Abstract

We developed superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with an optical cavity (OC-SNSPDs) for multichannel systems. For efficient coupling, the devices were installed in compact fiber-coupled packages after their substrate thickness was reduced from 400 to 45 μm. The measured detection efficiency (DE) measurement at different substrate thicknesses and the estimation of optical coupling efficiency indicated that ~98% of the input light beam could be radiated on a 15 × 15 μm2 nanowire area from behind the substrate. The DEs of a NbN OC-SNSPD system were observed to be 9.5% and 25% at 1550 nm and 1310 nm, respectively (dark-count rate: 100 c/s).

© 2009 OSA

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  1. G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takesue, S. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241129 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Tanaka, M. Fujiwara, S. W. Nam, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, W. Maeda, K. Yoshino, S. Miki, B. Baek, Z. Wang, A. Tajima, M. Sasaki, and A. Tomita, “Ultra fast quantum key distribution over a 97 km installed telecom fiber with wavelength division multiplexing clock synchronization,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11354–11360 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19118–19126 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. S. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10846–10853 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD System with Gifford-McMahon Cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “NbN Superconducting Single-photon Detectors Prepared on Single-crystal MgO Substrates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 285–288 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD System with Gifford-McMahon Cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “NbN Superconducting Single-photon Detectors Prepared on Single-crystal MgO Substrates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 285–288 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anant, V.

Asobe, M.

Baek, B.

Berggren, K. K.

Chulkova, G.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dauler, E. A.

Dzardanov, A.

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Gol’tsman, G. N.

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gol'tsman, G.

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, S. S.

Habif, J. L.

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R.

Hadfield, R. H.

H. Takesue, S. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. S. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10846–10853 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honjo, T.

Inoue, K.

Kamada, H.

Kerman, A. J.

Korneev, A.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kouminov, P.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipatov, A.

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lita, A. E.

Lo, W.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, W.

Matvienko, V.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miki, S.

Miller, A. J.

Mirin, R. P.

Nam, S.

H. Takesue, S. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

Nambu, Y.

Nishida, Y.

Okunev, O.

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pearlman, A.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosfjord, K. M.

Sasaki, M.

Schlafer, J.

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schwall, R. E.

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. S. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10846–10853 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semenov, A.

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slysz, W.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. J.

Tadanaga, O.

Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takesue, H.

Tanaka, A.

Tomita, A.

Verevkin, A.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B. M.

Wang, Z.

Williams, C.

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilsher, K.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Yang, J. K. W.

Yoshino, K.

Zhang, J.

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. H. Hadfield, J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, “Quantum key distribution at 1550 nm with twin superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241129 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol'tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Słysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD System with Gifford-McMahon Cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “NbN Superconducting Single-photon Detectors Prepared on Single-crystal MgO Substrates,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 285–288 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

H. Takesue, S. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional diagram of an OC-SNSPD chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical micrograph of the nanowire area in the OC-SNSPD. (b) Cross-sectional micrograph of the substrate whose thickness was reduced to 45 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic view of and (b) Photograph of fiber-coupled package for an OC-SNSPD chip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Back-reflection power as a function of the incident light wavelength for a packaged OC-SNSPD for different substrate thicknesses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized relative system DE for a 400-μm substrate thickness as a function of the optical path length. The solid line shows the optical coupling efficiency calculated from a Gaussian beam approximation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

System DE of a device as a function of the dark-count rate at wavelengths of (a)1550 nm and (b) 1310 nm, before and after integrating an optical cavity and an AR coating.

Equations (2)

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ω 2 ( x ) = ω 0 2 [ 1 + ( λ x / π ω 0 2 ) 2 ]
P ( r , x ) = P ( , x ) { 1 exp [ 2 r 2 / ω 2 ( x ) ] }

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