C. K. Law, I. A. Walmsley, and J. H. Eberly, "Continuous Frequency Entanglement: Effective Finite Hilbert Space and Entropy Control," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5304-5307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisaman, M. D.

E. A. Goldschmidt, M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, "Spectrally bright and broad fiberbased heralded single-photon source," Phys. Rev. A 78, 013844 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, M. D. Eisaman, and A. Migdall, "Bright phase-stable broadband fiber-based source of polarizationentangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043836 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, R.

R. Erdmann, D. Branning,W. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Restoring dispersion cancellation for entangled photons produced by ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. A 62, 053810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice, R. Erdmann, I. A. Walmsley, and D. Branning, "Spectral distinguishability in ultrafast parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 57, R2289-R2292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erps, J. V.

Fan, J.

E. A. Goldschmidt, M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, "Spectrally bright and broad fiberbased heralded single-photon source," Phys. Rev. A 78, 013844 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, M. D. Eisaman, and A. Migdall, "Bright phase-stable broadband fiber-based source of polarizationentangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043836 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, A. Migdall, and L. J. Wang, "Efficient generation of correlated photon pairs in a microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 24, 3368-3370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan and A. Migdall, "Generation of cross-polarized photon pairs in a microstructure fiber with frequencyconjugate laser pump pulses," Opt. Express 13, 5777 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

M. B. Nasr, S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, M. C. Teich, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, D. S. Hum, and M. M. Fejer, "Ultrabroadband Biphotons Generated via Chirped Quasi-Phase-Matched Optical Parametric Down-Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiorentino, M.

O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and F. X. Kartner, "Two-Photon Coincident-Frequency Entanglement via Extended Phase Matching," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-Fiber Photon-Pair Source for Quantum Communications," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 983-985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, and P. Kumar, "Observation of twin-beam-type quantum correlation in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 367-369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

J. D. Franson, "Nonlocal cancellation of dispersion," Phys. Rev. A 45, 3126-3132 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Franson, "Bell Inequality for Position and Time," Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205-2208 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fulconis, J.

Garay-Palmett, K.

K. Garay-Palmett, H. J. McGuinness, O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, R. Rangel-Rojo, A. B. U’Ren, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and I. A. Walmsley, "Photon pair-state preparation with tailored spectral properties by spontaneous four-wave mixing in photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 14,870-14,886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giovannetti, V.

V. Giovannetti, L. Maccone, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, "Generating Entangled Two-Photon States with Coincident Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, "Quantum-enhanced positioning and clock synchonization," Nature 412, 417-419 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

S. Tanzilli, H. D. Riedmatten, H. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. D. Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, "Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 73, 26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, E. A.

E. A. Goldschmidt, M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, "Spectrally bright and broad fiberbased heralded single-photon source," Phys. Rev. A 78, 013844 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, "Experimental Evidence for a Photon Anticorrelation Effect on a Beam Splitter: A New Light on Single-Photon Interferences," Europhys. Lett. 1, 173-179 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grice, W.

R. Erdmann, D. Branning,W. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Restoring dispersion cancellation for entangled photons produced by ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. A 62, 053810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grice, W. P.

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Measurement of the spectral properties of the two-photon state generated via type II spontaneous parametric downconversion," Opt. Lett. 30, 908-910 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Grice, A. B. U’Ren, and I. A.Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice, R. Erdmann, I. A. Walmsley, and D. Branning, "Spectral distinguishability in ultrafast parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 57, R2289-R2292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halder, M.

Hall, M. A.

M. A. Hall, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, "Drop-in compatible entanglement for optical-fiber networks," Opt. Express 17, 14,558-14,566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, "Chirp and Compress: Toward Single-Cycle Biphotons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 063602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, J. D.

Hum, D. S.

M. B. Nasr, S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, M. C. Teich, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, D. S. Hum, and M. M. Fejer, "Ultrabroadband Biphotons Generated via Chirped Quasi-Phase-Matched Optical Parametric Down-Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huy, K. P.

Inoue, K.

Kartner, F. X.

O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and F. X. Kartner, "Two-Photon Coincident-Frequency Entanglement via Extended Phase Matching," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-H.

Kumar, P.

M. A. Hall, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, "Drop-in compatible entanglement for optical-fiber networks," Opt. Express 17, 14,558-14,566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Liang, K. F. Lee, T. Levin, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, "Ultra stable all-fiber telecom-band entangled photon-pair source for turnkey quantum communication applications," Opt. Express 14, 6936-6941 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, "Generation of high-purity telecom-band entangled photon pairs in dispersion-shifted fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1905-1907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-Fiber Source of Polarization-Entangled Photons in the 1550 nm Telecom Band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, X. Li, and P. Kumar, "Two-photon-state generation via four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, J. Chen, X. Li, and P. Kumar, "Quantum-correlated twin photons from microstructure fiber," Opt. Express 12, 3086-3094 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-Fiber Photon-Pair Source for Quantum Communications," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 14, 983-985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, and P. Kumar, "Observation of twin-beam-type quantum correlation in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 367-369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kundys, D. M.

