Abstract

Much recent effort has focused on coupling individual quantum emitters to optical microcavities in order to produce single photons on demand, enable single-photon optical switching, and implement functional nodes of a quantum network. Techniques to control the bandwidth and frequency of the outgoing single photons are of practical importance, allowing direct emission into telecommunications wavelengths and “hybrid” quantum networks incorporating different emitters. Here, we describe an integrated approach involving a quantum emitter coupled to a nonlinear optical resonator, in which the emission wavelength and pulse shape are controlled using the intra-cavity nonlinearity. Our scheme is general in nature, and demonstrates how the photonic environment of a quantum emitter can be tailored to determine the emission properties. As specific examples, we discuss a high Q-factor, TE-TM double-mode photonic crystal cavity design that allows for direct generation of single photons at telecom wavelengths (1425 nm) starting from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot with a 950 nm transition wavelength, and a scheme for direct optical coupling between such a quantum dot and a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center at 637 nm.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (11)

M.W. McCutcheon, G.W. Rieger, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "All-optical conditional logic with a nonlinear photonic crystal nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 0910.0041(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram and nanometer scale photonic crystal opto-mechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Reimer, D. Dalacu, J. Lapointe, P. J. Poole, D. Kim, G. C. Aers, W. R. McKinnon, and R. L. Williams, "Single electron charging in deterministically positioned InAs/InP quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, "High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogenvacancy centers in single crystal diamond," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, "Coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, and O. Painter, "Optical and mechanical design of a "zipper" photonic crystal optomechanical cavity," Opt. Express 17, 3802-3817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Barth, N. Nusse, B. Lochel, and O. Benson, "Controlled coupling of a single-diamond nanocrystal to a photonic crystal cavity," Opt. Lett. 34, 1108-1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, R. G. Beausoleil, and O. Painter, "Coherent interference effects in a nano-assembled diamond NV center cavity-QED system," Opt. Express 17, 8081-8097 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Barclay, K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Hybrid photonic crystal cavity and waveguide for coupling to diamond NV-centers," Opt. Express 17, 9588-9601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, M. W. McCutcheon, I. B. Burgess, and M. Lončar, "Ultra-high-Q TE/TM dual-polarized photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Lett. 34, 2694-2696 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (9)

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap," Opt. Express 16, 11095-11102 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. M. Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, and R. M. De la Rue, "Ultra high Quality factor one dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities in silicon-on-insulator (SOI)," Opt. Express 16, 12084-12089 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Combrie, A. De Rossi, Q. V. Tran, and H. Benisty, "GaAs photonic crystal cavity with ultrahigh Q: microwatt nonlinearity at 1.55 μm," Opt. Lett. 33, 1908-1910 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. McCutcheon and M. Loncar, "Design of a silicon nitride photonic crystal nanocavity with a Quality factor of one million for coupling to a diamond nanocrystal," Opt. Express 16, 19136-19145 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a GaP waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Rivoire, A. Faraon, and J. Vuckovic, "Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 063103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyazawa, S. Okumura, S. Hirose, K. Takemoto, M. Takatsu, T. Usuki, N. Yokoyama, and Y. Arakawa, "First demonstration of electrically driven 1.55 μm single-photon generator," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 472880-2883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, "Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot," Nat. Phys. 4, 692-695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kimble, "The quantum internet," Nature 453, 1023-1030 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (11)

M. V. Gurudev Dutt, L. Childress, L. Jiang, E. Togan, J. Maze, F. Jelezko, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Quantum register based on individual electronic and nuclear spin qubits in diamond," Science 3161312-1316 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdiskquantum dot system," Nature 450, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature,  445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature,  450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Gorshkov, A. A., M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Sørensen, and M. D. Lukin, "Universal approach to optimal photon storage in atomic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 123601 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ward, T. Farrow, P. See, Z. L. Yuan, O. Z. Karimov, A. J. Bennett, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, and D. A. Ritchie, "Electrically driven telecommunication wavelength single-photon source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, "Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. VanDevender and P. G. Kwiat, "Quantum transduction via frequency upconversion (invited)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(2), 295-299 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodriguez, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, "χ (2) and χ(3) harmonic generation at a critical power in inhomogeneous doubly resonant cavities," Opt. Express 15, 7303-7318 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, "Enhanced nonlinear optics in photonic-crystal microcavities," Opt. Express 15, 16161-16176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

