Abstract

We demonstrate second harmonic generation in photonic crystal nanocavities fabricated in the semiconductor gallium phosphide. We observe second harmonic radiation at 750 nm with input powers of only nanowatts coupled to the cavity and conversion efficiency P out/P 2 in,coupled=430%/W. The large electronic band gap of GaP minimizes absorption loss, allowing efficient conversion. Our results are promising for integrated, low-power light sources and on-chip reduction of input power in other nonlinear processes.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Levi, T. J. Pinguet, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, K. R. Parameswaran, J. J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kulp, S. E. Bisson, B. Gerard, E. Lallier, and L. Becouarn, "Difference frequency generation of 8-μm radiation in orientation-patterned GaAs," Opt. Lett. 27, 2091-2093 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, D. M. Simanovskii, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and D. Weyburne, "Optical parametric generation of a mid-infrared continuum in orientation-patterned GaAs," Opt. Lett. 31, 71-73 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y.-S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Shoji, T. Kondo, A. Kitamoto, M. Shirane, and R. Ito, "Absolute scale of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2268-2294 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, Y. Huo, S. Fan, X. Yu, and J. S. Harris, "Enhanced second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs/AlxOy tightly confining waveguides and resonant cavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 3626-3628 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Yang, P. Chak, A. D. Bristow, H. M. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, A. L. Smirl, and J. E. Sipe, "Enhanced second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 826-828 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Liscidini, A. Locatelli, L.C. Andreani, C. De Angelis, "Maximum-Exponent Scaling Behavior of Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Finite Multilayer Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053907 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. J. Kozlovsky, C. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, "Effcient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped CW Nd : YAG laser using monolithic MgO : LiNbO3 external resonant cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1988).
  10. A. Rodriguez, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, "χ (2) and χ (3) harmonic generation at a critical power in inhomogeneous doubly resonant cavities," Opt. Express 15, 7303-7318 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Hayat and M. Orenstein, "Photon conversion processes in dispersive microcavities: Quantum-field model," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013830 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Liscidini and L. C. Andreani, "Highly effcient second-harmonic generation in doubly resonant planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1883-1885 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Carmon and K. Vahala, "Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation," Nat. Phys. 3, 430-435 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. Krauss, "Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 206-210 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Zhang, M. W. McCutcheon, I. B. Burgess, and M. Loncar, "Ultra-high-Q TE/TM dual-polarized photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Lett. 34, 2694-2696 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Rivoire, A. Faraon, and J. Vučković, "Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 063103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, and J. Vučković, "High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity," Opt. Express 17, 14618-14626 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vučković, "Effcient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 073102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

K. Rivoire, A. Faraon, and J. Vučković, "Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 063103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hayat and M. Orenstein, "Photon conversion processes in dispersive microcavities: Quantum-field model," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Carmon and K. Vahala, "Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation," Nat. Phys. 3, 430-435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, P. Chak, A. D. Bristow, H. M. van Driel, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, A. L. Smirl, and J. E. Sipe, "Enhanced second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 826-828 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liscidini, A. Locatelli, L.C. Andreani, C. De Angelis, "Maximum-Exponent Scaling Behavior of Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Finite Multilayer Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rodriguez, M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, "χ (2) and χ (3) harmonic generation at a critical power in inhomogeneous doubly resonant cavities," Opt. Express 15, 7303-7318 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vučković, "Effcient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 073102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

M. Liscidini and L. C. Andreani, "Highly effcient second-harmonic generation in doubly resonant planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1883-1885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

1988

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, "Effcient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped CW Nd : YAG laser using monolithic MgO : LiNbO3 external resonant cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1988).

Aitchison, J. S.

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

M. Liscidini and L. C. Andreani, "Highly effcient second-harmonic generation in doubly resonant planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1883-1885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L.C.

M. Liscidini, A. Locatelli, L.C. Andreani, C. De Angelis, "Maximum-Exponent Scaling Behavior of Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Finite Multilayer Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becouarn, L.

