Abstract

The transition to maximum photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum wells is a phenomena that has time constants in the range of few seconds. Using a systematic illumination/darkening procedure we found that these characteristics are related to previous stimulations as if the sample has a memory of past illumination events. Choosing opportune time sequences, time constants were observed to vary more than 100%. These facts suggest the presence of carrier trapping/de-trapping processes that act beyond the single illumination event, accumulating over time in a complex effect.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Strite and H. Morkoc¸, "Gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and indium nitride: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Techol. B 10(4), 1237-1266 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, 1997).
  3. I. Akasaki and H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III nitride semiconductors and their application to short wavelength light emitters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(9A), 5393-5408 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(5A), L479-L481 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Orton and C. T. Foxon, "Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61(1), 1-75 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Marutsuki, T. Narukawa, Y.and Mitani, T. Mukai, G. Shinomiya, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Electroluminescence mapping of InGaN-based LEDs by SNOM," Phys. Stat. Sol. A 192(1), 110-116 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Narukawa and Y. Kawakami, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode..." Applied Physics Letters 70(8), 981 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Reshchikov, M. Z. Iqbal, H. Morko, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, "Long-lasting photoluminescence in freestanding GaN templates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 266 - (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Kim, I. Kuskovsky, I. P. Herman, D. Li, and G. F. Neumark, "Reversible ultraviolet-induced photoluminescence degradation and enhancement in GaN films," J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 2034-2037 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Shmagin and J. Muth, "Optical metastability in bulk GaN single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(4), 455 - (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Xu, G. Li, S. J. Chua, X. C. Wang, and W. Wang, "Observation of optically-active metastable defects in undoped GaN epilayers." Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19) (1998).
  12. B. J. Ryan, M. O. Henry, E. McGlynn, and J. Fryar, "Investigation of optical metastability in GaN using photoluminescence spectroscopy," Physica B: Condensed Matter 340-342, 452 - 456 (2003). Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors.
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  13. M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).
  16. 1. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, "Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061,118 (2006).
  17. R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Indium Concentration on PL Spatial in homogeneity in InGaN Single Quantum Well Structures detected by an original low cost near-field probes," Appl. Surface Scie. 229, 338-345 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008

B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).

2006

1. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, "Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061,118 (2006).

2005

M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Indium Concentration on PL Spatial in homogeneity in InGaN Single Quantum Well Structures detected by an original low cost near-field probes," Appl. Surface Scie. 229, 338-345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. A. Reshchikov, M. Z. Iqbal, H. Morko, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, "Long-lasting photoluminescence in freestanding GaN templates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 266 - (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. Marutsuki, T. Narukawa, Y.and Mitani, T. Mukai, G. Shinomiya, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Electroluminescence mapping of InGaN-based LEDs by SNOM," Phys. Stat. Sol. A 192(1), 110-116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. Kim, I. Kuskovsky, I. P. Herman, D. Li, and G. F. Neumark, "Reversible ultraviolet-induced photoluminescence degradation and enhancement in GaN films," J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 2034-2037 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(5A), L479-L481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Orton and C. T. Foxon, "Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61(1), 1-75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Xu, G. Li, S. J. Chua, X. C. Wang, and W. Wang, "Observation of optically-active metastable defects in undoped GaN epilayers." Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19) (1998).

1997

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Akasaki and H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III nitride semiconductors and their application to short wavelength light emitters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(9A), 5393-5408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Shmagin and J. Muth, "Optical metastability in bulk GaN single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(4), 455 - (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa and Y. Kawakami, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode..." Applied Physics Letters 70(8), 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Strite and H. Morkoc¸, "Gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and indium nitride: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Techol. B 10(4), 1237-1266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A. C.

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abiko, M.

1. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, "Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061,118 (2006).

Akasaki, I.

I. Akasaki and H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III nitride semiconductors and their application to short wavelength light emitters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(9A), 5393-5408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

I. Akasaki and H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III nitride semiconductors and their application to short wavelength light emitters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(9A), 5393-5408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J.P.

B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).

Chua, S. J.

S. J. Xu, G. Li, S. J. Chua, X. C. Wang, and W. Wang, "Observation of optically-active metastable defects in undoped GaN epilayers." Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19) (1998).

Coldren, L. A.

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foxon, C. T.

J. W. Orton and C. T. Foxon, "Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61(1), 1-75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, S.

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Indium Concentration on PL Spatial in homogeneity in InGaN Single Quantum Well Structures detected by an original low cost near-field probes," Appl. Surface Scie. 229, 338-345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herman, I. P.

B. Kim, I. Kuskovsky, I. P. Herman, D. Li, and G. F. Neumark, "Reversible ultraviolet-induced photoluminescence degradation and enhancement in GaN films," J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 2034-2037 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, M. Z.

