Abstract

A new type of multilayer coatings with narrowband reflection properties and peaked in the ~50– 92 nm spectral range has been developed. Multilayers are based on Yb, Al, and SiO films and they have been prepared by thermal evaporation. Efficient multilayers based on Yb and Al, with an SiO protective layer were prepared, but they developed a dendrite structure, which was attributed to the reactivity between Al and Yb. Multilayers based on Yb and Al, with both SiO protective and barrier layers, resulted in efficient reflective filters, with no observable dendrite growth. The peak reflectance of aged multilayers was of the order of ~0.20, with bandwidths in the range of 12 to 22 nm FWHM.

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2009

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. A. Bellotti, and J. F. Seely, “Measurement of dysprosium optical constants in the 2-830 eV spectral range using a transmittance method, and compilation of the revised optical constants of lanthanum, terbium, neodymium, and gadolinium,” Appl. Opt. 48(16), 3084–3093 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, and J. F. Seely, “Normal-incidence silicon-gadolinium multilayers for imaging at 63 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 965–967 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Narrowband filters and broadband mirrors for the spectral range from 50 to 200 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182W (2008).

2007

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23-1,700-eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).

2006

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20-1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2880–2887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. F. Seely, and Y. A. Uspenskii, “SiC/Tb and Si/Tb multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1765–1772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, Yu. A. Uspenskii, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and D. L. Windt, “Coated photodiode technique for the determination of the optical constants of reactive elements: La and Tb,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170T (2006).

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Optical constants determination of neodymium and gadolinium in the 3 nm to 100 nm wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170U (2006).

2005

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, J. F. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and Y. A. Uspenskii, “Terbium-based extreme ultraviolet multilayers,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3186–3188 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “FUV reflectometer for in situ characterization of thin films deposited under UHV,” Proc. SPIE 4139, 92–101 (2000).

1999

1998

1996

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Optical constants of aluminum films in the extreme ultraviolet interval of 82-77 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35(28), 5692–5697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Farultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(2), 497–502 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. Kim, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Filters for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Mission far-ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 32(12), 3069–3074 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1989

J. Edelstein, “Reflection/ suppression coatings for the 900–1200 Å radiation,” Proc. SPIE 1160, 19–25 (1989).

1971

1950

G. Hass, “Preparation, Structure, and Applications of Thin Films of Silicon Monoxide and Titanium Dioxide,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 33(12), 353–360 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Alvisi, M.

Amra, C.

Aquila, A.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).

Artioukov, I.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).

Aznárez, J. A.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Narrowband filters and broadband mirrors for the spectral range from 50 to 200 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182W (2008).

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23-1,700-eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20-1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2880–2887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of scandium films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43(16), 3271–3278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, and J. Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of ytterbium films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “FUV reflectometer for in situ characterization of thin films deposited under UHV,” Proc. SPIE 4139, 92–101 (2000).

J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Farultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(2), 497–502 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Optical constants of aluminum films in the extreme ultraviolet interval of 82-77 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35(28), 5692–5697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Far UV reflectance measurements and optical constants of unoxidized Al films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4892–4899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. L.

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

Bellotti, J. A.

Birch, J.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).

Boerner, P.

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

Bridou, F.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calvo-Angós, J.

Carruthers, G. R.

Couprie, M. E.

Covini, S.

De Pontieu, B.

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

Delmotte, F.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, J.

J. Edelstein, “Reflection/ suppression coatings for the 900–1200 Å radiation,” Proc. SPIE 1160, 19–25 (1989).

Eriksson, F.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).

Fedorenko, A. I.

Fedotov, V. Y.

Fernández-Perea, M.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Narrowband filters and broadband mirrors for the spectral range from 50 to 200 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182W (2008).

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23-1,700-eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20-1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2880–2887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garoli, D.

Garzella, D.

Gatto, A.

Gautier, J.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giglia, A.

Gullikson, E.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).

Günster, S.

Hass, G.

G. Hass, “Preparation, Structure, and Applications of Thin Films of Silicon Monoxide and Titanium Dioxide,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 33(12), 353–360 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J.

