Abstract

We measure third-harmonic generation (THG) from arrays of sub-wavelength metal apertures in transmission using fundamental input at 800 nm. Samples with different aperture spacings, sizes, and shapes are used. Strong angular dependence of THG is observed, with maxima located at incidence angles corresponding to extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) for the fundamental. We demonstrate an anomalous scaling of TH intensity with aperture size, where at different EOT peaks, the TH may either increase or decrease with aperture size. The aperture shape is also shown to have a strong effect on TH output.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. Fornel "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Liu and S. Blair "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28, 507-509 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi, and K. Ohashi "Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion using periodically nanostructured metal films," Opt. Lett. 28, 423-425 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Rakov, F. E. Ramos, and M. Xiao "Strong second-harmonic generation from a thin silver film with randomly distributed small holes," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L349-L352 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Xu, X. Jiao, G. P. Zhang, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic emission from sub-wavelength apertures: Effects of aperture symmetry and lattice arrangement," Opt. Express 15, 13894-13906 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon "Enhanced second harmonic generation from nanoscale doublehole arrays in a gold film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Apex-enhanced second harmonic generation by using double-hole arrays in a gold film," Phys. Rev. B 75, 045423 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham "Localization of near-field resonances in bow-tie antennae: influence of adhesion layers," Plasmonics 4, 37-50 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Popov, M. Neviere, J. Wenger, P.-F. Lenne, H. Rigneault, P. Chaumet, N. Bonod, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen "Field enhancement in single subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2342-2348 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2009

X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham "Localization of near-field resonances in bow-tie antennae: influence of adhesion layers," Plasmonics 4, 37-50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Apex-enhanced second harmonic generation by using double-hole arrays in a gold film," Phys. Rev. B 75, 045423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, X. Jiao, G. P. Zhang, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic emission from sub-wavelength apertures: Effects of aperture symmetry and lattice arrangement," Opt. Express 15, 13894-13906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon "Enhanced second harmonic generation from nanoscale doublehole arrays in a gold film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Popov, M. Neviere, J. Wenger, P.-F. Lenne, H. Rigneault, P. Chaumet, N. Bonod, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen "Field enhancement in single subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2342-2348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. Fornel "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abdenour, A.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Airola, M.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, S.

X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham "Localization of near-field resonances in bow-tie antennae: influence of adhesion layers," Plasmonics 4, 37-50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xu, X. Jiao, G. P. Zhang, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic emission from sub-wavelength apertures: Effects of aperture symmetry and lattice arrangement," Opt. Express 15, 13894-13906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and S. Blair "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

Brueck, S. R. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chaumet, P.

Devaux, E.

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

Ebbesen, T.

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fornel, F.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. Fornel "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerard, D.

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goeckeritz, J.

X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham "Localization of near-field resonances in bow-tie antennae: influence of adhesion layers," Plasmonics 4, 37-50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Apex-enhanced second harmonic generation by using double-hole arrays in a gold film," Phys. Rev. B 75, 045423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon "Enhanced second harmonic generation from nanoscale doublehole arrays in a gold film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, F.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. Fornel "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harmsen, R. H.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishi, T.

Jiao, X.

X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham "Localization of near-field resonances in bow-tie antennae: influence of adhesion layers," Plasmonics 4, 37-50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, X. Jiao, G. P. Zhang, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic emission from sub-wavelength apertures: Effects of aperture symmetry and lattice arrangement," Opt. Express 15, 13894-13906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-W.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, L. K. S.

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Apex-enhanced second harmonic generation by using double-hole arrays in a gold film," Phys. Rev. B 75, 045423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon "Enhanced second harmonic generation from nanoscale doublehole arrays in a gold film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lenne, P.-F.

Lesuffleur, A.

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Apex-enhanced second harmonic generation by using double-hole arrays in a gold film," Phys. Rev. B 75, 045423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon "Enhanced second harmonic generation from nanoscale doublehole arrays in a gold film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

Liu, Y.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and S. Blair "Fluorescence enhancement from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," Opt. Lett. 28, 507-509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahdavi, F.

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malloy, K. J.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muhlschlegel, P.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nahata, A.

Neviere, M.

Ohashi, K.

Oldham, M.

X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham "Localization of near-field resonances in bow-tie antennae: influence of adhesion layers," Plasmonics 4, 37-50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, I.-Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

Prangsma, J. C.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakov, N.