O. Levi, T. J. Pinguet, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, K. R. Parameswaran, J. J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kulp, S. E. Bisson, B. Gerard, E. Lallier, and L. Becouarn, "Difference frequency generation of 8-μm radiation in orientation-patterned GaAs," Opt. Lett. 27, 2091-2093 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, S. E.

Bliss, D.

P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, D. M. Simanovskii, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and D. Weyburne, "Optical parametric generation of a mid-infrared continuum in orientation-patterned GaAs," Opt. Lett. 31, 71-73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y.-S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, A. D.

Burgess, I. B.

Byer, R. L.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, "Effcient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped CW Nd : YAG laser using monolithic MgO : LiNbO3 external resonant cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1988).

Carmon, T.

T. Carmon and K. Vahala, "Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation," Nat. Phys. 3, 430-435 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chak, P.

Corcoran, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. Krauss, "Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 206-210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, C.

M. Liscidini, A. Locatelli, L.C. Andreani, C. De Angelis, "Maximum-Exponent Scaling Behavior of Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Finite Multilayer Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebert, C. B.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. Krauss, "Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 206-210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, and J. Vučković, "High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity," Opt. Express 17, 14618-14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vučković, "Effcient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 073102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eyres, L. A.

O. Levi, T. J. Pinguet, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, K. R. Parameswaran, J. J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kulp, S. E. Bisson, B. Gerard, E. Lallier, and L. Becouarn, "Difference frequency generation of 8-μm radiation in orientation-patterned GaAs," Opt. Lett. 27, 2091-2093 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Faraon, A.

M. Toishi, D. Englund, A. Faraon, and J. Vučković, "High-brightness single photon source from a quantum dot in a directional-emission nanocavity," Opt. Express 17, 14618-14626 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rivoire, A. Faraon, and J. Vučković, "Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 063103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vučković, "Effcient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 073102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Frédérick, S.

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fushman, I.

A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vučković, "Effcient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 073102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, B.

O. Levi, T. J. Pinguet, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, K. R. Parameswaran, J. J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kulp, S. E. Bisson, B. Gerard, E. Lallier, and L. Becouarn, "Difference frequency generation of 8-μm radiation in orientation-patterned GaAs," Opt. Lett. 27, 2091-2093 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. Krauss, "Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 206-210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. J. S.

Harris, J. S.

P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, D. M. Simanovskii, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, and D. Weyburne, "Optical parametric generation of a mid-infrared continuum in orientation-patterned GaAs," Opt. Lett. 31, 71-73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y.-S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Scaccabarozzi, M. M. Fejer, Y. Huo, S. Fan, X. Yu, and J. S. Harris, "Enhanced second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs/AlxOy tightly confining waveguides and resonant cavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 3626-3628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hayat, A.

A. Hayat and M. Orenstein, "Photon conversion processes in dispersive microcavities: Quantum-field model," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

Hurlbut, W. C.

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y.-S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, R.

Iyer, R.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kitamoto, A.

Kondo, T.

Kozlov, V. G.

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y.-S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovsky, W. J.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, "Effcient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped CW Nd : YAG laser using monolithic MgO : LiNbO3 external resonant cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1988).

Krauss, T.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. Krauss, "Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 206-210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kulp, T. J.

Kuo, P. S.

Lallier, E.

O. Levi, T. J. Pinguet, T. Skauli, L. A. Eyres, K. R. Parameswaran, J. J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, T. J. Kulp, S. E. Bisson, B. Gerard, E. Lallier, and L. Becouarn, "Difference frequency generation of 8-μm radiation in orientation-patterned GaAs," Opt. Lett. 27, 2091-2093 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-S.

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y.-S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levi, O.

Liscidini, M.

M. Liscidini, A. Locatelli, L.C. Andreani, C. De Angelis, "Maximum-Exponent Scaling Behavior of Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Finite Multilayer Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liscidini and L. C. Andreani, "Highly effcient second-harmonic generation in doubly resonant planar microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1883-1885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Locatelli, A.

