Abstract

Parametric down-conversion (PDC) offers the possibility to control the fabrication of non-Gaussian states such as Fock states. However, in conventional PDC sources energy and momentum conservation introduce strict frequency and photon number correlations, which impact the fidelity of the prepared state. In our work we optimize the preparation of single-photon Fock states from the emission of waveguided PDC via spectral filtering. We study the effect of correlations via photon number resolving detection and quantum interference. Our measurements show how the reduction of mixedness due to filtering can be evaluated. Interfering the prepared photon with a coherent state we establish an experimentally measured fidelity of the produced target state of 78%.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (8)

M. Hendrych, X. Shi, A. Valencia, and J. P. Torres, "Broadening the bandwidth of entangled photons: a step towards the generation of extremely short biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Avenhaus, M. V. Chekhova, L. A. Krivitsky, G. Leuchs, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Experimental verification of high spectral entanglement for pulsed waveguided spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 79, 043836 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Direct probing of the Wigner function by timemultiplexed detection of photon statistics," New. J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, T. Lauckner, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Spatial modes in waveguided parametric downconversion," Phys. Rev. A 80, 033829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Halder, J. Fulconis, B. Cemlyn, A. Clark, C. Xiong,W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical 2-photon interference with separate intrinsically narrowband fibre sources," Opt. Express 17, 4670-4676 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, A. J. Pearlman, A. Ling, J. Fan, and A. Migdall, "A versatile waveguide source of photon pairs for chip-scale quantum information processing," Opt. Express 17, 6727-6740 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Avenhaus, A. Eckstein, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Fiber-assisted single-photon spectrograph," Opt. Lett. 34, 2873-2875 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Avenhaus, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Laiho, W. Mauerer, I. A. Walmsley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Photon number statistics of multimode parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

A. Valencia, A. Cere, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "Shaping the waveform of entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Fedorov, M. A. Efremov, P. A. Volkov, E. V. Moreva, S. S. Straupe, and S. P. Kulik, "Anisotropically and high entanglement of biphoton states generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wasilewski, P. Kolenderski, and R. Frankowski, "Spectral density matrix of a single photon measured," Phys. Lett. 99, 123601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ourjoumtsev, H. Jeong, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, "Generation of optical ’Schr¨odinger cats’ from photon number states," Nature 488, 784-786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Parigi, M. Kim, and M. Bellini, "Probing quantum commutation rules by addition and substraction of single photons to/from a light field," Science 317, 1890-1893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Poh, C. Y. Lum, I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Joint spectrum mapping of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fiorentino, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and M. W. Munro, "Spontaneous parametric down-conversion in periodically poled KTP waveguides and bulk crystals," Opt. Express 15, 7479-7488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct, loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, R. Erdmann, K. Banaszek, W. P. Grice, I. A. Walmsley, and M. G. Raymer, "Genreration of pure single photon wavepackets by conditional preparation based on spontaneous parametric downconversion," Laser Phys. 15, 146-161 (2005).

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and R. Loudon, "Non-classical interference between independent sources," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 7, S171-S175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Measurement of the spectral properties of the two-photon state generated via type II spontaneous parametric downconversion," Opt. Lett. 30, 908-910 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Heralding single photons from pulsed parametric downconversion," Opt. Comm. 246, 545-550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zavatta, S. Viciani, and M. Bellini, "Quantum-to-classical transition with single-photon-added coherent states of light," Science 306, 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. B. Pittman and J. D. Franson, "Violation of Bell’s inequality with photons from independent sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 240401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

W. P. Grice, A. B. U’Ren, and I. A.Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, H. Hansen, T. Aichele, O. Benson, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Quantum state reconstruction of the single-photon Fock state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 050402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

K. Banaszek, "Maximum-likelihood estimation of photon-number distribution from homodyne statistics," Phys. Rev. A 57, 5013-5015 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with broadband pump," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1627-1634 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Keller andM. H. Rubin, "Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, "Quantum interference: experiments and applications," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 355, 2267-2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achilles, D.

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct, loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Aichele, T.

A. I. Lvovsky, H. Hansen, T. Aichele, O. Benson, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Quantum state reconstruction of the single-photon Fock state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 050402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avenhaus, M.