N. Rakov, F. E. Ramos, and M. Xiao "Strong second-harmonic generation from a thin silver film with randomly distributed small holes," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L349-L352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, F. E.

N. Rakov, F. E. Ramos, and M. Xiao "Strong second-harmonic generation from a thin silver film with randomly distributed small holes," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L349-L352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rigneault, H.

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Popov, M. Neviere, J. Wenger, P.-F. Lenne, H. Rigneault, P. Chaumet, N. Bonod, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen "Field enhancement in single subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2342-2348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, L.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. Fornel "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandtke, M.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Nieuwstadt, J. A. H.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenger, J.

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Popov, M. Neviere, J. Wenger, P.-F. Lenne, H. Rigneault, P. Chaumet, N. Bonod, J. Dintinger, and T. Ebbesen "Field enhancement in single subwavelength apertures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2342-2348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

N. Rakov, F. E. Ramos, and M. Xiao "Strong second-harmonic generation from a thin silver film with randomly distributed small holes," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L349-L352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xu, X. Jiao, G. P. Zhang, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic emission from sub-wavelength apertures: Effects of aperture symmetry and lattice arrangement," Opt. Express 15, 13894-13906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. Fornel "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G. P.

Zhang, S.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

H. Aouani, J. Wenger, D. Gerard, H. Rigneault, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, F. Mahdavi, T. Xu, and S. Blair "Crucial role of the adhesion layer on the plasmonic fluorescence enhancement," ACS Nano 3, 2043-2048 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon "Enhanced second harmonic generation from nanoscale doublehole arrays in a gold film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118-S123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

N. Rakov, F. E. Ramos, and M. Xiao "Strong second-harmonic generation from a thin silver film with randomly distributed small holes," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, L349-L352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

W. Fan, S. Zhang, N. C. Panoiu, A. Abdenour, S. Krishna, R. M. Osgood, Jr., K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck "Second-harmonic generation from a nanopatterned isotropic nonlinear material," Nano Lett. 6, 1027-1030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim "High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement," Nature (London) 453, 757-760 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

A. Lesuffleur, L. K. S. Kumar, and R. Gordon, "Apex-enhanced second harmonic generation by using double-hole arrays in a gold film," Phys. Rev. B 75, 045423 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers "Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A. V. Zayats, and F. Fornel "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1113 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasmonics

X. Jiao, J. Goeckeritz, S. Blair, and M. Oldham "Localization of near-field resonances in bow-tie antennae: influence of adhesion layers," Plasmonics 4, 37-50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for THG measurements. The output of the p-polarized Ti:Sapphire laser passes through a neutral density filter and a spectral longpass filter (690 nm) before being focused onto the sample with a 20 µm spot size by a 10 cm focal length lens; all patterned areas were larger than the spot size (EBL samples are 80 µm by 80 µm). Emission from the sample passes through a collection lens of 5 cm focal length made from fused silica, a spectral UG5 glass filter (Thorlabs) with passband around 225 nm to 400 nm to suppress the fundamental, an Hg line interference filter (CVI, 265 nm center, 25 nm passband) to isolate the TH, and a 2 mm slit, and is detected with the PMT.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fundamental transmission, SH output, and TH output versus incidence angle for a sample of 200 nm holes with 885 nm spacing in a square lattice (left). The adhesion layer is 5 nm of Cr. Power scaling of SH and TH outputs (right). For THG measurement, the sample was set for a 12° incidence angle, while for SHG measurement, the sample was set for 46° incidence (indicated by arrows).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SH (left) and TH (right) outputs for a sample with Cr adhesion layer, 885 nm pitch, and 200 nm aperture diameter. The SH and TH signal intensities are normalized to the same value. Trajectories of the diffraction peaks closely follow Eq. (2), as indicated by the dashed lines on the contour plots.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fundamental transmission (left) and TH output (right) for samples of 250 nm apertures with variable spacing in a square lattice. The adhesion layer is TiO2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fundamental transmission (left) and TH output (right) for samples of variable hole size with 885 nm spacing in a square lattice. The adhesion layer is TiO2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

TH (left) output for a sample with Cr adhesion layer, 885 nm pitch, and asymmetric aperture shape. TH is normalized to the maximum TH produced from the sample in Fig. 3. An SEM scan of the asymmetric aperture array is shown on the right figure.

Equations (2)

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k t n ω = n k t ω + m K ,
sin γ = sin θ + m λ n Λ ,

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