Ichimaru, S.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jerome, A.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

Katz, N.

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

Kim, J.

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. Kim, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Filters for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Mission far-ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 32(12), 3069–3074 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. A. Bellotti, and J. F. Seely, “Measurement of dysprosium optical constants in the 2-830 eV spectral range using a transmittance method, and compilation of the revised optical constants of lanthanum, terbium, neodymium, and gadolinium,” Appl. Opt. 48(16), 3084–3093 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, and J. F. Seely, “Normal-incidence silicon-gadolinium multilayers for imaging at 63 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 965–967 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Optical constants determination of neodymium and gadolinium in the 3 nm to 100 nm wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170U (2006).

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. F. Seely, and Y. A. Uspenskii, “SiC/Tb and Si/Tb multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1765–1772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, Yu. A. Uspenskii, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and D. L. Windt, “Coated photodiode technique for the determination of the optical constants of reactive elements: La and Tb,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170T (2006).

D. L. Windt, J. F. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and Y. A. Uspenskii, “Terbium-based extreme ultraviolet multilayers,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3186–3188 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).

Kohlhaas, J.

Kondratenko, V. V.

Larruquert, J. I.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Narrowband filters and broadband mirrors for the spectral range from 50 to 200 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182W (2008).

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23-1,700-eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20-1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2880–2887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of scandium films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43(16), 3271–3278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, and J. Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of ytterbium films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Sub-quarter-wave multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 41(25), 5398–5404 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, “General theory of sub-quarterwave multilayers with highly absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2617–2627 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Multilayer coatings for narrow-band imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 40(7), 1126–1131 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, “Reflectance enhancement with sub-quarterwave multilayers of highly absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(6), 1406–1414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “FUV reflectometer for in situ characterization of thin films deposited under UHV,” Proc. SPIE 4139, 92–101 (2000).

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the EUV spectral region from 50 to 121.6 nm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1231–1236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Farultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(2), 497–502 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Optical constants of aluminum films in the extreme ultraviolet interval of 82-77 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35(28), 5692–5697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Far UV reflectance measurements and optical constants of unoxidized Al films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4892–4899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Levashov, V. E.

Malvezzi, A. M.

Marsi, M.

Martínez-Galarce, D. S.

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

Méndez, J. A.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Narrowband filters and broadband mirrors for the spectral range from 50 to 200 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182W (2008).

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Yb films in the 23-1,700-eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3691–3699 (2007).

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Determination of optical constants of scandium films in the 20-1000 eV range,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2880–2887 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of scandium films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43(16), 3271–3278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, and J. Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of ytterbium films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, and J. A. Méndez, “FUV reflectometer for in situ characterization of thin films deposited under UHV,” Proc. SPIE 4139, 92–101 (2000).

J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, and J. A. Méndez, “Farultraviolet absolute reflectometer for optical constant determination of ultrahigh vacuum prepared thin films,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(2), 497–502 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Optical constants of aluminum films in the extreme ultraviolet interval of 82-77 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35(28), 5692–5697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Far UV reflectance measurements and optical constants of unoxidized Al films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4892–4899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nannarone, S.

Ohchi, T.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pershin, Y. P.

Poletto, L.

Popov, N.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).

Popov, N. L.

Ravet, M. F.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

Robinson, J. C.

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

Roulliay, M.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salmassi, F.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, “Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300 eV range,” Proc. SPIE 5538, 64–71 (2004).

Schaefers, F

S. A Yulin and F Schaefers, “T. Feigl and N. Kaiser, “Enhanced reflectivity and stability of Sc/Si multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 155–163 (2004).

Seely, J.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).

Seely, J. F.

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. A. Bellotti, and J. F. Seely, “Measurement of dysprosium optical constants in the 2-830 eV spectral range using a transmittance method, and compilation of the revised optical constants of lanthanum, terbium, neodymium, and gadolinium,” Appl. Opt. 48(16), 3084–3093 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, and J. F. Seely, “Normal-incidence silicon-gadolinium multilayers for imaging at 63 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 965–967 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Optical constants determination of neodymium and gadolinium in the 3 nm to 100 nm wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170U (2006).