M. Avenhaus, M. V. Chekhova, L. A. Krivitsky, G. Leuchs, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Experimental verification of high spectral entanglement for pulsed waveguided spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 79, 043836 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Direct probing of the Wigner function by timemultiplexed detection of photon statistics," New. J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Avenhaus, A. Eckstein, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Fiber-assisted single-photon spectrograph," Opt. Lett. 34, 2873-2875 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Avenhaus, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Laiho, W. Mauerer, I. A. Walmsley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Photon number statistics of multimode parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banaszek, K.

W. Wasilewski, P. Wasylczyk, P. Kolenderski, K. Banaszek, and C. Radzewicz, "Joint spectrum of photon pairs measured by coincidence Fourier spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1130-1132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

K. Banaszek, "Maximum-likelihood estimation of photon-number distribution from homodyne statistics," Phys. Rev. A 57, 5013-5015 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Battle, P.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bellini, M.

V. Parigi, M. Kim, and M. Bellini, "Probing quantum commutation rules by addition and substraction of single photons to/from a light field," Science 317, 1890-1893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zavatta, S. Viciani, and M. Bellini, "Quantum-to-classical transition with single-photon-added coherent states of light," Science 306, 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

A. I. Lvovsky, H. Hansen, T. Aichele, O. Benson, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Quantum state reconstruction of the single-photon Fock state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 050402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassemiro, K. N.

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Direct probing of the Wigner function by timemultiplexed detection of photon statistics," New. J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cemlyn, B.

Cere, A.

A. Valencia, A. Cere, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "Shaping the waveform of entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chekhova, M. V.

M. Avenhaus, M. V. Chekhova, L. A. Krivitsky, G. Leuchs, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Experimental verification of high spectral entanglement for pulsed waveguided spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 79, 043836 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Christ, A.

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, T. Lauckner, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Spatial modes in waveguided parametric downconversion," Phys. Rev. A 80, 033829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A.

Cohen, O.

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coldenstrodt-Ronge, H. B.

M. Avenhaus, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Laiho, W. Mauerer, I. A. Walmsley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Photon number statistics of multimode parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckstein, A.

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, T. Lauckner, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Spatial modes in waveguided parametric downconversion," Phys. Rev. A 80, 033829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Avenhaus, A. Eckstein, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Fiber-assisted single-photon spectrograph," Opt. Lett. 34, 2873-2875 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efremov, M. A.

M. V. Fedorov, M. A. Efremov, P. A. Volkov, E. V. Moreva, S. S. Straupe, and S. P. Kulik, "Anisotropically and high entanglement of biphoton states generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

Fedorov, M. V.

M. V. Fedorov, M. A. Efremov, P. A. Volkov, E. V. Moreva, S. S. Straupe, and S. P. Kulik, "Anisotropically and high entanglement of biphoton states generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiorentino, M.

Fitch, M. J.

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Frankowski, R.

W. Wasilewski, P. Kolenderski, and R. Frankowski, "Spectral density matrix of a single photon measured," Phys. Lett. 99, 123601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Heralding single photons from pulsed parametric downconversion," Opt. Comm. 246, 545-550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

T. B. Pittman and J. D. Franson, "Violation of Bell’s inequality with photons from independent sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 240401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fulconis, J.

Grangier, P.

A. Ourjoumtsev, H. Jeong, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, "Generation of optical ’Schr¨odinger cats’ from photon number states," Nature 488, 784-786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, "Quantum homodyne tomography of a two-photon fockstate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grice, W. P.

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Measurement of the spectral properties of the two-photon state generated via type II spontaneous parametric downconversion," Opt. Lett. 30, 908-910 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice, A. B. U’Ren, and I. A.Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with broadband pump," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1627-1634 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Halder, M.

Hansen, H.

A. I. Lvovsky, H. Hansen, T. Aichele, O. Benson, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Quantum state reconstruction of the single-photon Fock state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 050402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrych, M.

M. Hendrych, X. Shi, A. Valencia, and J. P. Torres, "Broadening the bandwidth of entangled photons: a step towards the generation of extremely short biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. K.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, B. C.

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Heralding single photons from pulsed parametric downconversion," Opt. Comm. 246, 545-550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Jeong, H.

A. Ourjoumtsev, H. Jeong, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, "Generation of optical ’Schr¨odinger cats’ from photon number states," Nature 488, 784-786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, T. E.