M. Liscidini, A. Locatelli, L.C. Andreani, C. De Angelis, "Maximum-Exponent Scaling Behavior of Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Finite Multilayer Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 053907 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

Lynch, C.

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y.-S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, "Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCutcheon, M. W.

Y. Zhang, M. W. McCutcheon, I. B. Burgess, and M. Loncar, "Ultra-high-Q TE/TM dual-polarized photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Lett. 34, 2694-2696 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. Krauss, "Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 206-210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. Krauss, "Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 206-210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nabors, C.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, "Effcient second harmonic generation of a diode-laser-pumped CW Nd : YAG laser using monolithic MgO : LiNbO3 external resonant cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1988).

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Faolain, L.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. Krauss, "Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 206-210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

A. Hayat and M. Orenstein, "Photon conversion processes in dispersive microcavities: Quantum-field model," Phys. Rev. A 77, 013830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
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A. Faraon, E. Waks, D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vučković, "Effcient photonic crystal cavity-waveguide couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 073102 (2007).
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M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
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Nat. Photon.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. Moss, B. Eggleton, T. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. Krauss, "Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides," Nat. Photon. 3, 206-210 (2009).
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T. Carmon and K. Vahala, "Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation," Nat. Phys. 3, 430-435 (2007).
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Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, and R. L. Williams, "Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245104 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Confocal microscope-based setup for second harmonic generation. HWP: half wave plate, NPBS: nonpolarizing beamsplitter, OL: objective lens, PBS: polarizing beam-splitter, SPF: short pass filter, PD: photodiode. The incident light traces the red line into the cavity sample. The second harmonic light follows the blue line into the spectrometer, photodiode, or camera. The polarization of the incident light is controlled by the polarizer and HWP; the polarization of the second harmonic radiation is measured using HWP and PBS. (b) SEM image of a fabricated structure. Scale bar indicates 1 µm. (c) Spectrum of generated second harmonic light with 8 nW power at 1497.4 nm coupled to the cavity (160 nW incident).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of electric field inside the cavity for the fundamental TE-like cavity resonance in the center of the slab. Cavity field axes are E x and E y (b) Illustration of orientation of cavity relative to crystal axes. Cavities axes E x , E y are rotated from crystal axes Ex , Ey by an angle θ. Fields along crystal axes are determined by projection. (c) FDTD simulation of TM-like photonic bands for same triangular lattice photonic crystal. Red indicates band positions. White solid lines indicate light line; black solid lines indicate numerical aperture of lens. White box indicates mode at second harmonic frequency. a: lattice constant of photonic crystal. (d) Ez field patterns of degenerate TM-like mode at second harmonic frequency at the Γ point.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectrum of fundamental resonance probed in cross-polarized reflectivity with a broadband source. Lorentzian fit gives a quality factor of 5600 (b) Spectrum at second harmonic as exciting laser frequency is tuned across the cavity resonance. Solid line shows fit to Lorentzian squared with cavity quality factor of 6000.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Second harmonic power as a function of fundamental wavelength power coupled into the cavity. We estimate coupling efficiency into the cavity to be 5%. Solid line indicates fit, with slope 2.02, indicating quadratic power dependence. Output power measurements are corrected for measured losses from optics, but do not include corrections for collection efficiency into the objective lens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Dependence of second harmonic power on incident light polarization. The horizontal axis corresponds to the angle between the input polarization and the polarization of the cavity mode. Solid line shows fit to cos4(θ). (b) and (c) Second harmonic radiation imaged on a camera with polarizer oriented in x′ (b) and y′ (c) direction [the orientation of cavity relative to the axes is shown in Fig. 2(b)]. The gray box indicates the approximate location of the photonic crystal structure, with scale bar indicating approximately 5µm. Camera integration time for the same for both images.

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