B. J. Smith, D. M. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, "Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits," Opt. Express 17, 13,639-13,645 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuzucu, O.

O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and F. X. Kartner, "Two-Photon Coincident-Frequency Entanglement via Extended Phase Matching," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwiat, P. G.

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, "High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time," Phys. Rev. A 47, R2472-R2475 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, "Dispersion cancellation in a measurement of the single-photon propagation velocity in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2421-2424 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, C. K.

C. K. Law, I. A. Walmsley, and J. H. Eberly, "Continuous Frequency Entanglement: Effective Finite Hilbert Space and Entropy Control," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5304-5307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. F.

Leonhardt, R.

Levin, T.

Li, X.

Liang, C.

Lin, C.

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, "Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, "Photon-pair generation by four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 1286-1288 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd, S.

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, "Quantum-enhanced positioning and clock synchonization," Nature 412, 417-419 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundeen, J. S.

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, and I. A.Walmsley, "Heralded Generation of Ultrafast Single Photons in Pure Quantum States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Zhang, A. B. U’Ren, R. Erdmann, K. A. O’Donnell, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, "Generation of highly entangled photon pairs for continuous variable Bell inequality violation," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 707 (2007).
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Laser Physics (1)

A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, R. Erdmann, W. P. Grice, and M. G. Raymer, "Generation of Pure-State Single-Photon Wavepackets by Conditional Preparation Based on Spontaneous Parametric Downconversion," Laser Physics 15, 146-161 (2005).

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. C. F. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, "Manipulation of multiphoton entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits," Nat. Photonics 3, 346-350 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, "Quantum-enhanced positioning and clock synchonization," Nature 412, 417-419 (2001).
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New J. Phys. (1)

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, "Conditional preparation of single photons using parametric downconversion: a recipe for purity," New J. Phys. 10, 093011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (15)

A. R. McMillan, J. Fulconis, M. Halder, C. Xiong, J. G. Rarity, andW. J.Wadsworth, "Narrowband high-fidelity all-fibre source of heralded single photons at 1570 nm," Opt. Express 17, 6156-6165 (2009).
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M. Halder, J. Fulconis, B. Cemlyn, A. Clark, C. Xiong, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical 2-photon interference with separate intrinsically narrow band fibre sources," Opt. Express 17, 4670-4676 (2009).
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H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "1.5-m band quantum-correlated photon pair generation in dispersion-shifted fiber: suppression of noise photons by cooling fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7832-7839 (2005).
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C. Liang, K. F. Lee, T. Levin, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, "Ultra stable all-fiber telecom-band entangled photon-pair source for turnkey quantum communication applications," Opt. Express 14, 6936-6941 (2006).
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S. D. Dyer, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, and S.W. Nam, "High-efficiency, ultra low-noise all-fiber photon-pair source," Opt. Express 16, 9966-9977 (2008).
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S. D. Dyer, B. Baek, and S. W. Nam, "High-brightness, low-noise, all-fiber photon pair source," Opt. Express 17, 10,290-10,297 (2009).
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J. E. Sharping, J. Chen, X. Li, and P. Kumar, "Quantum-correlated twin photons from microstructure fiber," Opt. Express 12, 3086-3094 (2004).
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M. A. Hall, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, "Drop-in compatible entanglement for optical-fiber networks," Opt. Express 17, 14,558-14,566 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Garay-Palmett, H. J. McGuinness, O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, R. Rangel-Rojo, A. B. U’Ren, M. G. Raymer, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, and I. A. Walmsley, "Photon pair-state preparation with tailored spectral properties by spontaneous four-wave mixing in photonic-crystal fiber," Opt. Express 15, 14,870-14,886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, "Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits," Opt. Express 17, 12,546-12,554 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Smith, D. M. Kundys, N. Thomas-Peter, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, "Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits," Opt. Express 17, 13,639-13,645 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Nguyen, K. P. Huy, E. Brainis, P. Mergo, J. Wojcik, T. Nasilowski, J. V. Erps, H. Thienpont, and S. Massar, "Enhanced cross phase modulation instability in birefringent photonic crystal fibers in the anomalous dispersion regime," Opt. Express 14, 8290-8297 (2006).
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J. Fan and A. Migdall, "Generation of cross-polarized photon pairs in a microstructure fiber with frequencyconjugate laser pump pulses," Opt. Express 13, 5777 (2005).
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J. G. Rarity, J. Fulconis, J. Duligall, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fiber source of correlated photon pairs," Opt. Express 13, 534-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and J. G. Rarity, "High brightness single mode source of correlated photon pairs using a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7572-7582 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, and P. Kumar, "Observation of twin-beam-type quantum correlation in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 367-369 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, A. Migdall, and L. J. Wang, "Efficient generation of correlated photon pairs in a microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 24, 3368-3370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, L. Yang, L. Cui, Z. Y. Ou, and D. Yu, "Fiber-based source of photon pairs at telecom band with high temporal coherence and brightness for quantum information processing," Opt. Lett. 33, 593-595 (2008).
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K. Banaszek, A. B. U’Ren and I. A. Walmsley, "Generation of correlated photons in controlled spatial modes by downconversion in nonlinear waveguides," Opt. Lett. 26, 1367-1369 (2001)
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K. A. O’Donnell and A. B. U’Ren, "Observation of ultrabroadband, beamlike parametric downconversion," Opt. Lett. 32, 817-819 (2007).
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J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, "Generation of high-purity telecom-band entangled photon pairs in dispersion-shifted fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1905-1907 (2006).
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Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, "Photon-pair generation by four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 1286-1288 (2006).
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Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Measurement of the spectral properties of the two-photon state generated via type II spontaneous parametric downconversion," Opt. Lett. 30, 908-910 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (10)