T. E. Keller andM. H. Rubin, "Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

V. Parigi, M. Kim, and M. Bellini, "Probing quantum commutation rules by addition and substraction of single photons to/from a light field," Science 317, 1890-1893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-H.

Kolenderski, P.

Krivitsky, L. A.

M. Avenhaus, M. V. Chekhova, L. A. Krivitsky, G. Leuchs, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Experimental verification of high spectral entanglement for pulsed waveguided spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 79, 043836 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kulik, S. P.

M. V. Fedorov, M. A. Efremov, P. A. Volkov, E. V. Moreva, S. S. Straupe, and S. P. Kulik, "Anisotropically and high entanglement of biphoton states generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtsiefer, C.

H. S. Poh, C. Y. Lum, I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Joint spectrum mapping of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laiho, K.

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Direct probing of the Wigner function by timemultiplexed detection of photon statistics," New. J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, T. Lauckner, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Spatial modes in waveguided parametric downconversion," Phys. Rev. A 80, 033829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Avenhaus, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Laiho, W. Mauerer, I. A. Walmsley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Photon number statistics of multimode parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamas-Linares, A.

H. S. Poh, C. Y. Lum, I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Joint spectrum mapping of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lauckner, T.

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, T. Lauckner, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Spatial modes in waveguided parametric downconversion," Phys. Rev. A 80, 033829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

M. Avenhaus, M. V. Chekhova, L. A. Krivitsky, G. Leuchs, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Experimental verification of high spectral entanglement for pulsed waveguided spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 79, 043836 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ling, A.

Loudon, R.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and R. Loudon, "Non-classical interference between independent sources," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 7, S171-S175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lum, C. Y.

H. S. Poh, C. Y. Lum, I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Joint spectrum mapping of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lundeen, J. S.

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lvovsky, A. I.

A. I. Lvovsky, H. Hansen, T. Aichele, O. Benson, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Quantum state reconstruction of the single-photon Fock state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 050402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, L.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcikic, I.

H. S. Poh, C. Y. Lum, I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Joint spectrum mapping of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mauerer, W.

M. Avenhaus, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Laiho, W. Mauerer, I. A. Walmsley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Photon number statistics of multimode parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migdall, A.

Mlynek, J.

A. I. Lvovsky, H. Hansen, T. Aichele, O. Benson, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Quantum state reconstruction of the single-photon Fock state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 050402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molina-Terriza, G.

A. Valencia, A. Cere, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "Shaping the waveform of entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moreva, E. V.

M. V. Fedorov, M. A. Efremov, P. A. Volkov, E. V. Moreva, S. S. Straupe, and S. P. Kulik, "Anisotropically and high entanglement of biphoton states generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosley, P. J.

M. Avenhaus, A. Eckstein, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Fiber-assisted single-photon spectrograph," Opt. Lett. 34, 2873-2875 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, T. Lauckner, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Spatial modes in waveguided parametric downconversion," Phys. Rev. A 80, 033829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, M. W.

Ou, Z. Y.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ourjoumtsev, A.

A. Ourjoumtsev, H. Jeong, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, "Generation of optical ’Schr¨odinger cats’ from photon number states," Nature 488, 784-786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, "Quantum homodyne tomography of a two-photon fockstate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parigi, V.

V. Parigi, M. Kim, and M. Bellini, "Probing quantum commutation rules by addition and substraction of single photons to/from a light field," Science 317, 1890-1893 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearlman, A. J.

Pittman, T. B.

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Heralding single photons from pulsed parametric downconversion," Opt. Comm. 246, 545-550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman and J. D. Franson, "Violation of Bell’s inequality with photons from independent sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 240401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poh, H. S.

H. S. Poh, C. Y. Lum, I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Joint spectrum mapping of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Puentes, G.

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radzewicz, C.

Rarity, J. G.

M. Halder, J. Fulconis, B. Cemlyn, A. Clark, C. Xiong,W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical 2-photon interference with separate intrinsically narrowband fibre sources," Opt. Express 17, 4670-4676 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and R. Loudon, "Non-classical interference between independent sources," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 7, S171-S175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, "Quantum interference: experiments and applications," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 355, 2267-2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, T. D.

Rubin, M. H.

T. E. Keller andM. H. Rubin, "Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

A. I. Lvovsky, H. Hansen, T. Aichele, O. Benson, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Quantum state reconstruction of the single-photon Fock state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 050402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, X.