J. F. Seely, Yu. A. Uspenskii, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and D. L. Windt, “Coated photodiode technique for the determination of the optical constants of reactive elements: La and Tb,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170T (2006).

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. F. Seely, and Y. A. Uspenskii, “SiC/Tb and Si/Tb multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1765–1772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Windt, J. F. Seely, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and Y. A. Uspenskii, “Terbium-based extreme ultraviolet multilayers,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3186–3188 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Uspenskii, J. F. Seely, N. L. Popov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, and V. V. Kondratenko, “Efficient method for the determination of extreme-ultraviolet optical constants in reactive materials: application to scandium and titanium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(2), 298–305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

Spann, J. F.

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. Kim, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Filters for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Mission far-ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 32(12), 3069–3074 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, H.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thielsch, R.

Title, A.

D. S. Martínez-Galarce, P. Boerner, R. Soufli, B. De Pontieu, N. Katz, A. Title, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Robinson, and S. L. Baker, “The high-resolution lightweight telescope for the EUV (HiLiTE),” Proc. SPIE 7011, 70113K (2008).

Torchio, P.

Torr, D. G.

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. Kim, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Filters for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Mission far-ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 32(12), 3069–3074 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Zukic and D. G. Torr, “Multiple reflectors as narrowband and broadband vacuum ultraviolet filtres,” Appl. Opt. 31(10), 1588–1596 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Torr, M. R.

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. Kim, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Filters for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Mission far-ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 32(12), 3069–3074 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trovò, M.

Uspenski, Yu.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).

Uspenskii, Y. A.

Uspenskii, Yu. A.

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Optical constants determination of neodymium and gadolinium in the 3 nm to 100 nm wavelength range,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170U (2006).

J. F. Seely, Yu. A. Uspenskii, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and D. L. Windt, “Coated photodiode technique for the determination of the optical constants of reactive elements: La and Tb,” Proc. SPIE 6317, 63170T (2006).

Varniere, F.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vickridge, I.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vidal-Dasilva, M.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Narrowband filters and broadband mirrors for the spectral range from 50 to 200 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70182W (2008).

Vinogradov, A.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).

Vinogradov, A. V.

Walker, R.

Windt, D.

Yu. Uspenski, J. Seely, N. Popov, I. Artioukov, A. Vinogradov, D. Windt, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Extreme UV optical constants of rare-earth metals free from effects of air contamination,” Proc. SPIE 5919, 213–220 (2005).

Windt, D. L.

Yulin, S. A

S. A Yulin and F Schaefers, “T. Feigl and N. Kaiser, “Enhanced reflectivity and stability of Sc/Si multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 155–163 (2004).

Zubarev, E. N.

Zukic, M.

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. Kim, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Filters for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Mission far-ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 32(12), 3069–3074 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Zukic and D. G. Torr, “Multiple reflectors as narrowband and broadband vacuum ultraviolet filtres,” Appl. Opt. 31(10), 1588–1596 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

M. Zukic and D. G. Torr, “Multiple reflectors as narrowband and broadband vacuum ultraviolet filtres,” Appl. Opt. 31(10), 1588–1596 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Gatto, R. Thielsch, J. Heber, N. Kaiser, D. Ristau, S. Günster, J. Kohlhaas, M. Marsi, M. Trovò, R. Walker, D. Garzella, M. E. Couprie, P. Torchio, M. Alvisi, and C. Amra, “High-performance deep-ultraviolet optics for free-electron lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3236–3241 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. F. Seely, and Y. A. Uspenskii, “SiC/Tb and Si/Tb multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1765–1772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Carruthers, “Narrow-band filter for the Lyman-β wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1461–1463 (1971).