R. Herrmann, T. S unner, T. Hein, A. Loffler, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, "Ultrahigh-quality photonic crystal cavity in GaAs," Opt. Lett. 31, 1229-1231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liscidini and L. C. Andreani, "Second-harmonic generation in doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors," Phys. Rev. E 73, 016613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Santori, P. Tamarat, P. Neumann, J. Wrachtrup, D. Fattal, R. G. Beausoleil, J. Rabeau, P. Olivero, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, and P. Hemmer, "Coherent population trapping of single spins in diamond under optical excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 247401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Gaebel, M. Domhan, I. Popa, C. Wittmann, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. R. Rabeau, N. Stavrias, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wachtrup, "Room-temperature coherent coupling of single spins in diamond," Nat. Phys. 2, 408-413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Hanson, F. M. Mendoza, R. J. Epstein, and D. D. Awschalom, "Polarization and readout of coupled single spins in diamond," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 087601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (9)

A. R. Cowan and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear optics in high refractive index contrast periodic structures," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, R41-R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup, and H. J. Kimble, "Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom," Nature 436, 87-90 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, "Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiNx microdisks with atom chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 801 (2005).

S. Tanzilli,W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, "All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Sargent, "Infrared quantum dots," Adv. Mat. 17515-522 (2005).
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C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, "Modal-reflectivity enhancement by geometry tuning in photonic crystal microcavities," Opt. Express 13, 245-255 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient singlephoton detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled linbo3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1725-1727 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Povinelli, M. Loncar, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Smythe, S. G. Johnson, F. Capasso, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Evanescent-wave bonding between optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 3042-3044 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. P. VanDevender and P. G. Kwiat, "High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433-1445 (2004).

J. McKeever, A. Boca, A. D. Boozer, R. Miller, J. R. Buck, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, "Deterministic Generation of Single Photons from One Atom Trapped in a Cavity," Science 303(5666), 1992-1994 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Scalable Photonic Quantum Computation through Cavity-Assisted Interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 127902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Efficient Engineering of Multiatom Entanglement through Single-Photon Detections," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(25), 253601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vučković, B. Zhang, G. S. Solomon, J. Plant, and Y. Yamamoto, "Efficient Source of Single Photons: A Single Quantum Dot in a Micropost Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 233602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(5), 783-786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using stored light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher,W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device," Science 290(5500), 2282-2285 (2000).
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C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, "Stable solid-state source of single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. Garcıa-Fernandez, and P. Zoller, "Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference," Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1025-1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, "Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221-3224 (1997).
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I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, "Absolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2268-2294 (1997).
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1992 (1)

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(6), 661-663 (1991).
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M. E. Reimer, D. Dalacu, J. Lapointe, P. J. Poole, D. Kim, G. C. Aers, W. R. McKinnon, and R. L. Williams, "Single electron charging in deterministically positioned InAs/InP quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aharonovich, I.

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a GaP waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alibart, O.

S. Tanzilli,W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

M. Liscidini and L. C. Andreani, "Second-harmonic generation in doubly resonant microcavities with periodic dielectric mirrors," Phys. Rev. E 73, 016613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

T. Miyazawa, S. Okumura, S. Hirose, K. Takemoto, M. Takatsu, T. Usuki, N. Yokoyama, and Y. Arakawa, "First demonstration of electrically driven 1.55 μm single-photon generator," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 472880-2883 (2008).
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Atature, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature,  445, 896-899 (2007).
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Atkinson, P.

M. B. Ward, T. Farrow, P. See, Z. L. Yuan, O. Z. Karimov, A. J. Bennett, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, and D. A. Ritchie, "Electrically driven telecommunication wavelength single-photon source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063512 (2007).
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Awschalom, D. D.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, "Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201112 (2007).
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R. Hanson, F. M. Mendoza, R. J. Epstein, and D. D. Awschalom, "Polarization and readout of coupled single spins in diamond," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 087601 (2006).
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Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature,  445, 896-899 (2007).
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Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli,W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437116-120 (2005).
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P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, R. G. Beausoleil, and O. Painter, "Coherent interference effects in a nano-assembled diamond NV center cavity-QED system," Opt. Express 17, 8081-8097 (2009).
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P. E. Barclay, K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Hybrid photonic crystal cavity and waveguide for coupling to diamond NV-centers," Opt. Express 17, 9588-9601 (2009).
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P. E. Barclay, K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogenvacancy centers in single crystal diamond," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191115 (2009).
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K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a GaP waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, B. Lev, and H. Mabuchi, "Integration of fiber-coupled high-Q SiNx microdisks with atom chips," Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 801 (2005).