M. Hendrych, X. Shi, A. Valencia, and J. P. Torres, "Broadening the bandwidth of entangled photons: a step towards the generation of extremely short biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, A. Cere, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "Shaping the waveform of entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silberhorn, Ch.

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Direct probing of the Wigner function by timemultiplexed detection of photon statistics," New. J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Avenhaus, M. V. Chekhova, L. A. Krivitsky, G. Leuchs, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Experimental verification of high spectral entanglement for pulsed waveguided spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 79, 043836 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Avenhaus, A. Eckstein, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Fiber-assisted single-photon spectrograph," Opt. Lett. 34, 2873-2875 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, T. Lauckner, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Spatial modes in waveguided parametric downconversion," Phys. Rev. A 80, 033829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Avenhaus, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Laiho, W. Mauerer, I. A. Walmsley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Photon number statistics of multimode parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct, loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Sliwa, C.

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

Smith, B. J.

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spillane, S. M.

Straupe, S. S.

M. V. Fedorov, M. A. Efremov, P. A. Volkov, E. V. Moreva, S. S. Straupe, and S. P. Kulik, "Anisotropically and high entanglement of biphoton states generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tapster, P. R.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and R. Loudon, "Non-classical interference between independent sources," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 7, S171-S175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, "Quantum interference: experiments and applications," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 355, 2267-2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

M. Hendrych, X. Shi, A. Valencia, and J. P. Torres, "Broadening the bandwidth of entangled photons: a step towards the generation of extremely short biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, A. Cere, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "Shaping the waveform of entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tualle-Brouri, R.

A. Ourjoumtsev, H. Jeong, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, "Generation of optical ’Schr¨odinger cats’ from photon number states," Nature 488, 784-786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, "Quantum homodyne tomography of a two-photon fockstate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valencia, A.

M. Hendrych, X. Shi, A. Valencia, and J. P. Torres, "Broadening the bandwidth of entangled photons: a step towards the generation of extremely short biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Valencia, A. Cere, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "Shaping the waveform of entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Viciani, S.

A. Zavatta, S. Viciani, and M. Bellini, "Quantum-to-classical transition with single-photon-added coherent states of light," Science 306, 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, P. A.

M. V. Fedorov, M. A. Efremov, P. A. Volkov, E. V. Moreva, S. S. Straupe, and S. P. Kulik, "Anisotropically and high entanglement of biphoton states generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Walmsley, I. A.

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Avenhaus, H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. Laiho, W. Mauerer, I. A. Walmsley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Photon number statistics of multimode parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 053601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Direct, loss-tolerant characterization of nonclassical photon statistics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with broadband pump," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1627-1634 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, W.

Wasylczyk, P.

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wasilewski, P. Wasylczyk, P. Kolenderski, K. Banaszek, and C. Radzewicz, "Joint spectrum of photon pairs measured by coincidence Fourier spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1130-1132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, C.

Zavatta, A.

A. Zavatta, S. Viciani, and M. Bellini, "Quantum-to-classical transition with single-photon-added coherent states of light," Science 306, 660-662 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. Achilles, Ch. Silberhorn, C. Sliwa, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, "Photon-number-resolving detection using time-multiplexing," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1499-1515 (2004).

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. (1)

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and R. Loudon, "Non-classical interference between independent sources," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 7, S171-S175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, R. Erdmann, K. Banaszek, W. P. Grice, I. A. Walmsley, and M. G. Raymer, "Genreration of pure single photon wavepackets by conditional preparation based on spontaneous parametric downconversion," Laser Phys. 15, 146-161 (2005).

Nature (1)

A. Ourjoumtsev, H. Jeong, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, "Generation of optical ’Schr¨odinger cats’ from photon number states," Nature 488, 784-786 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New. J. Phys. (1)

K. Laiho, M. Avenhaus, K. N. Cassemiro, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Direct probing of the Wigner function by timemultiplexed detection of photon statistics," New. J. Phys. 11, 043012 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Heralding single photons from pulsed parametric downconversion," Opt. Comm. 246, 545-550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, "Quantum interference: experiments and applications," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 355, 2267-2277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Wasilewski, P. Kolenderski, and R. Frankowski, "Spectral density matrix of a single photon measured," Phys. Lett. 99, 123601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (8)