M. A. Reshchikov, M. Z. Iqbal, H. Morko, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, "Long-lasting photoluminescence in freestanding GaN templates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 266 - (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaneta, A.

1. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, "Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061,118 (2006).

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Indium Concentration on PL Spatial in homogeneity in InGaN Single Quantum Well Structures detected by an original low cost near-field probes," Appl. Surface Scie. 229, 338-345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

1. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, "Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061,118 (2006).

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Indium Concentration on PL Spatial in homogeneity in InGaN Single Quantum Well Structures detected by an original low cost near-field probes," Appl. Surface Scie. 229, 338-345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa and Y. Kawakami, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode..." Applied Physics Letters 70(8), 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

B. Kim, I. Kuskovsky, I. P. Herman, D. Li, and G. F. Neumark, "Reversible ultraviolet-induced photoluminescence degradation and enhancement in GaN films," J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 2034-2037 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolbas, R. M.

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuskovsky, I.

B. Kim, I. Kuskovsky, I. P. Herman, D. Li, and G. F. Neumark, "Reversible ultraviolet-induced photoluminescence degradation and enhancement in GaN films," J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 2034-2037 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. Y.

M. A. Reshchikov, M. Z. Iqbal, H. Morko, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, "Long-lasting photoluminescence in freestanding GaN templates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 266 - (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

B. Kim, I. Kuskovsky, I. P. Herman, D. Li, and G. F. Neumark, "Reversible ultraviolet-induced photoluminescence degradation and enhancement in GaN films," J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 2034-2037 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

S. J. Xu, G. Li, S. J. Chua, X. C. Wang, and W. Wang, "Observation of optically-active metastable defects in undoped GaN epilayers." Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19) (1998).

Mack, M. P.

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Malinauskas, T.

B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).

Marutsuki, G.

G. Marutsuki, T. Narukawa, Y.and Mitani, T. Mukai, G. Shinomiya, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Electroluminescence mapping of InGaN-based LEDs by SNOM," Phys. Stat. Sol. A 192(1), 110-116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Micheletto, R.

1. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, "Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061,118 (2006).

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Indium Concentration on PL Spatial in homogeneity in InGaN Single Quantum Well Structures detected by an original low cost near-field probes," Appl. Surface Scie. 229, 338-345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).

Moon, Y. T.

M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morko, H.

M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov, M. Z. Iqbal, H. Morko, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, "Long-lasting photoluminescence in freestanding GaN templates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 266 - (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc¸, H.

S. Strite and H. Morkoc¸, "Gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and indium nitride: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Techol. B 10(4), 1237-1266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

1. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, "Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061,118 (2006).

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(5A), L479-L481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muth, J.

I. Shmagin and J. Muth, "Optical metastability in bulk GaN single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(4), 455 - (1997).
[CrossRef]

Muth, J. F.

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(5A), L479-L481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narimatsu, H.

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(5A), L479-L481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, T.

G. Marutsuki, T. Narukawa, Y.and Mitani, T. Mukai, G. Shinomiya, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Electroluminescence mapping of InGaN-based LEDs by SNOM," Phys. Stat. Sol. A 192(1), 110-116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

1. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, "Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061,118 (2006).

Y. Narukawa and Y. Kawakami, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode..." Applied Physics Letters 70(8), 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neumark, G. F.

B. Kim, I. Kuskovsky, I. P. Herman, D. Li, and G. F. Neumark, "Reversible ultraviolet-induced photoluminescence degradation and enhancement in GaN films," J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 2034-2037 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orton, J. W.

J. W. Orton and C. T. Foxon, "Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61(1), 1-75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. S.

M. A. Reshchikov, M. Z. Iqbal, H. Morko, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, "Long-lasting photoluminescence in freestanding GaN templates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 266 - (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paskov, P.P

B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).

Reshchikov, M. A.

M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov, M. Z. Iqbal, H. Morko, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, "Long-lasting photoluminescence in freestanding GaN templates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 266 - (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shmagin, I.

I. Shmagin and J. Muth, "Optical metastability in bulk GaN single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(4), 455 - (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shmagin, I. K.

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shubina, T.V.

B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).

Strite, S.

S. Strite and H. Morkoc¸, "Gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and indium nitride: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Techol. B 10(4), 1237-1266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toropov, A.A.

B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).

Usui, A.

B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).

Wang, W.

S. J. Xu, G. Li, S. J. Chua, X. C. Wang, and W. Wang, "Observation of optically-active metastable defects in undoped GaN epilayers." Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19) (1998).

Wang, X. C.

S. J. Xu, G. Li, S. J. Chua, X. C. Wang, and W. Wang, "Observation of optically-active metastable defects in undoped GaN epilayers." Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19) (1998).

Xie, J.

