Abstract

An acoustic transient can be generated inside an absorbing tissue as a result of laser-tissue interaction after pulsed laser irradiation. Herein we report a novel application of this physical process, the optoacoustic wave generation in the inner ear and subsequently the induction of basilar membrane vibrations. These laser induced vibrations show a direct correlation to the laser energy and an indirect correlation to the distance from the irradiation focus. Through these characteristics they may be used, in a new generation of cochlear implants, to improve the frequency specific cochlear activation and consequently improve speech perception in hearing impaired patients with residual hearing.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. A. Sterling, “Primary ear and hearing care training resource CD-ROM” (2006) World-Health-Organisation, Stylus Publishing, LLC.
  3. A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. H. Tongue, principles of vibration. (New York, Oxford University Press, 2002), Chap. 3.
  9. G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Baster, G. I. Wenzel, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Insertion -Force and -Depth of Laser Fibers Into a Cochlea Model”, Association for Research in Otolaryngology 33. Annual Midwinter Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 18 Feb. 2009.

2009

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, P. N.

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anvari, B.

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bader, C. R.

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balster, S.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behari, J.

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendett, M.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertrand, D.

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brownell, W. E.

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruder, I.

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, C. H.

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dallos, P.

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Ribaupierre, Y.

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emadi, G.

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, E. S.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guha, S. K.

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izzo, A. D.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khanna, S. M.

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenarz, T.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, H. H.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubatschowski, H.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massow, O.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oberheide, U.

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oghalai, J. S.

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikkula, B.

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, H.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reich, U.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reuter, G.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, C. P.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, C. R.

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulfendahl, M.

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welling, H.

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenzel, G. I.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M. H.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoo, S.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calcif. Tissue Res.

J. Behari, S. K. Guha, and P. N. Agarwal, “Absorption spectra of bone,” Calcif. Tissue Res. 23(1), 113–114 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hear. Res.

S. M. Khanna, M. Ulfendahl, and C. R. Steele, “Vibration of reflective beads placed on the basilar membrane,” Hear. Res. 116(1-2), 71–85 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. I. Wenzel, S. Balster, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Green laser light activates the inner ear,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Oberheide, I. Bruder, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Optoacoustic imaging for optimization of laser cyclophotocoagulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 281–287 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol.

G. Emadi, C. P. Richter, and P. Dallos, “Stiffness of the gerbil basilar membrane: radial and longitudinal variations,” J. Neurophysiol. 91(1), 474–488 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Wenzel, B. Pikkula, C. H. Choi, B. Anvari, and J. S. Oghalai, “Laser irradiation of the guinea pig basilar membrane,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 174–180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys.

X. D. Wang, Y. Xu, M. H. Xu, S. Yokoo, E. S. Fry, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography of biological tissues with high cross-section resolution: reconstruction and experiment,” Med. Phys. 29(12), 2799–2805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

W. E. Brownell, C. R. Bader, D. Bertrand, and Y. de Ribaupierre, “Evoked mechanical responses of isolated cochlear outer hair cells,” Science 227(4683), 194–196 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

V. A. Sterling, “Primary ear and hearing care training resource CD-ROM” (2006) World-Health-Organisation, Stylus Publishing, LLC.

B. H. Tongue, principles of vibration. (New York, Oxford University Press, 2002), Chap. 3.

S. Baster, G. I. Wenzel, K. Zhang, H. H. Lim, U. Reich, O. Massow, H. Lubatschowski, W. Ertmer, T. Lenarz, and G. Reuter, “Insertion -Force and -Depth of Laser Fibers Into a Cochlea Model”, Association for Research in Otolaryngology 33. Annual Midwinter Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 18 Feb. 2009.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the experimental setup. (a) Diagram of a section through the organ of Corti. Three rows of outer hair cells and one row of inner hair cells reside on the basilar membrane. The basilar membrane is fixed at the osseous spiral lamina (OSL) medially and the spiral ligament laterally. Auditory nerve fibers (having the first neuron in the spiral ganglion) connect the hair cells with the brainstem. (b) Diagram of the microscopic view, from the scala tympani onto the exposed BM of one segment of the cochlea. The LDV is focused on the glass bead to measure the BM vibrations. Position S1, S2 and S3 represent laser stimulation sites on the OSL while the LDV measurements were done at a fixed position on the BM using the enhanced reflectance of a glass bead.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

An example of BM vibration following the 532 nm laser-pulse application at position S1 (as marked in Fig. 1) within the basal turn of a guinea pig cochlea. The arrow represents t = 0, the start of the laser pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Input/output functions of the laser pulse energy applied at the site S1, versus the FV magnitude for (a) 532 nm laser pulses as well as for (b) 355 nm laser pulses. The results fit to a square-root curve (solid lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Localization measurements of the optoacoustic stimulation on the BM. The y-axis represents the normalized vibration magnitude and the x-axis represents the distance of the stimulation site to the original site S1. Data from three cochleae is represented by different markers and thin lines. Each data point represents the averaged value of 3 measurements within the same cochlea at each distance with error bars. Bold solid line: average of the animals.

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