Barth, M.

Beausoleil, R. G.

P. E. Barclay, K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Hybrid photonic crystal cavity and waveguide for coupling to diamond NV-centers," Opt. Express 17, 9588-9601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K.-M. C. Fu, R. G. Beausoleil, and O. Painter, "Coherent interference effects in a nano-assembled diamond NV center cavity-QED system," Opt. Express 17, 8081-8097 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Barclay, K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogenvacancy centers in single crystal diamond," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191115 (2009).
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K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a GaP waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 234107 (2008).
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C. Santori, P. Tamarat, P. Neumann, J. Wrachtrup, D. Fattal, R. G. Beausoleil, J. Rabeau, P. Olivero, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, and P. Hemmer, "Coherent population trapping of single spins in diamond under optical excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 247401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Becher, C.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher,W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device," Science 290(5500), 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using stored light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benisty, H.

Bennett, A. J.

M. B. Ward, T. Farrow, P. See, Z. L. Yuan, O. Z. Karimov, A. J. Bennett, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, and D. A. Ritchie, "Electrically driven telecommunication wavelength single-photon source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

Berman, P. R.

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, "Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot," Nat. Phys. 4, 692-695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Birnbaum, K. M.

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup, and H. J. Kimble, "Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom," Nature 436, 87-90 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boca, A.

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup, and H. J. Kimble, "Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom," Nature 436, 87-90 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. McKeever, A. Boca, A. D. Boozer, R. Miller, J. R. Buck, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, "Deterministic Generation of Single Photons from One Atom Trapped in a Cavity," Science 303(5666), 1992-1994 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boozer, A. D.

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup, and H. J. Kimble, "Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom," Nature 436, 87-90 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. McKeever, A. Boca, A. D. Boozer, R. Miller, J. R. Buck, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, "Deterministic Generation of Single Photons from One Atom Trapped in a Cavity," Science 303(5666), 1992-1994 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bracker, A. S.

X. Xu, B. Sun, P. R. Berman, D. G. Steel, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and L. J. Sham, "Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot," Nat. Phys. 4, 692-695 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bravo-Abad, J.

Buck, J. R.

J. McKeever, A. Boca, A. D. Boozer, R. Miller, J. R. Buck, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, "Deterministic Generation of Single Photons from One Atom Trapped in a Cavity," Science 303(5666), 1992-1994 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, I. B.

Butler, J. E.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, "Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cabrillo, C.

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. Garcıa-Fernandez, and P. Zoller, "Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference," Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1025-1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram and nanometer scale photonic crystal opto-mechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, and O. Painter, "Optical and mechanical design of a "zipper" photonic crystal optomechanical cavity," Opt. Express 17, 3802-3817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram and nanometer scale photonic crystal opto-mechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, and O. Painter, "Optical and mechanical design of a "zipper" photonic crystal optomechanical cavity," Opt. Express 17, 3802-3817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Childress, L.

M. V. Gurudev Dutt, L. Childress, L. Jiang, E. Togan, J. Maze, F. Jelezko, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Quantum register based on individual electronic and nuclear spin qubits in diamond," Science 3161312-1316 (2007).
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Cirac, J. I.

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. Garcıa-Fernandez, and P. Zoller, "Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference," Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1025-1033 (1999).
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J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, "Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221-3224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Combrie, S.

Cooper, K.

M. B. Ward, T. Farrow, P. See, Z. L. Yuan, O. Z. Karimov, A. J. Bennett, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, and D. A. Ritchie, "Electrically driven telecommunication wavelength single-photon source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, A. R.

A. R. Cowan and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear optics in high refractive index contrast periodic structures," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, R41-R56 (2005).
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Dalacu, D.

M. E. Reimer, D. Dalacu, J. Lapointe, P. J. Poole, D. Kim, G. C. Aers, W. R. McKinnon, and R. L. Williams, "Single electron charging in deterministically positioned InAs/InP quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011108 (2009).
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M.W. McCutcheon, G.W. Rieger, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "All-optical conditional logic with a nonlinear photonic crystal nanocavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 0910.0041(2009).
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M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
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De la Rue, R. M.

De Rossi, A.

Deotare, P. B.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, "High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
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P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, "Coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031102 (2009).
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Diamanti, E.

Domhan, M.