M. Avenhaus, M. V. Chekhova, L. A. Krivitsky, G. Leuchs, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Experimental verification of high spectral entanglement for pulsed waveguided spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 79, 043836 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hendrych, X. Shi, A. Valencia, and J. P. Torres, "Broadening the bandwidth of entangled photons: a step towards the generation of extremely short biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 79, 023817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Keller andM. H. Rubin, "Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice, A. B. U’Ren, and I. A.Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Poh, C. Y. Lum, I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Joint spectrum mapping of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 75, 043816 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, T. Lauckner, P. J. Mosley, and Ch. Silberhorn, "Spatial modes in waveguided parametric downconversion," Phys. Rev. A 80, 033829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with broadband pump," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1627-1634 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Banaszek, "Maximum-likelihood estimation of photon-number distribution from homodyne statistics," Phys. Rev. A 57, 5013-5015 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

O. Cohen, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, G. Puentes, P. J. Mosley, and I. A. Walmsley, "Tailored photon-pair generation in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123603 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Pittman and J. D. Franson, "Violation of Bell’s inequality with photons from independent sources," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 240401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, J. S. Lundeen, B. J. Smith, P. Wasylczyk, A. B. U’Ren, Ch. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, "Heralded generation of ultrafast single photons in pure quantum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Valencia, A. Cere, X. Shi, G. Molina-Terriza, and J. P. Torres, "Shaping the waveform of entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 243601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, H. Hansen, T. Aichele, O. Benson, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, "Quantum state reconstruction of the single-photon Fock state," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 050402 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Illustration of the spectral correlation following from the pump and PM properties. (b) Predicted FWHM(full width at half maximum) of the PMat 796nm with respect to WG length. Employed WG parameters: 4×6µm2 cross section and 7.46nm poling period.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Setup for measuring the tilt of the PMfunction. [The list of abbreviations appears in Fig. 5.] (b) Nearly degenerate, measured marginal distributions of signal and idler and (c) the wavelengths at which coincidence counts between signal and idler were recorded.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Illustration of how to scan the PM structure with SH measurements. (b) Setup employed in the SH measurement. [The list of abbreviations appears in Fig. 5.] (c) Measured SH responses to different fundamental wavelengths.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The reconstructed spectral correlation ellipse |ϕ(νs ,νi )|2. We applied in the simulation 2.5nm broad pump at centered at 795.7nm. Correlations remaining between signal and idler after (b) 1nm and (c) 2.5nm broad spectral filtering.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Setup for preparing and characterizing single photons from waveguided PDC source applied for (a) measuring HOM interference between signal and idler, (b) recording the statistics of the heralded state, and (c) measuring the HOM interference between two independent sources. Abbreviations: SHG=second harmonic generation (0.5 mm thick BBO), L=lens, P=pinhole, DM=dicroich mirror, CF=color glass filter, HWP=half-wave plate, PBS=polarizing beam splitter, WG=waveguide, IF=interference filter, ND=neutral density filter, FC-PBS=fiber coupled PBS, APD=avalanche photo diode, SG=spectrograph* and SM=spectrometer*. (* only shown in Figs 2 and 3.)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured overlap values (squares) together with theoretical estimation for the spectral (dashed line) and total (solid line) overlaps with respect to the aspect ratio. We consider the PM tilt of θ=54.7°±1.5° (indicated with the shaded areas).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Heralded statistics at different pump powers with (a) no filter and (b) 2.5nm filter in signal. (c) Mean photon number of the statistics with respect to the pump power: diamonds referring to plot (a) and squares to plot (b) are shown together with linear fits to the data.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Contributions affecting the HOM interference between signal and reference.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Visibility of the HOM interference dip with respect to the mean photon number of reference. Measured points are marked by diamonds (two-fold interference) and squares (three-fold interference). Solid and dashed lines correspond to the fitted curves from which the spectral overlap value can be extracted.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured HOM interference dips between the prepared signal and the reference in (a) two- and (b) three-fold cases. (c) Theoretical estimation of the temporal width (black solid line) and maximal spectral overlaps (three-fold: dashed line, two-fold: dotted line) with respect to the PM bandwidth (employed FWHM bandwidths: pump 2.5nm, reference and filters 1nm, and PM tilt: θ=54.7°). Horizontal lines refer to the measured values of overlap. Shaded area indicates the FWHM of the PMestimated by the temporal dip widths.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured signal state statistics pn (n=0,1,2) without loss inversion.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Statistics ρn of the heralded state in Table 1 inverted with 4.8%±0.2% efficiency.