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, "Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization," Phys. Rev. A 75, 023803 (2007).
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R. Erdmann, D. Branning,W. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Restoring dispersion cancellation for entangled photons produced by ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. A 62, 053810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice, A. B. U’Ren, and I. A.Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and M. H. Rubin, "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state for space-time variables in a two-photon interference experiment," Phys. Rev. A 47, 1288-1293 (1992).
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P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, "High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time," Phys. Rev. A 47, R2472-R2475 (1993).
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[CrossRef]

E. A. Goldschmidt, M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, "Spectrally bright and broad fiberbased heralded single-photon source," Phys. Rev. A 78, 013844 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, M. D. Eisaman, and A. Migdall, "Bright phase-stable broadband fiber-based source of polarizationentangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043836 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, X. Li, and P. Kumar, "Two-photon-state generation via four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (14)

S. E. Harris, "Chirp and Compress: Toward Single-Cycle Biphotons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 063602 (2007).
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X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-Fiber Source of Polarization-Entangled Photons in the 1550 nm Telecom Band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120501 (2007).
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O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
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C. K. Law, I. A. Walmsley, and J. H. Eberly, "Continuous Frequency Entanglement: Effective Finite Hilbert Space and Entropy Control," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5304-5307 (2000).
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A. Valencia, A. Cere, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "Shaping theWaveform of Entangled Photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243601 (2007).
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A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek and I. A. Walmsley, "Conditional preparation of single photons for scalable quantum-optical networking," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093601 (2004).
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M. B. Nasr, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, "Demonstration of Dispersion-Canceled Quantum-Optical Coherence Tomography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083601 (2003).
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V. Giovannetti, L. Maccone, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. C. Wong, "Generating Entangled Two-Photon States with Coincident Frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183602 (2002).
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O. Kuzucu, M. Fiorentino, M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and F. X. Kartner, "Two-Photon Coincident-Frequency Entanglement via Extended Phase Matching," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 083601 (2005).
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P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, and I. A.Walmsley, "Heralded Generation of Ultrafast Single Photons in Pure Quantum States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008).
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Science (2)

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320, 646-649 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, "Shor’s Quantum Factoring Algorithm on a Photonic Chip," Science 325, 1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

S. Kasap and P. Capper, eds., Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials (Springer, New York, 2006).

C. Söller, B. Brecht, P. J. Mosley, L. Zang, A. Podlipensky, N. Y. Joly, P. S. Russell, and C. Silberhorn, "Bridging Visible and Telecom Wavelengths with a Single-Mode Broadband Photon Pair Source," quant-ph:0908.2932v1.

A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, "All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate," Phys. Rev. A 79, 030303(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Altepeter, J. Chen, and P. Kumar, "Entangled State Engineering in Single-Mode Fibers," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD), (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper QMA4.
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M. A. Hall, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, "Generation of O-Band Polarization Entanglement in SMF-28," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper ITuE5.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed., (Academic Press, Burlington, MA, 2006).