T. Gaebel, M. Domhan, I. Popa, C. Wittmann, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, J. R. Rabeau, N. Stavrias, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wachtrup, "Room-temperature coherent coupling of single spins in diamond," Nat. Phys. 2, 408-413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.-M.

L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Scalable Photonic Quantum Computation through Cavity-Assisted Interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 127902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-M. Duan and H. J. Kimble, "Efficient Engineering of Multiatom Entanglement through Single-Photon Detections," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(25), 253601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using stored light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, "A picogram and nanometer scale photonic crystal opto-mechanical cavity," Nature 459, 550-556 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, and O. Painter, "Optical and mechanical design of a "zipper" photonic crystal optomechanical cavity," Opt. Express 17, 3802-3817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(6), 661-663 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature,  450, 857-861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, R. J.

R. Hanson, F. M. Mendoza, R. J. Epstein, and D. D. Awschalom, "Polarization and readout of coupled single spins in diamond," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 087601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esterowitz, L.

Falt, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature,  445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraon, A.

K. Rivoire, A. Faraon, and J. Vuckovic, "Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 063103 (2008).
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D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J . Vuckovic, "Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot," Nature,  450, 857-861 (2007).
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Farrow, T.

M. B. Ward, T. Farrow, P. See, Z. L. Yuan, O. Z. Karimov, A. J. Bennett, A. J. Shields, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, and D. A. Ritchie, "Electrically driven telecommunication wavelength single-photon source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 063512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

C. Santori, P. Tamarat, P. Neumann, J. Wrachtrup, D. Fattal, R. G. Beausoleil, J. Rabeau, P. Olivero, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, and P. Hemmer, "Coherent population trapping of single spins in diamond under optical excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 247401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Feygelson, T.

C. F. Wang, R. Hanson, D. D. Awschalom, E. L. Hu, T. Feygelson, J. Yang, and J. E. Butler, "Fabrication and characterization of two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities in nanocrystalline diamond," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of Light in Atomic Vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(5), 783-786 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frank, I. W.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, "High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of single-photon frequency conversion. a) A single three-level emitter is coupled to a double-mode cavity that possesses a χ (2) nonlinearity. After excitation, the emitter emits a photon into the cavity at frequency ωa . When the cavity is irradiated by the pump beam at ωb , the photon is converted to a second cavity mode at frequency ωc . b) Level diagram: coherent coupling strengths are indicated with blue arrows, while gray arrows denote undesirable loss mechanisms. The emitter is controllably pumped from initial state |s〉 via an external laser field Ω(t) to excited state |e〉. The excited state |e〉 can reversibly emit a single photon into cavity mode a (while bringing the atom into state |g〉) at a rate g 1, and can also decay into free space at rate γ. Mode a has an inherent decay rate given by κa . The nonlinearity allows the photon in mode a to be converted to one in mode c at a rate g 2 when the cavity is pumped by a laser of frequency ωb =ωa -ωc . The leakage rate of the frequency-converted photon at ωc is split up into undesirable channels (κ c,in ) and desirable out-coupling to a nearby waveguide (κ c,ex ).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cavity mode characteristics. Frequency conversion platform based on a photonic crystal nanobeam cavity, integrated extraction waveguide, and off-chip coupling laser (ωb ) tuned to the difference frequency of the modes. The cavity is formed by introducing a local perturbation into a periodic 1D line of air holes in the free-standing nanobeam. The desirable (κ c,ex ) and inherent (κ c,in ) loss channels from mode c are shown. The insets show the schematic cavity spectrum with photonic stopbands shown in grey, and the dominant field components of the TE0 (ωc ) and TM2 (ωa ) modes. The yz-plane cross-sections of the modes (upper left) show the Ey (Ez ) component of mode c (a) at the center of the cavity, highlighting the mode overlap and polarizations. In the optimized structure, the TE mode at 1425 nm has Q=1.4×107 and Vn =0.77, and the TM mode at 950 nm has Q=1.3×105 and Vn =1.44 (Vn is the mode volume normalized by (λ/n)3). The inherent peak cooperativities for the modes are CTE in =2.4×107 and CTM in =3.7×104, which are well into the strong coupling regime, as given by C>1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Probability of single-photon frequency conversion from 950 nm to 1425 nm. The photon is coupled into a well-defined output channel at rate κ c,ex . Note that the internal probability of conversion in the absence of an over-coupled extraction channel is 0.99. (a) Probability as a function of the pump laser power, Pb , and the extraction ratio, δ=κ c,ex /κ c,in . For a given δ, there is an optimal operating power, Pb , as visible by the sharp contour ridge at small Pb . (b) Probability as a function of Pb for different values of δ. Because of the rapid rise in probability at low Pb , the system does not need to be operated at the optimum to achieve high conversion probabilities. For example, for δ=10, a probability of F=0.7 can be achieved with a pump power Pb =1.5 mW (indicated by the arrow).

