Abstract

We demonstrate the electro-activation of funnel waveguides through the quadratic electro-optic effect in paraelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate. This allows us to achieve electro-optic intensity modulation in a single optical beam, a 1×2 switch, and finally the electrically controlled morphing of a single waveguide into a 1×2 and a 1×4 divider.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. J. Frisken, "Light-induced optical wave-guide uptapers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1035-1037 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. S. Kewitsch and A. Yariv, "Self-focusing and self-trapping of optical beams upon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 21, 24-26 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1079-1081 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Dorkenoo, O. Cregut, L. Mager, F. Gillot, C. Carre, and A. Fort, "Quasi-solitonic behavior of self-written waveguides created by photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 27, 1782-1784 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, "Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt.Lett. 21, 931-933 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. F. Shih and F. W. Sheu, "Self-trapping of Light in a Photorefractive Organic Glass," Opt.Lett. 24, 1853-1855 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. M. Monro, C. M. De Sterke, and L. Poladian, "Self-writing a wave-guide in glass using photosensitivity," Opt. Commun. 119, 523-526 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and A. J. Agranat, "Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics," Opt. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Electro-optic beam manipulation through photorefractive needles," Opt. Lett. 27, 2188-2190 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl.Phys.Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. DelRe, A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Observation of soliton ridge states for the self-imprinting of fiber-slab couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191110-3 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, and G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107-5 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Asaro, M. Sheldon, Z. G. Chen, O. Ostroverkhova, and W. E. Moerner, "Soliton-induced waveguides in an organic photorefractive glass," Opt. Lett. 30, 519-521 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Directional coupler using soliton-induced waveguiding," Opt.Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. DelRe, A. Pierangelo, E. Palange, A. Ciattoni, and A. J. Agranat, "Beam shaping and effective guiding in the bulk of photorefractive crystals through linear beam dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081105-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, A. J. Agranat, and B. Crosignani, "Linear writing of waveguides in bulk photorefractive crystals through a two-step polarization sequence," J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064005-4 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, A. J. Agranat, and B. Crosignani, "Linear writing of waveguides in bulk photorefractive crystals through a two-step polarization sequence," J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064005-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

E. DelRe, A. Pierangelo, E. Palange, A. Ciattoni, and A. J. Agranat, "Beam shaping and effective guiding in the bulk of photorefractive crystals through linear beam dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081105-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, and G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Asaro, M. Sheldon, Z. G. Chen, O. Ostroverkhova, and W. E. Moerner, "Soliton-induced waveguides in an organic photorefractive glass," Opt. Lett. 30, 519-521 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. DelRe, A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Observation of soliton ridge states for the self-imprinting of fiber-slab couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191110-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl.Phys.Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1079-1081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Directional coupler using soliton-induced waveguiding," Opt.Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Shih and F. W. Sheu, "Self-trapping of Light in a Photorefractive Organic Glass," Opt.Lett. 24, 1853-1855 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, "Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt.Lett. 21, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Kewitsch and A. Yariv, "Self-focusing and self-trapping of optical beams upon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 21, 24-26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. M. Monro, C. M. De Sterke, and L. Poladian, "Self-writing a wave-guide in glass using photosensitivity," Opt. Commun. 119, 523-526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Frisken, "Light-induced optical wave-guide uptapers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agranat, A. J.

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, A. J. Agranat, and B. Crosignani, "Linear writing of waveguides in bulk photorefractive crystals through a two-step polarization sequence," J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064005-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. Pierangelo, E. Palange, A. Ciattoni, and A. J. Agranat, "Beam shaping and effective guiding in the bulk of photorefractive crystals through linear beam dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081105-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Observation of soliton ridge states for the self-imprinting of fiber-slab couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191110-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl.Phys.Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Electro-optic beam manipulation through photorefractive needles," Opt. Lett. 27, 2188-2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and A. J. Agranat, "Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics," Opt. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asaro, M.

Carre, C.

Chauvet, M.

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, and G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Directional coupler using soliton-induced waveguiding," Opt.Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. G.

Ciattoni, A.

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, A. J. Agranat, and B. Crosignani, "Linear writing of waveguides in bulk photorefractive crystals through a two-step polarization sequence," J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064005-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. Pierangelo, E. Palange, A. Ciattoni, and A. J. Agranat, "Beam shaping and effective guiding in the bulk of photorefractive crystals through linear beam dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081105-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl.Phys.Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cregut, O.

Crosignani, B.

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, A. J. Agranat, and B. Crosignani, "Linear writing of waveguides in bulk photorefractive crystals through a two-step polarization sequence," J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064005-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl.Phys.Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Electro-optic beam manipulation through photorefractive needles," Opt. Lett. 27, 2188-2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Ercole, A.

E. DelRe, A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Observation of soliton ridge states for the self-imprinting of fiber-slab couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191110-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl.Phys.Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Sterke, C. M.

T. M. Monro, C. M. De Sterke, and L. Poladian, "Self-writing a wave-guide in glass using photosensitivity," Opt. Commun. 119, 523-526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

DelRe, E.

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, A. J. Agranat, and B. Crosignani, "Linear writing of waveguides in bulk photorefractive crystals through a two-step polarization sequence," J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064005-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. Pierangelo, E. Palange, A. Ciattoni, and A. J. Agranat, "Beam shaping and effective guiding in the bulk of photorefractive crystals through linear beam dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081105-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Observation of soliton ridge states for the self-imprinting of fiber-slab couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191110-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl.Phys.Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Electro-optic beam manipulation through photorefractive needles," Opt. Lett. 27, 2188-2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, M. Tamburrini, and A. J. Agranat, "Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics," Opt. Lett. 25, 963-965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Directional coupler using soliton-induced waveguiding," Opt.Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Porto, P.