Equations (26)

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ψ = 0 + ζ d ω s d ω i ϕ ( ω s , ω i ) ω s , ω i + O ( ζ 2 ) ,
α ( v s , v i ) = e 1 σ 2 ( v s + v i ) 2 ,
Φ ( v s , v i ) e γ L 2 4 ( κ s v s + κ i v i ) 2 e i L 2 ( κ s v s + κ i v i ) ,
ϕ ( ν s , ν i ) = α ( ν s , ν i ) Φ ( ν s , ν i )
exp ( [ ν s ν i ] [ 1 σ 2 + γ L 2 4 κ s 2 1 σ 2 + γ L 2 4 κ s κ i 1 σ 2 + γ L 2 4 κ s κ i 1 σ 2 + γ L 2 4 κ i 2 ] 𝓜 [ ν s ν i ] ) ,
1 σ ellipse axes 2 = 1 σ 2 + γ ( κ s 2 + κ i 2 ) L 2 8 ± 1 σ 4 + γ 2 ( κ s 2 + κ i 2 ) 2 L 4 64 + γ κ s κ i σ 2 L 2 2 ,
1 σ PM 2 = γ ( κ s 2 + κ i 2 ) L 2 4 .
I ( ν SH ) exp ( ν SH 2 σ PM 2 ) .
𝓞 = d ν s d ν i ϕ ( ν s , ν i ) ϕ * ( ν i , ν s ) d ν s d ν i ϕ ( ν s , ν i ) 2 .
𝓞 s = 2 𝓐 ( 1 + 𝓐 4 ) ( 1 sin 2 ( 2 θ ) ) + 2 𝓐 2 ( 1 + sin 2 ( 2 θ ) ) and
𝓞 t = exp ( 𝓐 2 2 γ [ 1 sin 2 ( 2 θ ) ] 𝓐 2 + [ 1 sin ( 2 θ ) ] 2 [ 1 + 𝓐 4 ] [ 1 sin 2 ( 2 θ ) ] + 2 𝓐 2 [ 1 + sin 2 ( 2 θ ) ] ) ,
P n | click = P n click P click .
n heralded = n sm 2 n sm + ( M 1 ) n sm
1 + ( M + 1 ) χ 2 .
ρ ̂ ab = ( p 0 0 0 + p 1 1 1 + p 2 2 2 ) a ( β β ) b ,
a ̂ ( ω ) = 1 2 [ c ̂ ( ω ) d ̂ ( ω ) ] e i ω τ ,
b ̂ ( ω ) = 1 2 [ c ̂ ( ω ) + d ̂ ( ω ) ] ,
P = p 0 ( 1 e β ' 2 ) 2 + p 1 ( 1 e β ' 2 ) p 1 T ( τ ) β ' 2 e β ' 2
+ p 2 ( 1 1 2 e β ' 2 ) p 2 e β ' 2 ( T ( τ ) β ' 2 + T ' ( τ ) β ' 4 4 ) ,
T ( τ ) = d ω 1 d ω 2 u * ( ω 1 ) g ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) u ( ω 2 ) e i τ ( ω 1 ω 2 ) ,
T ' ( τ ) = d ω 1 d ω 2 d ω 3 d ω 4 u * ( ω 1 ) u * ( ω 2 ) h ( ω 1 , ω 2 , ω 3 , ω 4 ) u ( ω 3 ) u ( ω 4 ) e i τ ( ω 1 + ω 2 ω 3 ω 4 ) ,
𝒱 = P ( τ ) P ( τ = 0 ) P ( τ ) .
P ( τ ) = p 0 | β | 4 + p 1 | β | 2 ( 1 T ( τ ) ) + 1 2 p 2 .
𝒱 ( β 2 ) = p 1 T ( τ = 0 ) p 0 β 2 2 + p 1 + p 2 1 β 2 ,
g pdc ω 1 ω 2 = 1 N ( d ω i ϕ ( ω 1 , ω i ) ϕ * ( ω 2 , ω i ) t i ( ω i ) t s ( ω 1 ) t s ( ω 2 ) ) ,
P spectral ( τ ) 1 T ( τ ) = 1 T max exp ( τ 2 2 σ t 2 ) ,

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