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H I = H c + H loss ,
H c = h ̅ g 1 ( σ eg a a + σ ge a a ) + h ̅ Ω ( t ) ( σ es + σ se ) + h ̅ g 2 ( a a a c + a a a c ) ,
H loss = i γ 2 σ ee i κ a 2 a a a a i ( κ c , ex + κ c , in ) 2 a c a c ,
h ̅ ω i 2 = d r ε 0 ε ( r ) E i ( r ) 2 ,
g 2 = ε 0 h ̅ d r χ ijk ( 2 ) E a , i * ( E b , j E c , k + E c , j E b , k ) .
ψ ( t ) = c s ( t ) s + c e ( t ) e + c a ( t ) 1 a + c c ( t ) 1 c .
c ˙ e ( t ) i Ω ( t ) c s ( t ) 1 2 ( γ + 4 g 1 2 κ a + 4 g 2 2 κ c ) c e .
F = C in 1 + ϕ + C in ϕ 1 + ϕ κ c , ex κ c ,
F ( 1 2 C in ) κ c , ex κ c .
g 2 = ε 0 E b , x h ̅ d r χ xyz ( 2 ) E a , y * E c , z .
c ˙ s = i Ω ( t ) c e ,
c ˙ e = i Ω ( t ) c s i g 1 c a ( γ 2 ) c e ,
c ˙ a = i g 1 c e i g 2 c c ( κ a 2 ) c a ,
c ˙ c = i g 2 c a ( κ c 2 ) c c .
F = 0 d t κ c , ex c c ( t ) 2 0 d t κ c c c ( t ) 2 + κ a c a ( t ) 2 + γ c e ( t ) 2 .
c ˙ s ( t ) = 2 Ω ( t ) 2 γ total c s ( t ) ,
H w = d k h ̅ v ( k ω c v ) a ̂ k a ̂ k h ̅ g w d k ( a ̂ c a ̂ k e i k z c + h . c . ) .
c ˙ c = i g 2 c a ( κ c , in 2 ) c c + i g w d k c k ,
c ˙ k = i v ( δ k ) c k + i g w c c ,
c k ( t ) = i g k 0 t d t ' c c ( t ' ) e i c δ k ( t t ' ) .
ψ w ( z , t ) = 2 π i g w v Θ ( z ) 8 i g 1 g 2 γ total ( κ a κ c + 4 g 2 2 ) Ω ( t z v ) c s ( t z / v ) ,
L [ ρ ] = j = a , c κ j 2 ( a j a j ρ + ρ a j a j 2 a j ρ a j ) γ 2 ( σ ee ρ + ρ σ ee 2 σ ge ρ σ eg )
γ d 2 ( σ ee ρ + ρ σ ee 2 σ ee ρ σ ee ) ,
ρ ˙ ss 4 Ω 2 ( 1 + ϕ ) ( γ + γ d ) ( 1 + ϕ ) + C in γ ρ ss ,
ρ ˙ as 4 g 1 Ω 4 g 1 2 + ( γ + γ d ) ( 1 + ϕ ) κ a ρ ss ,
ρ aa 4 C in Ω 2 ( γ + κ a ( 1 + ϕ ) ) κ a ( ( γ + γ d ) ( 1 + ϕ ) + C in γ ) ( γ ( 1 + ϕ ) + ( C in + 1 + ϕ ) ( γ + κ a ( 1 + ϕ ) ) ) ρ ss .
κ a ( 1 + ϕ ) ρ aa ρ ˙ ss = C in ( γ + κ a ( 1 + ϕ ) ) γ d ( 1 + ϕ ) + ( C in + ϕ + 1 ) ( γ + κ a ( 1 + ϕ ) ) .
𝒞 = γ ( γ d ( 1 + ϕ ) + ( C in + 1 + ϕ ) ( γ + κ a ( 1 + ϕ ) ) ) ( ( γ + γ d ) ( 1 + ϕ ) + γ C in ) ( γ + κ a ( 1 + ϕ ) ) .

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