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorkenoo, K.

Duree, G. C.

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fort, A.

Frisken, S. J.

Fu, G. Y.

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, and G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gillot, F.

Gou, A. Q.

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, and G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1079-1081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kagami, M.

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1079-1081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kewitsch, A. S.

Lan, S.

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Directional coupler using soliton-induced waveguiding," Opt.Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mager, L.

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, C. M. De Sterke, and L. Poladian, "Self-writing a wave-guide in glass using photosensitivity," Opt. Commun. 119, 523-526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ostroverkhova, O.

Palange, E.

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, A. J. Agranat, and B. Crosignani, "Linear writing of waveguides in bulk photorefractive crystals through a two-step polarization sequence," J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064005-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. Pierangelo, E. Palange, A. Ciattoni, and A. J. Agranat, "Beam shaping and effective guiding in the bulk of photorefractive crystals through linear beam dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081105-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Observation of soliton ridge states for the self-imprinting of fiber-slab couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191110-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl.Phys.Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Electro-optic beam manipulation through photorefractive needles," Opt. Lett. 27, 2188-2190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pierangelo, A.

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, A. J. Agranat, and B. Crosignani, "Linear writing of waveguides in bulk photorefractive crystals through a two-step polarization sequence," J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064005-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. Pierangelo, E. Palange, A. Ciattoni, and A. J. Agranat, "Beam shaping and effective guiding in the bulk of photorefractive crystals through linear beam dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081105-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

T. M. Monro, C. M. De Sterke, and L. Poladian, "Self-writing a wave-guide in glass using photosensitivity," Opt. Commun. 119, 523-526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, and G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, "Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt.Lett. 21, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamo, G. J.

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Directional coupler using soliton-induced waveguiding," Opt.Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, "Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt.Lett. 21, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E. J.

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheldon, M.

Sheu, F. W.

M. F. Shih and F. W. Sheu, "Self-trapping of Light in a Photorefractive Organic Glass," Opt.Lett. 24, 1853-1855 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Directional coupler using soliton-induced waveguiding," Opt.Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. F.

M. F. Shih and F. W. Sheu, "Self-trapping of Light in a Photorefractive Organic Glass," Opt.Lett. 24, 1853-1855 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, "Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt.Lett. 21, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shultz, J.

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamburrini, M.

Yamashita, T.

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1079-1081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. S. Kewitsch and A. Yariv, "Self-focusing and self-trapping of optical beams upon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 21, 24-26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1079-1081 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, and T. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, and A. J. Agranat, "Observation of soliton ridge states for the self-imprinting of fiber-slab couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 191110-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. DelRe, A. Pierangelo, E. Palange, A. Ciattoni, and A. J. Agranat, "Beam shaping and effective guiding in the bulk of photorefractive crystals through linear beam dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081105-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl.Phys.Lett. (1)

A. D’Ercole, E. Palange, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and A. J. Agranat, "Miniaturization and embedding of soliton-based electro-optically addressable photonic arrays," Appl.Phys.Lett. 85, 2679-2681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Chauvet, A. Q. Gou, G. Y. Fu, and G. Salamo, "Electrically switched photoinduced waveguide in unpoled strontium barium niobate," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 113107-5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Pierangelo, E. DelRe, A. Ciattoni, E. Palange, A. J. Agranat, and B. Crosignani, "Linear writing of waveguides in bulk photorefractive crystals through a two-step polarization sequence," J. Opti. A,: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064005-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. M. Monro, C. M. De Sterke, and L. Poladian, "Self-writing a wave-guide in glass using photosensitivity," Opt. Commun. 119, 523-526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt.Lett. (3)

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, "Directional coupler using soliton-induced waveguiding," Opt.Lett. 24, 475-477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, "Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons," Opt.Lett. 21, 931-933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Shih and F. W. Sheu, "Self-trapping of Light in a Photorefractive Organic Glass," Opt.Lett. 24, 1853-1855 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. C. Duree, J. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. Di Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Electro-optic response and activation of a single funnel waveguide (see text). Boxed illustration summarizes the relative orientation of E w , p w , E r , and p r in the xy plane in the three cases of the three rows, along with the behavior of the light beam in the WP Iw (dashed regions) and in the RP Ir (the dark grey regions), as seen in a superimposed top view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schemes and output intensity distribution relative to the electro-optic 1x2 switching using two double-funnels 1 and 2 (see text). Boxed illustrations beneath images (a-d) summarize the relative orientation of E w1, E w2, and E r , along with the behavior of the light beam in the WP and RP, as in Fig. 1, from the two input positions 1 and 2 to the two corresponding output positions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electro-optic morphing of a waveguide into a 1x2 splitter (see text). Illustrations are as in previous figures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Electro-optic morphing from a waveguide to a 1×4 divider (see text). Illustrations are as in previous figures, except that here they are extended into a 3D perspective. The light grey region is a representation of the double-funnel volume structure of the Iw in the WP, whereas the dark grey tubes represent the Ir in each of the steps.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Electro-optic morphing of one waveguide array into another, as described in the text.

Metrics