Abstract

We proposed a fast liquid crystal display (LCD) in a vertical alignment (VA) mode with continuous multi-domains for wide-viewing characteristics. The fast VA LCD was fabricated by the mixed vertical alignment layer with UV curable reactive mesogen (RM) polymer memorizing the switching directions of the LC molecules. The wide-viewing and fast response characteristics were obtained by axially symmetric switching directions and the memorization of them without any specific electrode patterns or surface structures.

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  1. K.-Y. Han and T. Uchida, “A study of the relation between surface alignment of polymers and liquid-crystal pretilt angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3(1), 15–21 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173–175 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Komitov, “Nano-engineering of the anchoring of liquid crystals on solid surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 516(9), 2639–2644 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, M. Ohta, and K. Kondo, “Dependence of viewing angle characteristics on pretilt angle in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 22(4), 391–400 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Bos, L. R. Koehler, and beran, “The pi-cell: a new, fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113(1), 329–339 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Yamaguchi, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode for the active-matrix LCD using bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1993 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 277–280 (1993).
  11. S. Yamauchi, M. Aizawa, J. F. Clerc, T. Uchida, and J. Duchen, “Homeotropic-alignment full-color LCD,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1989 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 378–381 (1989).
  12. S. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “Development of super-high-image-quality vertical-alignment mode LCD,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 845–848 (1997).
  13. A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1998 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 1077–1080 (1998).
  14. K. Sueoka, H. Nakamura, and Y. Taira, “Improving the moving-image quality of TFT-LCDs,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 203–206 (1997).
  15. K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proceeding of The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display, 383–386 (1998).
  16. N. Yamada, S. Kohzaki, F. Funada, and K. Awane, “Axially symmetric aligned microcell (ASM) mode: electrooptical characteristics of new display mode with excellent wide viewing angle,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1995 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 575–578 (1995).
  17. S. H. Lee, S. H. Park, M.-H. Lee, S. T. Oh, and G.-D. Lee, “Homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal device locked by a polymer wall with wide viewing angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S.-F. F. Chen, Y.-Y. Chang, L. C. Chow, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Digest of Technical Papers of 2009 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 1592-1594 (2009).
  19. Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, J. S. Gwag, C.-H. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10298–10303 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. G. de Gennes, J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1993).

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

L. Komitov, “Nano-engineering of the anchoring of liquid crystals on solid surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 516(9), 2639–2644 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. H. Park, M.-H. Lee, S. T. Oh, and G.-D. Lee, “Homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal device locked by a polymer wall with wide viewing angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, M. Ohta, and K. Kondo, “Dependence of viewing angle characteristics on pretilt angle in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 22(4), 391–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Han and T. Uchida, “A study of the relation between surface alignment of polymers and liquid-crystal pretilt angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3(1), 15–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. J. Bos, L. R. Koehler, and beran, “The pi-cell: a new, fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113(1), 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173–175 (1972).
[CrossRef]

beran,

P. J. Bos, L. R. Koehler, and beran, “The pi-cell: a new, fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113(1), 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos, L. R. Koehler, and beran, “The pi-cell: a new, fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113(1), 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

Han, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Han and T. Uchida, “A study of the relation between surface alignment of polymers and liquid-crystal pretilt angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3(1), 15–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Janning, J. L.

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173–175 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jo, S. I.

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

Kim, Y.-K.

Koehler, L. R.

P. J. Bos, L. R. Koehler, and beran, “The pi-cell: a new, fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113(1), 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Komitov, L.

L. Komitov, “Nano-engineering of the anchoring of liquid crystals on solid surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 516(9), 2639–2644 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, M. Ohta, and K. Kondo, “Dependence of viewing angle characteristics on pretilt angle in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 22(4), 391–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

S. H. Lee, S. H. Park, M.-H. Lee, S. T. Oh, and G.-D. Lee, “Homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal device locked by a polymer wall with wide viewing angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

S. H. Lee, S. H. Park, M.-H. Lee, S. T. Oh, and G.-D. Lee, “Homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal device locked by a polymer wall with wide viewing angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. H. Park, M.-H. Lee, S. T. Oh, and G.-D. Lee, “Homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal device locked by a polymer wall with wide viewing angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Oh, S. T.

