Abstract

Spot-size converters for an all-optical switch utilizing the intersubband transition in GaN/AlN multiple quantum wells are studied with the purpose of reducing operation power by improving the coupling efficiency between the input fiber and the switch. With a stair-like spot-size converter, the absorption saturation of 5 dB is achieved with a pulse energy of 25 pJ. The switch is integrated with a SiN/AlN waveguide and spot-size converters, and the structure provides the possibility of an integration of the switch with other functional devices. To further improve the coupling loss between the waveguide and the switch, triangular-shaped converters are investigated, demonstrating losses as low as 2 dB/facet.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 572–574 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 765–771 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties on 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersuband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. M. Ng, C. Gmachl, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN/AlxGa1-xN superlatttice for 1.52-4.2 μm intersubband transitions,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 432–438 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at = 1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237–1239 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitronov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. Chu, “Resonat optical nonlinearityies from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN wuamtum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hamazaki, H. Kunigita, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Intersubband relaxation dymnamics in GaN/AlN multiple wuantum wells studied by two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 1–5 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond modulation by intersubband transition in ridge waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 40(15), 962–963 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing GaN intersubband transition,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Kumtornkittikul, T. Shimizu, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “AlN waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells for all-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(15), L352–L355 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and measurement of AlN cladding AlN/GaN multiple-quantum-well waveguide for all-optical switching devices using intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6639–6642 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguide for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 1–5 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, “Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3816–3819 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Iizuka, T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, and M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Absorption saturation of AlN-based waveguide utilizing intersuuband transition in GaN/AlN quantum well,” presented at Joint Conference of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Sydney, Australia, 7–10 July, 2008, TuH-6.

2007 (4)

C. Kumtornkittikul, T. Shimizu, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “AlN waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells for all-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(15), L352–L355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and measurement of AlN cladding AlN/GaN multiple-quantum-well waveguide for all-optical switching devices using intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6639–6642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, “Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3816–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguide for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 765–771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Hamazaki, H. Kunigita, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Intersubband relaxation dymnamics in GaN/AlN multiple wuantum wells studied by two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing GaN intersubband transition,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond modulation by intersubband transition in ridge waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 40(15), 962–963 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitronov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. Chu, “Resonat optical nonlinearityies from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN wuamtum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at = 1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersuband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Ng, C. Gmachl, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN/AlxGa1-xN superlatttice for 1.52-4.2 μm intersubband transitions,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 432–438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties on 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersuband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, A.

Chen, G.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitronov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. Chu, “Resonat optical nonlinearityies from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN wuamtum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at = 1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Ng, C. Gmachl, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN/AlxGa1-xN superlatttice for 1.52-4.2 μm intersubband transitions,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 432–438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. N.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitronov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. Chu, “Resonat optical nonlinearityies from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN wuamtum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. N. G.

H. M. Ng, C. Gmachl, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN/AlxGa1-xN superlatttice for 1.52-4.2 μm intersubband transitions,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 432–438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

J. Hamazaki, H. Kunigita, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Intersubband relaxation dymnamics in GaN/AlN multiple wuantum wells studied by two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitronov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. Chu, “Resonat optical nonlinearityies from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN wuamtum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at = 1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Ng, C. Gmachl, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN/AlxGa1-xN superlatttice for 1.52-4.2 μm intersubband transitions,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 432–438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hamazaki, J.

J. Hamazaki, H. Kunigita, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Intersubband relaxation dymnamics in GaN/AlN multiple wuantum wells studied by two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J. D.

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at = 1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, N.

C. Kumtornkittikul, T. Shimizu, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “AlN waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells for all-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(15), L352–L355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and measurement of AlN cladding AlN/GaN multiple-quantum-well waveguide for all-optical switching devices using intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6639–6642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguide for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 765–771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing GaN intersubband transition,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond modulation by intersubband transition in ridge waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 40(15), 962–963 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersuband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties on 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kageyama, J.

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, “Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3816–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguide for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 765–771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing GaN intersubband transition,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond modulation by intersubband transition in ridge waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 40(15), 962–963 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersuband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

J. Hamazaki, H. Kunigita, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Intersubband relaxation dymnamics in GaN/AlN multiple wuantum wells studied by two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, “Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3816–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

J. Hamazaki, H. Kunigita, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Intersubband relaxation dymnamics in GaN/AlN multiple wuantum wells studied by two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumtornkittikul, C.