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the EUV spectral region from 50 to 121.6 nm,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1231–1236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Sub-quarter-wave multilayer coatings with high reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 41(25), 5398–5404 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, and J. Calvo-Angós, “Optical properties of ytterbium films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4566–4572 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert and R. A. M. Keski-Kuha, “Multilayer coatings for narrow-band imaging in the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 40(7), 1126–1131 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. A. Bellotti, and J. F. Seely, “Measurement of dysprosium optical constants in the 2-830 eV spectral range using a transmittance method, and compilation of the revised optical constants of lanthanum, terbium, neodymium, and gadolinium,” Appl. Opt. 48(16), 3084–3093 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, A. M. Malvezzi, L. Poletto, and S. Covini, “Optical properties of scandium films in the far and the extreme ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 43(16), 3271–3278 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Far UV reflectance measurements and optical constants of unoxidized Al films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4892–4899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Optical constants of aluminum films in the extreme ultraviolet interval of 82-77 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35(28), 5692–5697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, F. Varniere, M. Roulliay, A. Jerome, and I. Vickridge, “Characterization and optimization of magnetron sputtered Sc/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 719–725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

G. Hass, “Preparation, Structure, and Applications of Thin Films of Silicon Monoxide and Titanium Dioxide,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 33(12), 353–360 (1950).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, and R. Soufli, “Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1 – 800 eV photon energy range,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

M. Zukic, D. G. Torr, J. Kim, J. F. Spann, and M. R. Torr, “Filters for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Mission far-ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 32(12), 3069–3074 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

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[CrossRef]

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A US patent has been applied with the contents of this research: M. Vidal Dasilva, M. Fernández Perea, J. I. Larruquert Goicoechea, J. A. Méndez Morales, J. A. Aznárez Candao, J. M. Sánchez Orejuela, “Narrowband filters for the extreme ultraviolet,” U.S. patent application 12/429,944 (24 April 2009).

M. Fernández-Perea, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Ce films in the 6-1,200-eV range,” J. Appl. Phys . 103, 073501–1 to −7 (2008).

M Fernández-Perea, M Vidal-Dasilva, J. A Aznárez, J. I Larruquert, J. A Méndez,, L. Poletto, D Garoli,, A. M. Malvezzi, A Giglia, and S Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Pr films in the 4-1,600-eV range,” J. Appl. Phys . 103, 113515–1 a −7 (2008).

M Fernández-Perea,, M Vidal-Dasilva, J. A Aznárez, and J. I LarruquertJ. A Méndez, L Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M Malvezzi, A Giglia, and S Nannarone “Determination of the transmittance and extinction coefficient of Eu films in the 8.3-1,400-eV range,” J. Appl. Phys . 104, 123527–1 a −7 (2008).

M. Vidal-Dasilva, M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Tm films in the 2.75-1,600 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 103110–1 a −7 (2009).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated reflectance versus wavelength for Yb/Al/Yb/SiO (peak at 85.8 nm) and Yb/Al/Yb/Al/Yb/SiO (peaks at 56.6, 73.5, and 90.9 nm) multilayers. Legend: film thicknesses in nm starting at the innermost layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance versus wavelength for two fresh Yb/Al/Yb/SiO multilayers. Legend: film thicknesses in nm starting at the innermost layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental and calculated reflectance versus wavelength for a fresh Yb/Al/Yb/SiO multilayer at three different angles of incidence

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance versus wavelength for an Yb/Al/Yb/SiO multilayer both fresh and after two years of storage in a desiccator

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscope view under transmitted light of an Yb/Al/Yb/SiO multilayer after one year of storage in a desiccator

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM picture with a dendrite of an Yb/Al/Yb/SiO multilayer after two years of storage in a desiccator

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance versus wavelength for an Al/SiO/Yb/SiO multilayer. Legend: film thicknesses in nm starting at the innermost layer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance versus wavelength for an Yb/SiO/Al/SiO/Yb/SiO multilayer. Legend: film thicknesses in nm starting at the innermost layer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reflectance versus the logarithm of wavelength from the near infrared to the EUV for multilayers plotted in Figs. 4, 7, and 8

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