M. A. Nielson and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000).

A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, J. L. Ball, K . Banaszek, and I. A. Walmsley, "Characterization of the nonclassical nature of conditionally prepared single photons," Phys. Rev. A 72, 021802(R) (2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Theoretical and experimental birefringent phase-matching contours as a function of the pump central wavelength, λp . (b) Magnified view of inset box in (a). The upper red line (♢) shows the idler (λi ) theory (experiment) and the lower blue line (▫) shows the signal (ls) theory (experiment) for the Fibercore HB800G fiber with L=0.2m and Δn=4.3×10-4. Experimental pump power was 15mW, and theory plots neglect the γP contribution in Eq. (3). Experimental uncertainties are smaller than the data symbols.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modulus squared of pump spectral amplitudes for different pump bandwidths (top row of plots, Δλ=0.25, 1, and 1.5 nm FWHM), phase-matching function for different fiber lengths (left column of plots, L=21.3, 5.7 and 3.8 cm) and theoretical joint spectra (lower-right 3×3 array of plots) as a function of signal and idler wavelengths for birefringent phase matching. Plots are modeled using a pump central wavelength of 704 nm, the bulk silica dispersion, Δn=4.3×10-4, as measured for the Fibercore HB800G fiber, and neglecting the γP contribution in Eq. (3). The pump bandwidths and fiber lengths were chosen to display the variety of spectral states that can be realized using the birefringent phase-matching technique.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Raman scatter (green +), signal (blue ⎕) and idler (red ◇) normalized power as a function of the pump power for 1m fiber (Fibercore HB800G) and corresponding fit lines. In the spontaneous regime shown here, the Raman scatter scales linearly with the pump power, while the SFWM scales quadratically.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Typical spectral fringe pattern (solid blue) and fit (dashed red) used to determine the fiber birefringence. Here the laser was tuned to 700 nm for 0.9m of fiber (Fibercore HB750).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup. (a) The source consists of a Ti:Sapphire laser beam that is spectrally filtered using a folded 4f prism pulse shaper and passes through a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and half-wave plate (HWP) to control the polarization launched into the birefringent single-mode fiber (BSMF). An achromatic half-wave plate (AHWP) and PBS separate the pump from the SFWM, which are subsequently split at a dichroic mirror (DM) and further filtered using a band-pass filter (BPF) (long-pass filter (LPF)) in the signal (idler) beam. The signal (green, top) and idler (red, bottom) are directly coupled into single-mode fibers (SMF-633 and SMF-830), which can be directed to (b) a spectrometer via 50:50 fiber coupler to measure the marginal spectra of the photons, (c) single-photon counting modules (SPCMs) directly and via 50:50 fiber coupler to measure coincidence rates and conditional g (2)(0), and (d) monochromators set to λs and λi with outputs coupled to SPCMs via multi-mode fibers. Count rates and coincidences are registered using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) connected to a personal computer (not shown).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized marginal spectra obtained using the Fibercore HB800G fiber and 15mW average pump power. (a) Signal and idler peaks with residual pump for 3 nm bandwidth FWHM pump centered at 704 nm wavelength with 20 cm fiber length. This technique was used to map out the phase matching curves as a function of the pump central wavelength as shown in Fig. 1 (b). (b) Multi-mode SFWM signal and idler peaks with residual pump and Raman scatter through an edge filter for 5 nm bandwidth FWHM pump centered at 704 nm with 4 cm fiber length.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Experimental and (b) theoretical joint spectrum for a 10 cm long fiber, 5.4 nm bandwidth FWHM and 704 nm central wavelength pump.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Birefringence (Δn) Quoted (at 633 nm) and Measured (at 690 nm).

Tables Icon

Table 2. Counts in 300s for g (2)(0) measurement

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω p 1 + ω p 2 = ω s + ω i ,
Δ k = k p 1 ( ω p 1 ) + k p 2 ( ω p 2 ) k s ( ω s ) k i ( ω i ) + ( 1 B ) γ ( P 1 + P 2 + 2 P 1 P 2 ) = 0 ,
Δ k = 2 ω p c n ( ω p ) ω s c n ( ω s ) ω i c n ( ω i ) + 2 Δ n ω p c + 2 3 γ P .
| ψ = d ω s d ω i f ω s ω i | ω s s | ω i i ,
f ω s ω i = d ω′ α ( ω′ ) α ( ω s + ω i ω′ ) ϕ ω s ω i ) .
τ s ( i ) = L [ k p ( ω p 0 ) k s ( i ) ( ω s ( i ) 0 ) ] ,
Δ ω p 2 / ( r | τ s τ i | ) .
g ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = N ABC N A N AB N AC ,
F p exp p th = d ω s d ω i p exp ω s ω i p th ω s ω i .

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