C. Kumtornkittikul, T. Shimizu, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “AlN waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells for all-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(15), L352–L355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and measurement of AlN cladding AlN/GaN multiple-quantum-well waveguide for all-optical switching devices using intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6639–6642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kunigita, H.

J. Hamazaki, H. Kunigita, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Intersubband relaxation dymnamics in GaN/AlN multiple wuantum wells studied by two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lin, J. Y.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitronov, O.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitronov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. Chu, “Resonat optical nonlinearityies from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN wuamtum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

Nakano, Y.

T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and measurement of AlN cladding AlN/GaN multiple-quantum-well waveguide for all-optical switching devices using intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6639–6642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kumtornkittikul, T. Shimizu, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “AlN waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells for all-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(15), L352–L355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitronov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. Chu, “Resonat optical nonlinearityies from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN wuamtum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at = 1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Ng, C. Gmachl, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN/AlxGa1-xN superlatttice for 1.52-4.2 μm intersubband transitions,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 432–438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, “Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3816–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersuband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

Rapaport, R.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitronov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. Chu, “Resonat optical nonlinearityies from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN wuamtum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schad, S.-S.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

C. Kumtornkittikul, T. Shimizu, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “AlN waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells for all-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(15), L352–L355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and measurement of AlN cladding AlN/GaN multiple-quantum-well waveguide for all-optical switching devices using intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6639–6642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, M.

C. Kumtornkittikul, T. Shimizu, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “AlN waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells for all-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(15), L352–L355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and measurement of AlN cladding AlN/GaN multiple-quantum-well waveguide for all-optical switching devices using intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6639–6642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

C. Kumtornkittikul, T. Shimizu, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “AlN waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells for all-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(15), L352–L355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and measurement of AlN cladding AlN/GaN multiple-quantum-well waveguide for all-optical switching devices using intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6639–6642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguide for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 765–771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing GaN intersubband transition,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond modulation by intersubband transition in ridge waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 40(15), 962–963 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersuband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties on 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taherion, S.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomidis, C.

Wada, O.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersuband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Y.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 572–574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersuband relaxation (≤150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Heber, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and A. Y. Cho, “Comparative study of ultrafast intersubband electron scattering times at = 1.55 μm wavelength in GaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1237–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitronov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. Chu, “Resonat optical nonlinearityies from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN wuamtum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond modulation by intersubband transition in ridge waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 40(15), 962–963 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 765–771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguide for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 1–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. M. Ng, C. Gmachl, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN/AlxGa1-xN superlatttice for 1.52-4.2 μm intersubband transitions,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 432–438 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties on 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and measurement of AlN cladding AlN/GaN multiple-quantum-well waveguide for all-optical switching devices using intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 10A), 6639–6642 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Kumtornkittikul, T. Shimizu, N. Iizuka, N. Suzuki, M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “AlN waveguide with GaN/AlN quantum wells for all-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(15), L352–L355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Hamazaki, H. Kunigita, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Intersubband relaxation dymnamics in GaN/AlN multiple wuantum wells studied by two-color pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 1–5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, “Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3816–3819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. Iizuka, T. Shimizu, C. Kumtornkittikul, and M. Sugiyama, and Y. Nakano, “Absorption saturation of AlN-based waveguide utilizing intersuuband transition in GaN/AlN quantum well,” presented at Joint Conference of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Sydney, Australia, 7–10 July, 2008, TuH-6.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation results for the coupling efficiency. The waveguide consisted of AlN (n = 2.03) and SiN (n = 1.85) on a sapphire substrate (n = 1.74). The cross section of the input facet is 3.5 x.2.2 μm2. The beam diameter is 3 μm. (a) Comparison for smooth slopes and step-like slopes. The cross section of narrow waveguide is 0.8 x 1.2 μm2. (b) Simulation for the actual fabricated device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the fabricated device. (a) Top view. (b) Side view.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images for the ISBT switch device. (a) Cross section of the switch. (b) Top view of the SSC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The ratio of the transmittance spectra for TM-polarization to that for TE-polarization for the sample with the length of 104 μm. The blue line represents the Gaussian fit. (b) Characteristics of the absorption saturation. Saturation by 5 dB was achieved with a pulse energy of 25 pJ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematics of the devices structure designed for the fabrication. SEM images ware shown (b) for bird’s eye view of the SSC and (c) for cross section of the narrow waveguide.

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