M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. J.

S. J. Xu, G. Li, S. J. Chua, X. C. Wang, and W. Wang, "Observation of optically-active metastable defects in undoped GaN epilayers." Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19) (1998).

Yoshimatsu, N.

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Indium Concentration on PL Spatial in homogeneity in InGaN Single Quantum Well Structures detected by an original low cost near-field probes," Appl. Surface Scie. 229, 338-345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Reshchikov, M. Z. Iqbal, H. Morko, S. S. Park, and K. Y. Lee, "Long-lasting photoluminescence in freestanding GaN templates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(2), 266 - (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Shmagin and J. Muth, "Optical metastability in bulk GaN single crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(4), 455 - (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Xu, G. Li, S. J. Chua, X. C. Wang, and W. Wang, "Observation of optically-active metastable defects in undoped GaN epilayers." Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19) (1998).

I. K. Shmagin, J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, M. P. Mack, A. C. Abare, S. Keller, L. A. Coldren, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Reconfigurable optical properties in InGaN/GaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(11), 1455-1457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, "Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061,118 (2006).

Appl. Surface Scie.

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Indium Concentration on PL Spatial in homogeneity in InGaN Single Quantum Well Structures detected by an original low cost near-field probes," Appl. Surface Scie. 229, 338-345 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics Letters

Y. Narukawa and Y. Kawakami, "Role of self-formed InGaN quantum dots for exciton localization in the purple laser diode..." Applied Physics Letters 70(8), 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. Kim, I. Kuskovsky, I. P. Herman, D. Li, and G. F. Neumark, "Reversible ultraviolet-induced photoluminescence degradation and enhancement in GaN films," J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 2034-2037 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Techol. B

S. Strite and H. Morkoc¸, "Gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and indium nitride: A review," J. Vac. Sci. Techol. B 10(4), 1237-1266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

I. Akasaki and H. Amano, "Crystal growth and conductivity control of group III nitride semiconductors and their application to short wavelength light emitters," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(9A), 5393-5408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, H. Narimatsu, and S. Nakamura, "Amber InGaN-based light-emitting diodes operable at high ambient temperatures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(5A), L479-L481 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol.

B. Monemar, P.P Paskov, J.P. Bergman, A.A. Toropov, T.V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas and A. Usui "Observation of optical instabilities in Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. 245(9), 1723 -1740 (2008).

Phys. Stat. Sol. A

G. Marutsuki, T. Narukawa, Y.and Mitani, T. Mukai, G. Shinomiya, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Fujita, "Electroluminescence mapping of InGaN-based LEDs by SNOM," Phys. Stat. Sol. A 192(1), 110-116 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. c

M. A. Reshchikov, J. Xie, L. He, X. Gu, Y. T. Moon, Y. Fu, and H. Morko, "Effect of potential fluctuations on photoluminescence in Mg-doped GaN," Phys. Stat. Sol. c 2(7), 2761 - 2764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. W. Orton and C. T. Foxon, "Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61(1), 1-75 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, 1997).

B. J. Ryan, M. O. Henry, E. McGlynn, and J. Fryar, "Investigation of optical metastability in GaN using photoluminescence spectroscopy," Physica B: Condensed Matter 340-342, 452 - 456 (2003). Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The apparatus used to perform selective photoluminescence consists of a UV microscope coupled with a monochromator to observe the intensity-time profiles of the photoluminescence at single wavelengths

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The difference in the photoluminescence pattern right after starting the illumination (left picture) and after one minute of illumination (right). The contrast and granularity appear enhanced in the latter case, smaller bright domains disappear and some other are modified. Image taken with an Olympus BX51-W1 microscope, with 40x objective lens. Digital camera parameters and integration constants are identical.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The spectrum of the sample used for the measurements with the main emission peak located at 460 nm (b) and its yellow band (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) shows the time intensity profile of the yellow band after starting the illumination, (b) the time intensity profile of the main emission peak

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Selective excitation results in different rising/decreasing photoluminescence behaviour. (a) Excitation with 365nm (a) produces a PL rise, whereas with 405nm (b) produces a decreased luminescence. The PL rise profile is fitted with a double exponential, in the case of PL decrease the best fitting is a single exponential.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The illumination interval sequence. Measurements with 40s of illumination were done starting after a dark time of 1 hour, then after increasing darktimes from 5 min up to 60 min (5 min steps). A similar series was done in reverse time order (from 60 min darktime to 5 min)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

A systematic on/off illumination sequence reveals a variation of PL rise/fall time constants. In the left graph (a) the dark-time was varied from 60 min down to 5 min, in the right one from 5 min up to 60 min.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

This panel shows the spectrum of the 460 nm centered sample and the time constants for the photoluminescence at wavelengths near the main emission peak.

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