Abstract

In this work, GZO/ZnO/GaN diodes with the light emitting ZnO layer sandwiched between two SiO2 thin films was fabricated and characterized. We observed a strong excitonic emission at the wavelength 377nm with the Mg2+ deep level transition and oxygen vacancy induced recombination significantly suppressed. In comparison, light emission from the GZO/GaN device (without SiO2 barriers) is mainly dominant by defect radiation. Furthermore, the device with confinement layers demonstrated a much higher UV intensity than the blue-green emission of the GZO/GaN p-n device.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ohta, K.-I. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Khan, Q. Chen, R. A. Skogman, and J. N. Kuznia, “Violet-blue GaN homojunction light emitting diodes with rapid thermal annealed p-type layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(16), 2046 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. W. Chuang, R. X. Wu, L. W. Lai, and C. T. Lee, “ZnO-on-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode grown by vapor cooling condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. W. Chuang, R. X. Wu, L. W. Lai, and C. T. Lee, “ZnO-on-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode grown by vapor cooling condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Ohta, K.-I. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. A. Khan, Q. Chen, R. A. Skogman, and J. N. Kuznia, “Violet-blue GaN homojunction light emitting diodes with rapid thermal annealed p-type layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(16), 2046 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ataev, B. M.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

M. A. Khan, Q. Chen, R. A. Skogman, and J. N. Kuznia, “Violet-blue GaN homojunction light emitting diodes with rapid thermal annealed p-type layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(16), 2046 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cherenkov, A. E.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, R. W.

R. W. Chuang, R. X. Wu, L. W. Lai, and C. T. Lee, “ZnO-on-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode grown by vapor cooling condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chukichev, M. V.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. W.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. L.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hang, Y.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hiraga, K.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

H. Ohta, K.-I. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

H. Ohta, K.-I. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini Teherani, F.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, S. J.

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalinina, E. V.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H. S.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. S.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.-I.

H. Ohta, K.-I. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

M. A. Khan, Q. Chen, R. A. Skogman, and J. N. Kuznia, “Violet-blue GaN homojunction light emitting diodes with rapid thermal annealed p-type layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(16), 2046 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koh, H. J.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kung, P.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuznia, J. N.

M. A. Khan, Q. Chen, R. A. Skogman, and J. N. Kuznia, “Violet-blue GaN homojunction light emitting diodes with rapid thermal annealed p-type layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(16), 2046 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lai, L. W.

R. W. Chuang, R. X. Wu, L. W. Lai, and C. T. Lee, “ZnO-on-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode grown by vapor cooling condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

R. W. Chuang, R. X. Wu, L. W. Lai, and C. T. Lee, “ZnO-on-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode grown by vapor cooling condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. H.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. M.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. M.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minder, K.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

H. Ohta, K.-I. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Omaev, A. K.

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orita, M.

H. Ohta, K.-I. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. T.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, D. J.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

H. Ohta, K.-I. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Z.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skogman, R. A.

M. A. Khan, Q. Chen, R. A. Skogman, and J. N. Kuznia, “Violet-blue GaN homojunction light emitting diodes with rapid thermal annealed p-type layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(16), 2046 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. W.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z. K.

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R. X.

R. W. Chuang, R. X. Wu, L. W. Lai, and C. T. Lee, “ZnO-on-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode grown by vapor cooling condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yasan, A.

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. D.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. L.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Z.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. X.

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. D.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. M.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, W. Liu, S. M. Liu, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, and Y. D. Zheng, “Electroluminescent and transport mechanisms of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 182112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohta, K.-I. Kawamura, M. Orita, M. Hirano, N. Sarukura, and H. Hosono, “Current injection emission from a transparent p –n junction composed of p-SrCu2O2 /n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Rogers, F. Hosseini Teherani, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Electroluminescence at 375 nm from a ZnO/GaN:Mg/c-Al2O3 heterojunction light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 141918 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Khan, Q. Chen, R. A. Skogman, and J. N. Kuznia, “Violet-blue GaN homojunction light emitting diodes with rapid thermal annealed p-type layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(16), 2046 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Chuang, R. X. Wu, L. W. Lai, and C. T. Lee, “ZnO-on-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diode grown by vapor cooling condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue-yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c -plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

J. W. Sun, Y. M. Lu, Y. C. Liu, D. Z. Shen, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. X. Zhao, and X. W. Fan, “Excitonic electroluminescence from ZnO-based heterojunction light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(15), 155103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. H. Lee, H. S. Ahn, H. K. Cho, Y. Y. Kim, B. H. Kong, and H. S. Lee, “A study on the origin of emission of the annealed n-ZnO/p-GaN heterostructure LED,” Thin Solid Films 517(17), 5157–5160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. G. Milnes, and D. L. Feucht, “Heterojunctions and Metal-Semiconductor Junctions” (Academic, New York, 1972)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room temperature PL spectra of p-GaN (dashed line) and ZnO (solid line) thin films. Both samples were prepared on sapphire substrates. Inset: the schematic diagram of the GZO/ZnO/GaN LED with SiO2 confinement layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Current-voltage curves of a GZO/GaN LED (solid line) and a GZO/ZnO/GaN device with SiO2 confinement layers (dashed line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) EL spectra of the GZO/GaN LED. The injection current is increased from 1mA to 9mA. (b) EL spectra of the GZO/ZnO/GaN LED with SiO2 barriers

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of carrier confinement in the ZnO layer with SiO2 barriers of asymmetric thickness. The band diagram is drawn assuming the application of a forward electric field.

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