S. H. Lee, S. H. Park, M.-H. Lee, S. T. Oh, and G.-D. Lee, “Homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal device locked by a polymer wall with wide viewing angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, M. Ohta, and K. Kondo, “Dependence of viewing angle characteristics on pretilt angle in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 22(4), 391–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, M.

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, M. Ohta, and K. Kondo, “Dependence of viewing angle characteristics on pretilt angle in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 22(4), 391–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Lee, S. H. Park, M.-H. Lee, S. T. Oh, and G.-D. Lee, “Homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal device locked by a polymer wall with wide viewing angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Song, I. S.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

K.-Y. Han and T. Uchida, “A study of the relation between surface alignment of polymers and liquid-crystal pretilt angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3(1), 15–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoneya, M.

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, M. Ohta, and K. Kondo, “Dependence of viewing angle characteristics on pretilt angle in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 22(4), 391–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-H.

Yu, I. H.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173–175 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. H. Park, M.-H. Lee, S. T. Oh, and G.-D. Lee, “Homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal device locked by a polymer wall with wide viewing angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

K.-Y. Han and T. Uchida, “A study of the relation between surface alignment of polymers and liquid-crystal pretilt angle,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 3(1), 15–21 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

M. Oh-e, M. Yoneya, M. Ohta, and K. Kondo, “Dependence of viewing angle characteristics on pretilt angle in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 22(4), 391–400 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

P. J. Bos, L. R. Koehler, and beran, “The pi-cell: a new, fast liquid-crystal optical switching device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 113(1), 329–339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

L. Komitov, “Nano-engineering of the anchoring of liquid crystals on solid surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 516(9), 2639–2644 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

S.-F. F. Chen, Y.-Y. Chang, L. C. Chow, H.-M. P. Chen, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Digest of Technical Papers of 2009 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 1592-1594 (2009).

P. G. de Gennes, J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1993).

Y. Yamaguchi, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Wide-viewing-angle display mode for the active-matrix LCD using bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1993 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 277–280 (1993).

S. Yamauchi, M. Aizawa, J. F. Clerc, T. Uchida, and J. Duchen, “Homeotropic-alignment full-color LCD,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1989 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 378–381 (1989).

S. Ohmuro, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “Development of super-high-image-quality vertical-alignment mode LCD,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 845–848 (1997).

A. Takeda, S. Kataoka, T. Sasaki, H. Chida, H. Tsuda, K. Ohmuro, T. Sasabayashi, Y. Koike, and K. Okamoto, “A super-high image quality multi-domain vertical alignment LCD by new rubbing-less technology,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1998 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 1077–1080 (1998).

K. Sueoka, H. Nakamura, and Y. Taira, “Improving the moving-image quality of TFT-LCDs,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1997 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 203–206 (1997).

K. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Park, J. K. Song, S. N. Kim, and J. H. Souk, “Domain divided vertical alignment mode with optimized fringe field effect,” Proceeding of The 18th International Display Research Conference Asia Display, 383–386 (1998).

N. Yamada, S. Kohzaki, F. Funada, and K. Awane, “Axially symmetric aligned microcell (ASM) mode: electrooptical characteristics of new display mode with excellent wide viewing angle,” Digest of Technical Papers of 1995 Society for Information Display International Symposium, 575–578 (1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram of our SC VA mode and the fabrication processes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscopic textures under crossed polarizers for (a)-(d) the conventional VA mode and (e)-(h) the SC VA mode with the electric field switching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The time-resolved microscopic textures under crossed polarizers with 10 V for (a) the conventional VA mode without rubbing process and (b) the SC VA mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response time characteristics of the conventional VA mode and the SC VA mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of brightness viewing characteristics between (a) the conventional VA mode with rubbing and (b) the SC VA mode.

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